6. The Queen’s Christmas Broadcast...........12 (http://www.royal.gov.uk/ImagesandBroadcasts/TheQueensChristmasBro adcasts/AhistoryofChristmasBroadcasts.aspx)
1.Queen Elizabeth II The
Little Princess 3
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born on April 21, 1962 in London, England. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of King George V. Her mother, the Former Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, was the daughter of a Scottish earl. Princess Elizabeth was their first child. Her only sibling, Margaret Rose, was born in 1930. British princess did not attend school on those days, do Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret were educated at home by governess, Marion Crawford. The family lives in a four-story house at 145 Piccadilly in London. It was a relaxed and happy household. The princess spent plenty of time with their parents, who even joined them in pillow fights. Governess “Crawfie” took them for walk in public parks. They liked to play hopscotch and hideand-seek. On the weekends, the family went to their country house, the Royal Lodge in Windsor Great Park, where the girls enjoyed working in the garden with their parents. Normal though their lives were in some ways, they were still princess, and rarely had chance to mingle with other children. According to Marion Crawford (who later angered the royal family by writing a book about the girls), Elizabeth and Margaret were fascinated by other children, and “used to smile shyly at those they liked to look of. They would so have loved to speak to them and make friends, but this was never encouraged. I have often thought it a pity.” Despite spending so much time together, the royal family sisters developed very different personalities. Princess Elizabeth, nicknamed “Lilibet”, was so notably calm, organized, and well-behaved child, while Princess Margaret was high-spirited and mischievous. In 1936, when Elizabeth was nine years old, her grandfather George V died and her father’s older brother became King Edward VII. But Edward didn’t stay king for long. Determined to marry a woman who was considered “unsuitable”, he abdicated his throne after a reign of just 327 days. Suddenly Elizabeth’s shy, stammering father was King George VI. When Margaret learned what had happened, she asked her sister, “Does that mean that you will have to be the next queen?” Elizabeth answered, “Yes, someday.” “Poor you!” Margaret said. Like Princess Margaret, George VI felt that the monarchy was a great burden. He did not want to be king. But he believed it was his duty to take the crown his brother had cast aside, and his wife agreed. “We must take what is coming to us and make the best of it”, the new queen said. Within two months the family had moved into Buckingham Palace. Princess Elizabeth’s life would never be the same.
Daughter of the King 4
Princess Elizabeth was now heir presumptive to the British throne. Her parents had always taken an easy-going approach to their daughters’ education, but they made an effort to prepare Elizabeth for her future as queen. Her father gave her newspaper articles to familiarize her with politics, and her mother (or, by other accounts, her grandmother Queen Mary) arranged for her to receive twice-weekly lessons on the history of the British constitution. In 1939, when Elizabeth was 13, she met her third cousin Prince Philip off Greece, who was five years her senior. It was love at first sight, at least on Elizabeth’s part. According to Marion Crawford, Philip “showed off a good deal” while playing tennis, impressing Elizabeth, who “never took her eyes off him”. Throughout her teens, Elizabeth remained devoted to the goodlooking young man she call “my Viking prince”. The Second World War started later that year. Fearing a Nazi invasion, the king sent his daughter to live at Windsor Castle, which was just 30 miles from London, but safer then Buckingham Palace. Elizabeth and Margaret lived there until the war ended five years later. At age 16, Elizabeth registered at a labor exchange like all other girls her age. She wanted to volunteer as a nurse in bombed-out areas of London, but her father felt it was too dangerous. Finally, in 1945, when she was almost 19, the king let her join the Auxiliary Territorial Service. She learned to drive and repair heavy vehicles. Soon after she finished her training, the war ended. In 1947, Princess Elizabeth went on her first official overseas visit, accompanying her parents and sister to South Africa. During the trip, she turned 21 and made an historic radio broadcast in which she pledge to dedicate her life to the people of the Commonwealth. “I declare before you that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial Commonwealth to which we all belong”, she said. “But I shall not have strength to carry out this resolution unless you join in it with me, as I know invite you to do; I know that your support will be unfailingly given. God bless all of you who are willing to share it”.
Love and Marriage In 1946, Elizabeth became secretly engaged to Prince Philip, who had served in Britain’s Royal Navy during World War II and was now a lieutenant. Once again she faced opposition from her father, who thought she was too young 5
to get married; and once again, after much patient persistence, she got her way. The king relented, and Princess Elizabeth’s engagement was officially announced in June 1947. Philip gave up his Greek citizenship and title, becoming a British subject and assuming the surname Mountbatten (an English version of his mother’s family name, Battenberg). Before the weeding, Elizabeth’s father gave Philip the British titles Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich, but Philip was no longer “prince”.
Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were married at Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. After their honeymoon at Broadlands – an historic house in Hampshire owned by Philip’s uncle Lord Mountbatten – was cut short by nosy photographers, they returned to London. Eventually they moved into Clarence House at St. James’ Palace. Elizabeth began carrying out royal duties and Philip resumed his career in the navy, rising to the rank of commander. Elizabeth gave a birth to her first child, Charles Philip Arthur George, at Buckingham Palace on November 14, 1948. Her only daughter, Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise, was born on August 15, 1950 at Clarence House.
Elizabeth as Queen On
February 6, 1952, while Princess Elizabeth and her husband were visiting Kenya, King George VI died of lung cancer. Twenty-six-year old Elizabeth was now the queen. The coronation took place on June 2, 1953 was broadcast to television and radio audiences around the world. From the start of her reign, Queen Elizabeth II was popular at home and abroad. In 1952, TIME Magazine named her its Woman of the Year, saying, “Elizabeth’s life story had provided a quiet, well-behaved fairy tale in which the world
could believe”. Queen Elizabeth is the United Kingdom’s head of state. She is also head of the Commonwealth. During her reign, she has many official visits abroad and has travelled all over Britain. She participates in ceremonies such as the Opening of Parliament, and plays a role in virtually every branch of government. For instance, she is the head of the armed forces, and only she can declare war, although she cannot exercise this power without the advice of her ministers. She is kept closely and other officials, and acts as host to visiting heads of state. She is patron or president of over 700 organizations. In 2000 she carried out 531 official engagements.
The Duke of Edinburgh often accompanies his wife on her travels. He gave up his active naval career after Elizabeth became queen, but continued to be involved with the military. Today he holds the ranks of Admiral of the Fleet, field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force, and captain-general of the Royal Marines. He is president or patron of some 800 organizations, and was the first president of the World Wildlife Fund, a position he held for over 20 years. In 1957, Queen Elizabeth granted him the title Prince of the United Kingdom. He is officially known as The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip’s third child, Andrew Albert Christian Edward, was born on February 19, 1960 at Buckingham Palace. Their last child, Edward Anthony Richard Louis, was born on March 10, 1964, also at Buckingham Palace. In 1977, Elizabeth and Philip became grandparents when their daughter, Princess Anne, gave birth to a son, Peter Phillips. The queen and Prince Philip celebrated their 50th wedding anniversary in 1997. They currently (in 2005) have seven grandchildren. The queen’s love of animals is well-known. An avid horse racing fan, she owns and breeds race horses. As of February 2003 she had 10 dogs, three of which previously belong to her mother. The queen personally feeds and cares for her dogs, despite her busy schedule. Her mots famous pets are her corgis, but she has also owned labradors and spaniels. She even introduced a new breed of dog, the dorgi – half dachshund and half corgi. In 1977, Queen Elizabeth celebrated her Silver Jubilee, making 25 years as monarch. And in 2002, the 50th year of her reign, she celebrated her Golden Jubilee. Sadly, the queen lost two members of her family in 2002. Her sister, Princess Margaret, died in February at the age of 71; their 101-year-old mother, Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, died the following month. Decade after decade, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II continues to work fulltime at job she has held since 1952. Some people have suggested that she consider retirement, but it seems unlike that the queen will ever abdicate. Most observers believe she will faithfully serve her country for as long as she lives.
2.Queen’s Role Although the Queen is no longer responsible for governing the country, she carried out of a great many important tasks on behalf of the nation. Head of State As Head of State, the Queen goes on official State visits abroad. She also invites other world leaders to come to the United Kingdom. During their visit, Heads of State usually stay at Buckingham Palace or some as Windsor Castle or Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh Head of the Armed Forces 7
The Queen is also the Head of Armed Forces. She is the only person who can declare when the country is at war and when war is over, although she must take advice from her government first. Head of the Church of England The Queen is Head of the Church of England – a position that all British monarchs have held since it was founded by Henry VII in the 1530s. The Queen appoints archbishops and bishops on the advice of the Prime Minister. The spiritual leader of the Church of England is the Archbishop of Canterbury Government Duties Every day “red boxes” are delivered to the Queen’s desk full of documents and reports from the government ministers and Commonwealth officials. They must all be read and, if necessary, signed by the Queen. Represents the Nation The Queen represents the nation at the times of great celebration or sorrow. One example of this is Remembrance Day ceremony at the Cenotaph monument in White hall. The Queen lays a wreath there each year to honour the members of the armed forces who have died fighting for their country. Royal Garden Parties At least three Royal Garden Parties are held at Buckingham Palace each year and about 8,000 guests attend each one. Visits Alongside her other duties the Queen spends a huge amount of time travelling around the country visiting hospitals, schools, factories and other places and organization.
