Mạng lưới chợ ở nam trung bộ thời nguyễn (giai đoạn 1802 1884) tt tiếng anh
VIETNAM ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES GRADUATE ACADEMY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
DINH THI THAO
MARKETS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL COASTAL VIETNAM DURING THE NGUYEN DYNASTY(PERIOD 1802-1884)
Major: History of Vietnam Code: 92 29 013
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN HISTORY
HANOI - 2019
The thesis is completed at: Graduate Academy of Social Sciences
Scientific instructor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duc Nhue Referee 1: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vu Van Quan Referee 2: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Duy Binh Referee 3: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tran Thi Vinh
The thesis will be defended by the Academy-level Thesis Examination Committee met at the Graduate Academy of Social Sciences at ...... hours ... minutes, on day .... month…. year….
The thesis can be found at:
ABSTRACT 1. Urgency of the subject In the past few decades, the villages in Vietnam have become one of the subjects of research interest in social sciences, including History. The study of economy, culture and society under the Nguyen Dynasty in general and commercial activities in the rural areas in particular are also being studied. In that context, it is more meaningful to restore the understanding of the appearances and operations of the markets in the South-Central Coastal region in the period of 1802-1884. On the one hand, it helps to understand the establishment and operation of markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam; on the other hand, it shows the characteristics of the markets and its contributions to the development of the SouthCentral Coastal region from culture and society to economic life in general and trading industry in particular. Moreover, when taking markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam as the research objectives, it will help to identify more clearly about the villages in the localities in particular and the SouthCentral Coastal region in general; Contributing to preserving and promoting traditional cultural values typical of village markets as well as the villages of South-Central Coastal provinces. At the same time, it also contributes to supplementing the source of resources for learning and teaching local history of the South-Central Coastal provinces. Due to the above reasons, I decided to choose the topic: Markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884) as my research topic. 2. Research purposes and mission - Initial collection and system of documents to have an overview
of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884). On the basis of generalizing and reconstructing the appearances of some typical markets in this region, the topic focuses on clarifying the activities of the markets in 1
this area on the exchange, trading of goods, prices and tax rates, measurement methods, market trading components, etc.; Thereby, the initial comments on the characteristics and role of the markets for economic, cultural and social development in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884) were brought out. Contributing to better identify the economic, cultural and social characteristics of the South-Central Coastal region; explain the development level of commodity economy and commercial economy, especially the internal trade in South-Central Coastal Vietnam under the Nguyen Dynasty in the period of 18021884. By the way, it contributes to supplementing the sources of resources for the research and teaching of local history in the SouthCentral Coastal region; introducing about South-Central Coastal region's land and people in history. - The thesis sets out the tasks of collecting and systematic related resources; inheriting and promoting research results of previous researchers. On that basis, determine the thesis issues needed to continue research; Analyze the establishment and development of markets; Recreate the appearance of some typical markets (big markets, central markets, markets with focal points, markets with rich and diversified goods sources, etc.) in both midland, mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas, and estuaries. On that basis, clarifying the exchange and trading activities in markets and economic relations between the localities in the region and with other regions; even with the foreign countries; Point out the characteristics and affirm the role of the markets for the development of all aspects of the South-Central Coastal region. 3. Objectives and scope of the research - The research objectives are the markets in South-Central Coastal with specific research objects which are typical markets in the midland, mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas and estuaries.