3. Queen in Parliament The Queen has an important formal and ceremonial relationship with Parliament. The phrase 'Crown in Parliament' is used to describe the British legislature, which consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Of these three different elements, the Commons, a majority of whom normally supports the elected Government of the day, has the dominant political power.
The role of the Sovereign in the enactment of legislation is today purely formal, although The Queen has the right ‘to be consulted, to encourage and to warn’ her ministers via regular audiences with the Prime Minister. The Sovereign’s assent is required to all bills passed by Parliament in order for them to become law. Royal Assent (consenting to a measure becoming law) has not been refused since 1707. It is also a long established convention that The Queen is asked by Parliament to provide consent (which is different to assent) for the debating of bills which would affect the prerogative or interests of the Crown. Where Queen’s Consent is given it is signified in each House of Parliament and recorded in Hansard. Consent has not been withheld in modern times, except on the advice of Government. In the annual State Opening of Parliament ceremony, The Queen opens Parliament in person, and addresses both Houses in The Queen's Speech. Neither House can proceed to public business until The Queen's Speech has been read. This speech is drafted by the Government and not by The Queen. It outlines the Government's policy for the coming session of Parliament and indicates forthcoming legislation. Under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act (2011), each Parliament consists of five twelve-month sessions. While each session is opened by The Queen in person at the State Opening, the session is closed (prorogued) in The Queen's name with a speech read in the House of Lords, and in the presence of the Commons, by the Leader of the Lords. When Parliament is summoned after a Royal proclamation there must, according to the Representation of the People Act 1918, be a period of at least twenty days before Parliament meets. This period can be extended, but only for fourteen days, according to the Prorogation Act 1867. There is only one occasion on which Parliament meets without a Royal summons, and that is when the Sovereign has died. In such circumstances, the Succession to the Crown Act 1707 provides that, if Parliament is not already sitting, it must immediately meet and sit. The Meeting of Parliament Act 1797 provides that, if the Sovereign dies after Parliament have been dissolved, the immediately preceding Parliament sits for up to six months, if not prorogued or dissolved before then. The Queen's role in Parliament is: Assenting to Bills passed by Parliament, on the advice of Ministers; Giving audiences to Ministers, at which Her Majesty may be consulted, encourage and warn;
Summoning new Parliaments and, on the advice of her Government, appointing the date of its first meeting; Opening and closing (proroguing) each session of Parliament.
4.The Queen’s Family Tree
Buckingham Palace was originally a grand house built by the Dukes of Buckingham for his wife. George IV began transforming it into a Palace in 1826 Buckingham Palace is the Queen’s official and main royal London home. It has been the official London residence of Britain’s monarchy since 1837. Queen Victoria is the first monarch to live there. Buckingham Palace is not only the home of the Queen and Prince Philip but also the London residence of the Duke of York (Prince Andrew) and the Earl and Countess of Wessex (Prince Edward and his wife) and their daughter. Buckingham Palace is used also for the administrative work for the monarchy. It is here in the state apartments that Her Majesty receives and entertains guests invited to the Palace. Changing of the Guard
A familiar sight at Buckingham Palace is the Changing of the Guard ceremony that takes place in the forecourt each morning. The monarch and the royal palaces have been guarded by the Household Troops since 1660. Inside Buckingham Palace The Palace has around 600 rooms, including 19 state rooms, 52 royal and guest bedrooms, 78 bathrooms, 92 offices, a cinema and a swimming pool. It also has its own post office and police station. About 400 people work at the Palace, including domestic servants, chefs, footmen, cleaners, plumbers, gardeners, chauffers, electricians, and two people who look after the 300 clocks. Royal Parties Every year, more than 50,000 people come to the Palace each year as guest to banquets, lunches, dinners, receptions, and Royal Garden Parties.
6.The Queen’s Christmas Broadcast The first Christmas Broadcast was delivered by George V in 1932 and since then has evolved into an important part of the Christmas Day celebrations for many in Britain and around the world. The Christmas Broadcast is an intrinsic part of Christmas Day festivities for many people across the Commonwealth. Each Broadcast carefully reflects current issues and concerns, and shares The Queen's reflections on what 12
Christmas means to her and many of her listeners. Over the years, the Christmas Broadcast has acted as a chronicle of global, national and personal events which have affected The Queen and her audience. The first Christmas Broadcast The Christmas message was started by The Queen's grandfather, King George V. King George had reigned since 1910, but it was not until 1932 that he delivered his first Christmas message. The original idea for a Christmas speech by the Sovereign was mooted in 1932 by Sir John Reith, the visionary founding father of the BBC, to inaugurate the Empire Service (now the BBC World Service). Originally hesitant about using the relatively untried medium of radio in this way, The King was reassured by a visit to the BBC in the summer of 1932, and agreed to take part. And so, on Christmas Day, 1932, King George V spoke on the 'wireless' to the Empire from a small office at Sandringham. The transmission was an exercise of contemporary logistic brilliance. Two rooms at Sandringham were converted into temporary broadcasting rooms. The microphones at Sandringham were connected through Post Office land lines to the Control Room at Broadcasting House. From there connection was made to BBC transmitters in the Home Service, and to the Empire Broadcasting Station at Daventry with its six short-wave transmitters. The General Post Office was used to reach Australia, Canada, India, Kenya and South Africa. The time chosen was 3.00pm - the best time for reaching most of the countries in the Empire by short waves from the transmitters in Britain. In the event, the first Broadcast started at five past three (twenty-five minutes to four according to the King's 'Sandringham Time') and lasted two and a half minutes. The Broadcast was preceded by an hour-long programe of greetings from all parts of the Empire. The text of the first Christmas speech was written by poet and writer Rudyard Kipling and began with the words: "I speak now from my home and from my heart to you all." The King acknowledged the unifying force of technology in his historic speech: "I speak now from my home and from my heart to you all; to men and women so cut off by the snows, the desert, or the sea, that only voices out of the air can reach them." 13
As the sound of a global family sharing common interests, the Broadcast made a huge impact on its audience of 20 million. Equally impressed, George V made a Broadcast every Christmas Day subsequently until his death in 1936. George V's last Christmas Broadcast in 1935 came less than a month before his death and the King's voice sounded weaker. He spoke of his people's joys and sorrows, as well as his own, and there was a special word for his children. Early Christmas Broadcasts King George V's eldest son and the new king, Edward VIII, never delivered a Christmas Broadcast, as his reign lasted less than a year. The task fell to King George VI, King Edward's younger brother, who made his first broadcast in December 1937 in which he thanked the nation and Empire for their support during the first year of his reign. Though the Christmas Broadcast was already popular by this time, it had still not yet become the regular tradition it is today. Indeed, there had been no broadcasts in 1936 or 1938. It was the outbreak of war in 1939 which firmly established the Royal Christmas Broadcast. With large parts of the world now facing an uncertain future, King George VI spoke live to offer a message of reassurance to his people. He dressed in the uniform of the Admiral of the Fleet, sitting in front of two microphones on a table at Sandringham. It was to be a landmark speech and was to have an important effect on the listening public as they were plunged into the uncertainty of war: "A new year is at hand. We cannot tell what it will bring. If it brings peace, how thankful we shall all be. If it brings us continued struggle we shall remain undaunted." The war-time Christmas Broadcasts played a large part in boosting morale and reinforcing belief in the common cause. When the war ended, the Broadcasts - with their sentiments of unity and continuity - continued as a matter of course throughout the subsequent decades of change. King George VI's final Christmas Broadcast was marked by the illness that had plagued the King through his last years. The 1951 Broadcast was the only Broadcast that King George VI recorded rather than delivering live.