- Scope of research: About the space: the topic of administrative boundaries in the South-Central Coastal region (including 5 provinces: Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan) as the main research area. The author also chooses the research site as the representative markets or provinces as the specific research objectives of the topic. About the time: The topic has a limited research on the time of the Nguyen Dynasty in the period from 1802 (the Nguyen Dynasty completed the unification mission) to 1884 (the Patenotre Treaty signed on June 6th, 1884 was confirmed the establishment of long-term French protection rights over all of Vietnam and the end of the Nguyen Dynasty that existed as an independent and autonomous feudal state). About the content: Based on the reconstruction of typical markets in the whole region, the author focuses on clarifying the exchange and trading activities taking place here; draws some characteristics and role of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the period of 1802-1884. The cultural activities taking place in the markets are only considered in relation to exchange and trading activities or in the process of generalization, describing the picture of some typical markets. 4. Resources and research methods - To complete the topic, we have exploited and synthesized resources from various sources. In particular, we exploited and made the maximum use of the original sources of contemporary resources compiled from the late 19th century and the early 20th century backwards (mainly the books composed by the National Historiographer's Office of the Nguyen Dynasty and the Cabinet of the Nguyen Dynasty) and considers them as an important source of resources to implement the topic. In addition, the Western resources or local fieldwork resources were also tried to exploit, access and use. - Based on the methods of dialectical resources and historical resources of Marxism-Leninism, the author applies throughout and combines two specialized methods in historical research (historical 3
and logical methods) to adequately solve the problems that the research topic brings out. In addition, the fieldwork method was used to collect field documents related to the topic; methods of synthesis, statistics, analysis, comparison, etc. 5. New scientific contributions of the thesis The topic has initially exploited and systematized the resources to have an overview of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty in the period from 1802 to 1884. Along with the research projects on villages, rural areas, trading industry, etc. of the domestic and foreign scholars, our research results contribute to a better identification of villages, traditional and cultural characteristics, commercial activities of the South-Central Coastal people and make the first step to explain the level of commodity economy development in the South-Central Coastal provinces for nearly the entire of the 19th century. Based on the content of the thesis focused on solving, we boldly pointed out some characteristics of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the period of 1802-1884. At the same time, affirming the positive contributions of the markets to the development of the South-Central Coastal region. 6. Theoretical and practical significances of the thesis The research results of the thesis contribute to affirming the role of trading industry, which is the role of the market in the economy in general; clarifying the role of the state, locality and people in managing the goods exchange and trading activities at local markets. The thesis provides a resource system for the research, teaching, learning and propagation of local history in the universities, colleges and the societies in the South-Central Coastal region. The results of the thesis are also a reference channel for the local authorities in planning policies for developing the traditional markets,
preserving and promoting local traditional and cultural values. 7. Structure of the thesis Apart from the Abstract, Conclusion, List of References, Appendices, the content of the thesis consists of 4 chapters: Chapter 1: Research overview Chapter 2: The establishment and development of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam Chapter 3: Exchange and trading activities in the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam Chapter 4: Characteristics and roles of the markets for economic and cultural-social development in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam Chapter 1: RESEARCH OVERVIEW 1.1. Market-related studies - Researches of domestic scholars: Studies on history, economy, culture and society; Studies on ports, urban areas and townships. - Researches of foreign scholars. 1.2. Market research 1.2.1. Studies on the markets across the country The author, Nguyen Duc Nghinh, is one of those who has a lot of interest in researching on the markets in Vietnam. However, the author only stops at the study of village markets, pagoda markets in some Northern Delta provinces and gives the initial comments on the village market system. The other researchers such as Dao To Uyen, Bui Van Huynh, Nguyen Cong Thao, Diep Dinh Hoa, Bui Xuan Dinh, Nguyen Thua Hy, Tran Si Hue, Nguyen Quang Hong, etc. also had some intensive studies on the markets, but they just studied on one aspect, or studied on the cultural beauty, or studied on the relations of exchange and trading activities of a village market, or genialized about the market system in a unique local.
1.2.2. Studies on markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam So far, in addition to the printed articles in the local newspapers and magazines, there are few of the research projects on the markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam, especially the markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty. In 2002, the project Markets in Phu Yen completed by the author, Tran Si Hue, has conveyed some issues about the markets in Phu Yen, but only stopped at the general research and not fully mentioned about the markets in Phu Yen in general and the markets in Phu Yen in the Nguyen Dynasty in particular. In recent years, a number of Historical Master's Thesis of Post-Graduate Candidates have been focusing on the intensive research on the process of establishment and development of the local markets in Central Vietnam provinces such as the Thesis of Truong Thi Thu Thao (2010), Village Markets in Thua Thien Hue (the 16th-19th centuries); Village Markets in Quang Nam (the 16th - 19th centuries) by the author, Nguyen Thi Thinh (2011); but there is a lack of researches on the markets in the SouthCentral Coastal region during this period. 1.3. The inherited content of the thesis The research results of the above projects are valuable contributions to the study of markets in general and the operation of the markets in South-Central Vietnam in particular. Some contents are inherited: Analysis and evaluation of the economic, political, cultural and social impacts on the establishment and operation of the markets; The role of the markets for the rural business development; commercial activities and the role of Chinese traders, etc. 1.4. The content of the thesis needed to be solved Based on the purpose and requirements of the Thesis and on the basis of inheriting the achievements and research views of the domestic and foreign scholars, the issues have not been studied systematically and in depth about the activities of markets in SouthCentral Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (1802-1884). We set out some issues to be solved in the thesis as follows: The 6
establishment and development of the markets in South-Central Vietnam; the markets in South-Central Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (the markets in the midland and mountainous areas; the markets in the plains and coastal areas); Exchange and trading activities in the markets; characteristics and role of the markets for economic, cultural-social development, etc. Chapter 2: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF MARKETS IN SOUTH-CENTRAL VIETNAM 2.1. Factors affecting the establishment and development of the markets - Impacts of natural conditions: geographical location, topography, climate, rivers. - The political, economic, cultural and social situation and traditions of the community in South-Central Coastal Vietnam. - Business policy of the Nguyen Dynasty. - The establishment and development of cities and townships. - Waterway and road transport network. 2.2. Markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam before the th 19 century Along with the process of reclaiming, setting up villages and crowded settlements of Vietnamese immigrants and other residential communities, the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam has gradually formed and expanded in both scale and quantity. In the 17th century, the local markets developed throughout the provinces of the South-Central Coastal region today and until the second half of the 19th century, many big markets were subject to taxation for the Nguyen Government such as Yen Khang, Tien Yen, Phuc Son, Kien Duong, Phuc Yen markets; Hoi An, Khanh Tho, Chien Dan, Phu Tram, Tan An and Khau Day markets; Dinh Binh Khang Market, Man Gia Market (i.e. Van Gia); Dinh Nha Trang Market, Vinh An Market, Phu Vinh Market, etc.
2.3. Markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884) 2.3.1. Market distribution Under the Nguyen Dynasty, in the 19th century, the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam developed throughout the provinces. According to the records of Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia Chi (composed in 1806 by Minister of Defense, Le Quang Dinh), in South-Central Coastal Vietnam at the early of the 19th century, there were up to 57 markets recorded. The statistics according to Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi (composed, edited and supplemented under the three reigns of Emperor Tu Duc (1848-1883), Emperor Thanh Thai (18891907) and Emperor Duy Tan (1907-1916), the whole region had 176 markets. The markets recorded in Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia Chi and Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi are the markets along the waterway roads or the big markets in the localities. In fact, many small markets and vendors were not yet in the statistics. Thus, it is clear that the number of markets in this period must be much larger than those of the records of Hoang Viet Nhat Thong Du Dia Chi and Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi. The distribution of the markets in both midland, mountainous, delta and coastal areas and estuaries creates a seamless market system, meeting the needs of exchange and trade between the localities in both vertical and horizontal directions, between the North and the South, between the domain against the plain and vice versa. On the other hand, these markets not only have a close relationship with each other in the exchange of goods between the regions in the province, but also have an exchange relationship with other regions and with foreign countries. 2.3.2. Network of