The King was only able to manage it in intervals, but his voice came over strongly. He spoke of his recovery from illness and the goodwill messages he had received: "From my peoples in these islands and in the British Commonwealth and Empire - as well as from many other countries - this support and sympathy has reached me and I thank you now from my heart..." The Queen's Christmas Broadcasts After the death of George VI in February 1952, The Queen broadcast her first Christmas message. She spoke of carrying on the tradition passed on to her by the late King: "Each Christmas, at this time, my beloved Father broadcast a message to his people in all parts of the world ... As he used to do, I am speaking to you from my own home, where I am spending Christmas with my family ... My Father [King George VI], and my Grandfather [King George V] before him, worked hard all their lives to unite our peoples ever more closely, and to maintain its ideals which were so near to their hearts. I shall strive to carry on their work." A BBC report at the time also noted the continuation of tradition: "She used the same desk and chair as her father King George VI and his father King George V had done. In clear, firm tones she thanked her subjects for their "loyalty and affection" since her accession to the throne 10 months ago and promised to continue the work of her father and grandfather to unite the nations of the British Commonwealth and Empire. She asked them to pray for her on coronation day next summer. Throughout her reign The Queen has made a Broadcast every year except one. No Christmas Broadcast took place in 1969 because a repeat of the documentary Royal Family was already scheduled for the holiday period. Public concern at this apparent break with tradition prompted The Queen to issue a written message of reassurance that the Broadcast would return in the following year, so popular had it become. The first televised message was broadcast live in 1957. The advent of television during The Queen's reign has given an added dimension to her 15
Broadcasts. It has allowed viewers to see The Queen in her own residences, decorated for Christmas like many homes across the world. The location is usually Buckingham Palace, but recordings have also been made at Windsor and Sandringham. In 2003 the message was filmed at Combermere Barracks in Windsor - the first time the address had been shot entirely on location. Footage from the year's Royal events is often shown, enabling the public to see the highlights of the Royal year. From 1960, Broadcasts were recorded in advance so that the tapes could be sent around the world to 17 Commonwealth countries, to be broadcast at a convenient local time. Although technology has advanced, the workload for all involved, including The Queen, is still considerable. Planning starts early with The Queen's choice of a theme which she wishes to address. Appropriate footage is then filmed during various public engagements - and occasionally private events - during the remainder of the year. Since 1997, the BBC and ITV have alternated in filming and producing the Broadcast every two years; the 2009 Broadcast is being filmed by the ITV. The actual message is recorded a few days before Christmas, and lasts up to 10 minutes. This year marks The Queen's 58th Christmas Broadcast. Over the years, the Broadcasts have chronicled both the life of the nation and of The Monarchy; the Broadcast is one of the rare occasions when The Queen does not speak on Government advice. Instead, The Queen gives her own views on events and developments which are of concern both to Her Majesty and her public, in the UK and wider afield in the Commonwealth. In 1966, for example, during a decade which saw great changes for women, The Queen spoke about the important role of women in society: "This year I should like to speak especially to women. In the modern world the opportunities for women to give something of value to the human family are greater than ever, because, through their own efforts, they are now beginning to play their full part in public life." Whilst in 1983, when the computer age was in its infancy, Her Majesty spoke of the very modern technologies which were helping to transmit her Broadcast, but warned against allowing these technologies to replace human interaction and compassion:
"This mastery of technology may blind us to the more fundamental needs of people. Electronics cannot create comradeship; computers cannot generate compassion; satellites cannot transmit tolerance." The Queen is ever conscious of her role as Head of the Armed Forces in her Christmas Broadcasts. British and Commonwealth troops serving overseas over the Christmas period and their families are uppermost in Her Majesty's mind. In 1990, she spoke of the threat of war in the Middle East: "The servicemen in the Gulf who are spending Christmas at their posts under this threat are much in our thoughts. And there are many others, at home and abroad, servicemen and civilians, who are away from their own firesides." And in 2003, with conflict again in the Middle East, a special Broadcast from the Household Cavalry Barracks in Windsor was arranged at The Queen's request: "I want to draw attention to the many servicemen and women who are stationed far from home this Christmas. I'm thinking about their wives and children and about their parents and friends." As the Christmas Broadcast is Her Majesty's own personal message to the nation, The Queen has occasionally shared personal concerns with her listeners. Her Majesty's personal experiences are always related back to those of the public to whom she is speaking. In her 1990 Christmas broadcast, for example, she spoke of the happy family events which had taken place that year: "My family ... has been celebrating my mother's Ninetieth Birthday, and we have shared with you the joy of some of those celebrations. My youngest grandchild's Christening, two days ago, has brought the family together once again. I hope that all of us lucky enough to be able to enjoy such gatherings this Christmas will take time to count our blessings." In 2002, another Jubilee year, Her Majesty spoke of her grief at the death of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret, thanking the public for their messages of support: "At such a difficult time this gave me great comfort and inspiration as I faced up both to my own personal loss and to the busy Jubilee summer ahead." In both of her Jubilee years - 1977 and 2002, The Queen has used the Christmas Broadcast to thank the public for their part in the festivities. In 2002 she said: 17
"The celebrations were joyous occasions but they also seemed to evoke something more lasting and profound - a sense of belonging and pride in country, town, or community." With technological advances meaning that viewers have a choice of format television, radio or internet, the Christmas Broadcast is more accessible than ever. The technology has changed but, at broadcasters' request, the timing remains at 3.00pm as a fixed point in the schedules. The establishment of the Christmas Broadcast as an annual tradition creates a sense of continuity for many. Though each year's theme is chosen by The Queen and reflects her own interests, it is always motivated by compassion and concern for her people. For The Queen, the Broadcast is not only a duty to be fulfilled, it is an opportunity to speak directly to the public, to react to their concerns and to thank and reassure them. In this way, the Christmas Broadcast helps to reinforce The Queen's role as a focus for national unity.