intra-regional and inter-regional trade
connections Although in the 19th century, the road traffic and trade in the South-Central Coastal provinces as well as many other localities were not developed well, the goods exchange activities mainly took 8
place by waterways (river and sea). However, most of the markets here were set up in the places where were convenient waterway and road transportations and densely populated areas in both midland, mountainous and delta areas, coastal areas and estuaries. The distribution of the markets in both midland, mountainous, delta and coastal areas and estuaries creates a seamless market system, meeting the needs of exchange and trade between the localities in both vertical and horizontal directions, between the North and the South, between the domain against the plain and vice versa. In particular, it can be mentioned that the markets had the function of trading hubs such as An Khe Market, Kien My Market, Go Cham Market, An Thai market, Gia Market, Thi Nai Market (Binh Dinh), Don Cung Son Market, Don Van Hoa Market, Phien Som Market, Vung Lam Market (Phu Yen) or Dinh Market, Moi Vinh Diem Market, Lau Market (Khanh Hoa, Binh Thuan), etc. These markets not only connected to the commodity areas in the province and in the region, but also connected to trade with the neighboring provinces (Quang Nam, Quang Ngai in the North, Saigon in the South), also expand the exchanges of foreign goods (Malaysia, China, Thailand, etc.) by sea through the seaports and port towns. There was always a system of small markets and supplemental markets, which play a role of satellite, supplementing and supporting for the main market; at a wider level, the markets themselves play the role of focal points as the markets to support and supplement the commercial activities in the port towns. Chapter 3: EXCHANGE AND TRADING ACTIVITIES IN SOUTH-CENTRAL COASTAL MARKETS 3.1. Supply of goods for markets 3.1.1. Agricultural products Territorial topography of South-Central Coastal provinces is often divided by coastal passes, slopes and mountains; The narrow plains were located in the delta of short rivers, with high slopes originating 9
from the Truong Son range, flowing into the sea, along with the hot and humid climate, have caused many difficulties in agricultural production. However, the Con river deltas or plains in Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa were still recognized as rich plains, and agricultural production was relatively stable. Rice was considered the most important crop in agricultural production in South-Central Coastal Vietnam. In addition to rice, in the Southern Central Coastal provinces, there were many other famous agricultural products such as beans (green beans, black beans, yellow beans, etc.), melons, sweet potatoes, vegetables, pineapples, bananas, and areca, etc. 3.1.2. Handicraft items One of the items that created a strong trade flow in South-Central Coastal in the nineteenth century was the product of handicrafts. Silk weaving, crepe weaving, etc. were famous in the South-Central Coastal provinces. In addition, in the nineteenth century, there were many crafts in South-Central Coastal such as making hats, forging, casting, boat building, crafting of construction materials (making laterite, lime), knitting (knitting bamboo, weaving coconuts, coconut hammocks, coconut mats), making coconut oil, coconut shells, etc. In particular, the silk weaving and sugar making profession in the SouthCentral Coastal provinces has a high specialization. The waters of the southern central provinces have a high salinity of seawater, which was very suitable for salt making. Most of the South-Central Coastal provinces have developed salt production. Salt was an important product exchanged with highlanders and abroad. The production of salt not only provides the living needs of local residents and mountainous areas but also facilitates the development of the fish sauce industry and resolves the surplus fish after each fishing trip. 3.1.3. Forest, native and seafood products The forest, native and seafood products in the South-Central Coastal region were quite diverse and plentiful like precious woods (golden oak, iron-wood, painted wood, ebony, wooden honeycomb (rosewood), agarwood, aloe wood other types of forest products, 10
such as oyster oil, lui tree (back), beams, vulture, beeswax, spiny shells, cardamom, pheasant feathers, source betel, cinnamon, rhinos, elephants, bears, tigers, horses, etc. Products from the sea such as shrimp, fish, seaweed, clams, oysters, turtles, turtles, turtles, snails, corals, oats (bird's nest), etc. However, depending on the natural conditions, production and exploitation conditions of each region, the structure of goods in the market also varies. 3.1.4. Items brought from abroad Foreign goods brought to South-Central Coastal were mainly Chinese goods and very few Western countries. Chinese merchants brought goods such as: Chinese medicine, paper, cotton, fiber, silk, tea, pottery, porcelain, etc. 3.2. Mode of exchange and purchase Direct exchange by goods - goods method. When producing many products that were not consumed in the family, plus the lack of products from other professions, people have thought about bringing to the market to exchange with each other. Thus, "the missing, the surplus" will exchange with each other to meet the needs of each party. In a monetary economy, when the exchange value was expressed by price, the mode of exchange and trade is now money - goods or half-money – haft-goods. Under the Nguyen Dynasty, the mode of trade and exchange was expressed in both goods - goods or money - goods. In order to meet the increasing exchange demand, some traders have collected (purchased) goods in this local market and brought to other local markets to sell or exchange, forming an intermediate class. in trading activities were merchants who follow the folk concept called "tradesmen"; They were "bridges" between sellers and buyers. 3.3. Mode of measurement and price Under the Nguyen Dynasty (nineteenth century), trade and exchange took place in most areas from mountainous, midland to plain, coastal areas. The measurement system was specifically defined and increasingly improved by the state, but most items were usually 11
measured according to the nature of the rules. In addition, the use of the general measurement system of the state was also applied in the market. Prices of items were not only negotiated between sellers and buyers, but some essential goods, local specialties and markets (sugar, rice, salt, wood, metal, bird's nest, fin, etc.) also due to the high or slow valuation of the state. In addition to the impact of the state and the law of free competition, the price of goods was also decided by the season, i.e. buying goods in the right season or season also leads to different prices. 3.4. Market tax In the nineteenth century, the exchange and trade of goods through markets in the South-Central Coastal region in particular and the country in general made the state's tax demand for the market set. Although there is no specific document on the tax of markets in SouthCentral Vietnam (period 1802-1884), some evidence about the collection of market taxes in some mountainous markets in Binh Thuan province during the reigns of Emperor Minh Menh and Emperor Thieu Tri in the years 1839, 1841 and 1848 proved that the state has collected market taxes and taxes in the sources - where trade and exchange between the reverse domain and the lowland. By the second half of the nineteenth century, most provinces in South-Central Coastal collected market taxes. Binh Dinh has 118 markets that have collected taxes (from grade 3 to grade 9). The largest market in Binh Dinh was taxed at grade 3 with An Thai Market and Cau Cham Market; Grade 4 tax market has Dap Da Market, Lai Giang Market, etc. Binh Dinh does not have a class 1 and 2 tax collection market. Other local markets do not see tax rates but only the total annual tax collection. 3.5. Market meeting Until the nineteenth century, large markets in South-Central Coastal had regular market meetings, there was a winter market in 12
the morning, there was a winter market in the afternoon, there was a winter market all day or a market only had a brief meeting (squatting market). In particular, there were markets only east on a certain number of days, called a fair market. In fact, in a certain area, to avoid competition between markets has formed a fair market schedule. In one month, there were not many days of the same market, especially the main market. The number of sessions of a market depends not only on the quantity of goods and people buying and selling but also on the number of markets and the days of the local markets. This clearly showed the scale and expansion of commodity economy in the South-Central Coastal provinces during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884). 3.6. Trade ingredients in markets Small traders and smallholders were the main force in the trader’s department at markets. In addition to traders who trade in fixed stalls, there were also independent traders with agriculture, build stalls, shops at markets to trade all kinds of goods, and there were goods produced by them, but mostly bought in wholesale. Participants in trade activities in markets were also diverse. However, trade in markets was mainly undertaken by women. A part of those who trade in markets was also Chinese. Chinese people occupy a small number, but with trading talent, the Chinese quickly dominate the market in towns, cities and large markets. 3.7. Market management organization The state indirectly manages markets through the promulgation of specific trade policies including market taxes. Besides, the state also issued additional regulations on trade in markets and shops. The promulgation of specific regulations on market exchange and trading activities in the market shows that the state has given certain concerns to 13
domestic trade activities in general and market activities in particular. At the same time, it also shows the management role of the Nguyen Dynasty at the macro level through legal documents and the enforcement of legal documents that were villages. Markets were mostly considered to be in the village's ownership and profit-taking rights. For small markets usually set up by a village, the village directly appoints a general management board headed by the Chief Justice. For markets or school transactions in mountainous areas, the state can manage activities here through the role of village elders. Chapter 4: CHARACTERISTICS AND ROLE OF MARKETS FOR ECONOMIC, CULTURAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CENTRAL COASTAL VIETNAM 4.1. Characteristics of the markets in South-Central Coastal Vietnam 4.1.1. Waterways play an important role in goods circulation in markets In the nineteenth century, when road traffic and trade were underdeveloped, traffic and waterway trade played a key role. Trade by waterway was the most convenient type of transport, saving time, effort and transporting a large volume of goods. This was a favorable condition to expand trade between regions and is also one of the characteristics of the South-Central Coastal region. The number of bridges, culverts, wharves and large rivers in the South-Central Coastal provinces of the nineteenth century recorded in Dai Nam Nhat Thong Chi clearly shows the role of waterways in goods circulation in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam. Because waterways play an important role in trade in the South-Central Coastal provinces, many markets in South-Central Coastal provinces were also established next to rivers or in water front. The location of markets was mostly located near rivers or coastal areas so the market in South-Central Coastal Vietnam during this period also has the characteristics of a market associated with a market or port city (river ports and sea ports). Besides, in the nineteenth century, in the South-Central Coastal 14
Vietnam, there were formed and developed trade and exchange flows between localities in the province through sea routes; At the same time, it also facilitates the expansion of commodity exchange with other areas in the country and abroad. 4.1.2. Wholesale markets were often associated with market streets and “satellite” markets. By the nineteenth century, the appearance of the big markets was closely associated with the ranges of markets and fixed trading streets in the market. The diversity and abundance of goods sources and the rapidly increasing exchange demand have contributed to expanding the market scale; on the contrary, the expansion of market size also contributes to making goods circulated more easily and quickly; The goods were arranged and ordered in accordance with the structure of the market. This was also a manifestation of the expansion of commodity economy in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the nineteenth century. The formation of market streets attached to the market shows the regularity and solidity of commercial activities; create conditions to accelerate the process of formation and development of trade centers and socio-economic spots. On the development requirements of the commodity economy, in towns, port cities, political centers, besides the main market, some sub-markets also serve as "satellites" which have separated functions as well as supplement and support for the main market. 4.1.3. Rich and diverse structure of products, from local products to foreign goods The structure of goods in South-Central Coastal markets during the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884) was quite diverse and abundant, including goods for essential living needs (food, foodstuffs, agricultural products) and products for residents' production (production tools, household appliances, etc.). In addition, there were 15
also products from outside and goods for foreign trade, many of which were typical of the South-Central Coastal provinces. It was possible to divide goods in South-Central Coastal markets in the nineteenth century into groups: food and foodstuff; group of goods to serve production and living needs; group of forest, native and seafood products and other groups of goods (mainly goods from abroad). 4.1.4. The force of professional traders, especially Chinese traders, plays an important role in the operation of the markets Professional traders were those who live by trading. They set up a trade street at markets, especially Chinese traders and merchants specializing in bringing goods from one market to another to sell by sessions. They play an important role in the distribution of goods. However, in markets, especially in large markets, there were very few traders, big shops of Vietnamese people who were mainly business owners and Chinese shops. Chinese people hold almost all the trade from small to big. Chinese traders’ activities also contribute to the connection between markets in the region, promoting the process of expanding commercial activities of the South-Central Coastal provinces with foreign countries. In commercial activities in the domestic market, Chinese traders buy goods in the region to supply foreign merchant ships. On the other hand, they bring foreign goods to sell all over the locality. In addition, Chinese traders also transports goods from China to or has a supply of goods from merchant ships from the Chinese commercial port, from which they ship goods to other regional ports or sell them to Western merchants’ ships.
4.1.5. The operation of the markets in the South-Central Coastal region was beyond the scope of the village Under the Nguyen Dynasty (period 1802-1884), the economy developed, the goods were produced more and demand for goods exchange also increased, surpassing the original narrow space. The way markets operate was also changing. Goods were also richer and more diversified thanks to professional traders transporting goods between markets. Markets were built with more permanent tents. The expansion of the markets and trade and exchange activities took place strongly in the South-Central Coastal markets that created an "intervillage area" with the system of fair markets, meeting every month for 3, 6 and 9 sessions. The division of such markets was aimed at creating the continuity of market sessions, minimizing the competition when duplicating, duplicating goods and always having goods to meet the needs of buyers. On the other hand, it was also for some markets to perform the function of wholesale markets and central markets of the region. 4.2. The role of the markets for the economic, cultural and social development of South-Central Coastal Vietnam 4.2.1. Activities of the markets contribute to promoting economic development Through exchange and trading activities in markets, goods were circulated, it stimulates the agriculture - forestry - fishing, handicraft and trading sectors to develop; improve production value of sectors in economic structure. Commercial activities in markets in particular in urban areas and towns in general have contributed to the development of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and handicraft industries. In contrast, the development of agricultural, forestry, fishing and handicraft production 17
was the basis and premise for the birth and development of markets and towns and at a higher level than in urban areas both in size and quantity; thereby promoting the small-scale economy from a closed economy to a developed commodity economy; facilitating the urbanization process, leading to the birth of urban areas in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the nineteenth century. 4.2.2. Activities of the markets contribute to promoting social and cultural exchange and development Markets was a place reflecting the economic characteristics, culinary culture of local residents; Market was a place for people to express their right to human behavior, which reflects the traditional culture of a land. Market was also a place of cultural exchange, absorbing the production, business and cultural experiences of the Different resident communities. The cultural exchange between Chinese and Vietnamese people in urban areas and towns and in markets - where the majority of Chinese people live was also common in many ways, contributing to the development and enrichment of economic and spiritual life of residents. The formation and development of the market also entails a change in the population structure. On the social level, the development of a commodity economy penetrates into agriculture and rural areas through a market system that has positively impacted the formation of a class of professional craftsmen, especially traders’ class. Therefore, in this society, there was a deep differentiation, a clear division of labor among the population in the society. All activities of the market, besides making local products circulate everywhere, they also to improving the lives of the community and impacting on the life and policies of the state. 18
CONCLUSION During the merger into the territory of Dai Viet, South-Central Coastal Vietnam quickly became the promised land for the flow of the Northern residence to uncover the land and establish the village as well as choose place of residence and career of a part of Chinese refugee. Through the long-term development process, the people have built a dense, crowded village. This is the first premise leading to the formation and development of the market system in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam. Along with the process of settlement, production is growing and under the influence of commodity economy, political social factors in the nineteenth century, the market network in the South-Central Coastal region is expanded in scale, quantity and has played a certain role in the development of economy, culture and society of each region as well as the South-Central Coastal Vietnam. The operation of the market network in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam in the Nineteenth century has many common characteristics as the nationwide markets. About the living characteristics of the market network on such aspects as the regulation of market meetings, participants in the market or the structure of market goods, tax rates, mode of exchange and trade, etc. In general, it is similar to other markets. However, the operation of the South-Central Coastal markets (period 1802-1884) also has its own characteristics, reflecting the countryside look in the South-Central Coastal provinces in all aspects and playing a certain part for economy - society, culture - life and customs of the South-Central Coastal region. For example, the structure of trading products in the markets also includes victuals, agricultural products, production tools, household appliances, etc. However, among these product groups, there are products that are only available in the South-Central Coastal region, with the products exchanged and traded in this region but not in other regions. Goods at the markets also have specific characteristics of regions, areas and 19
localities. Based on roads and waterways, goods are gathered into large markets, towns, cities and port cities, not only connecting the goods areas in the province and its neighbors together, but also expanding the exchange of goods with other national regions and abroad. In particular, the South-Central Coastal is also a region that has a dense river and stream system, a long coastline, many sea ports and bays, etc. so most of the markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam are formed beside the rivers or estuaries and sea ports. Therefore, traffic and waterway trade hold an important position in commercial activities in the South-Central Coastal markets; Activities of the markets are therefore also associated with market wharves and port cities, with transporting and loading bustling goods at the markets and port cities. Through trading activities in the midland, mountainous, delta and coastal markets, the goods are exchanged and circulated, which not only meets the needs of the region but also expands exchanges with outside areas. On that basis, agriculture - forestry - fishery, handicraft and trade sectors are promoted to develop strongly. There is an organic relationship between the economy in general, the commodity economy in particular and the markets: the operation of the market network contributes to maintaining the existence and promoting the development of the economy; on the contrary, the development of the economy widens the scale and number of the markets. Therefore, along with the strong development of the commodity economy, the market system in the South-Central Coastal region has also increased in number and expanded in scale. Many markets have become places to gather goods, acting as an inter-provincial market. This is also one of the outstanding features in the operation of the markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam during the Nguyen Dynasty in the period of 1802-1884. Moreover, when the level of trade goes beyond a village, the regulation of the number of market sessions in one month has a certain meaning. Large markets in one region are not usually met on the same day of the month. This facilitates goods to be circulated, 20
especially to avoid competing for customers. Market meetings are also regulated in many localities, but the difference is that the geographical scope of markets in the South-Central Coastal region is larger than in other regions. Trade and exchange activities in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam markets have contributed to promoting agricultural, handicraft and trade activities, especially development of domestic trade. In contrast, the development of manufacturing and trade sectors has become the premise and condition for the development and expansion of the markets. Thereby, a closed small-farming economy is promoted to become an open economy. However, the exchange and trading activities of the markets in the South-Central Coastal Vietnam also have certain limitations: Firstly, under the Nguyen Dynasty, the commodity economy in the South-Central Coastal had a new development; agricultural - forestry earth products - seafood and handicraft products become widely circulated goods in the markets; but it also suffers from many obstacles that the conservative policy of the feudal court is an example. Self-sufficient economy is still popular among people; Exchange and trade activities in the South-Central Coastal markets are only to meet the demand of exchanging surplus products of smallscale agricultural economy, when handicraft business is not separated from agriculture and trading is only a secondary business. Secondly, many items are typical of the South-Central Coastal provinces, with high value to be exported abroad, mainly in the list of state purchasing and monopoly trading such as agarwood, aloe wood and ivory, bird nests, etc. On the other hand, due to the monopoly trade policy of the court, both customers and traders are weighed down by the pressure of the government. They are often forced to buy and sell, so they create artificial prices in the markets. In addition to the official price of the state there is a black-market price, this price changes dramatically according to the daily demand and supply of traders and intermediary drivers, etc. In addition, the 21
cheating of officials and their harassment depressed the businessmen. In the crowded centers of trade, there are often traders who always manipulate the markets. Thirdly, exchange and trading activities in the South-Central Coastal markets in this era are only in the form of simple goods circulation. Commodity production is the type of economic organization in which products are produced for sale rather than meeting the consumer needs of the direct producer, which means to meet the demand of others, through exchanges and purchases. Production of goods is made on the basis of social division of labor, specialization of production. In the first half of the nineteenth century, traders in the South-Central Coastal provinces affirmed their positions in society as an independent professional class and contributed significantly to the local economic development. However, trading in markets is still a small trade, in the form of mobile "market". Therefore, the business forces are mainly small traders and small owners; and the agents and businessmen who are independent with living by agriculture, building stalls or shops in markets; or for people with large capital, wholesale of large items, which account for a small amount, and this trade is mainly undertaken by Chinese traders. They operate on a large-scale market, many provinces and even trade with foreign traders. However, trading activities of Chinese traders mainly take place in big markets, central markets or towns, cities and port cities. Meanwhile, small businesses and smallholders are the main force in the business sector in the South-Central Coastal provinces. Trading activities of small businesses and smallholders occur irregularly, infrequently and can be carried out daily, or a few times half a month because it depends on the season in rural areas. Their goods are purely and mainly agricultural and handicraft items produced by themselves and their families. The traders in the South-Central Coastal markets are almost completely separated from agriculture and handicraft. This is the product of small farmers' economy that is suitable for small and 22