Leaders accept responsibility for the outcomes of the groups or teams they lead. While leaders have to exercise authority, the way in which this is done (the style of leadership) might vary. It is generally accepted that a leader’s style of leading can affect the motivation, efficiency and effectiveness of the employees. Some leadership theories present two basic choices – a task centred on one hand and an employee centred on the other. Tannenbaum and Schmidt suggest that leadership style is best described as a continuum, the appropriate style depending on the characteristics of the leader, the subordinates and of the situation. Adair looks at three basic needs that result in differing leadership styles. Known as action centred leadership, it is a process made up of three inter-related variables, the needs of the task, the group and the individual. The leader needs to balance the relative importance of all three variables. However the situation requires that emphasis is given to identifying and acting upon the immediate priority. (a)
Tannenbaum and Schmidt leadership theory is based on a continuum that suggests a range of styles between autocratic and democratic, but without any suggestion that one style is right or wrong. DICTATORIAL The manager makes decisions and enforces them – TELLS The manager sells his decisions to subordinates – TELLS AND SELLS AUTOCRATIC The manager suggests own ideas and asks for comments – TELLS AND TALKS The manager suggests sketched ideas, asks for comments and amends the ideas as a result – CONSULTS DEMOCRATIC The manager presents a problem, asks for ideas, makes a decision from ideas – INVOLVES The manager allows subordinates to discuss and decides – DELEGATES LAISSEZ-FAIRE The manager allows the subordinates to act as they wish within specified limits – ABDICATES
Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s continuum recognises that the appropriate style depends upon four factors: the leader personality, values, natural style the subordinates their knowledge, experience, attitude the situation forces such as the organisational culture, time pressures, levels of authority and responsibility the environment ecology pressures, education changes, union power base
Dean Thomas is democratic to laissez-faire. He presents tasks, allows discussion and room for ideas from his team members. He involves them and gives them relative freedom to carry out their tasks. He fluctuates along the Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum. Lee Allen is group orientated at times, but the need of the task takes priority and then he becomes dictatorial. He obviously considers the situation and his management style differs depending on the highest priority, how he perceives the capability of his subordinates, and the environmental pressure he faces.
A contemporary approach to leadership is to regard it as being made up of a number of different skills. This has been extended to the approach known as ‘action centred leadership’. This recognises that leadership occurs within three inter-related
variables: the task, group and individual needs. Action centred leadership is a process made up of three inter-related variables, the needs of the task, the group and the individual. The leader needs to balance the relative importance of all three variables; however the situation requires that emphasis be given to identifying and acting upon the immediate priority. Task needs are setting objectives for the team or group, planning and initiating the task or tasks, allocating responsibilities, setting and verifying performance standards and establishing a control system. Group needs involve team building so that mutual support and understanding is achieved, developing appropriate independence within the group, setting of agreed standards, provision of training as required and appropriate and, most importantly, establishing communication and information channels. The individual needs recognise the development of individual needs and achievement, motivation by recognition, the encouragement of creativity, the delegation as far as possible of authority to encourage group support and to attend to any problems or grievances. Lee Allen displays some of the characteristics of action centred leadership, although he is clearly more task driven especially when deadlines have to be met. He needs to develop greater skills in group and individual needs to address the absentee problem.
Feidler suggests that there is a relationship between styles of leadership and team or group effectiveness. He distinguishes between two types of leader: psychologically close or psychologically distant managers. Psychologically close managers prefer informal relationships with staff, are often over concerned with good human relations and favour informal contacts rather than formal meetings. Feidler also described this approach as relationship oriented. It is clear from the scenario that this is Dean Thomas’s approach. Psychologically distant managers prefer formal relationships, tend to be reserved in their personal relationships with staff (although conversely often have good inter-personal skills) and prefer formal meetings. This approach Feidler also called task oriented. This is Lee Allen’s approach. Emma Jenkins is uncomfortable with the formal, distant approach taken by Lee Allen. She would be more comfortable and productive in the more informal approach taken by Dean Thomas.
The management task is not straightforward, nor as prescriptive, as much management teaching suggests. The work of Henry Mintzberg is particularly interesting because it points to the fractious nature of the task. (a)
Henry Mintzberg was concerned with what managers actually do, rather than what the long accepted theory suggested they do. He showed that there is a difference between what they say they do and what they actually do, and observes that the task is fragmented.
He noted three basic management roles, grouped into three areas: INTERPERSONAL role ‘leading’. This role arises from the manager’s formal position within the organisation and the consequent authority which arises from it. He suggests three categories: Figurehead: Because of the formal authority and position in the organisation, the manager acts as a focus both internally and externally, but this is not necessarily a formal leadership role. Often in reality the manager is simply a figurehead. Leader: Brings together organisational and individual goals and needs, especially through motivation, hiring and firing. Liaison: Maintains a network of relationships within and especially outside the organisation. A substantial amount of management time is spent fulfilling this role. INFORMATIONAL role ‘administrating’. This role arises because managers have access to and contact with all staff and many contacts outside the organisation. Monitor: The manager ‘monitors’ the environment by receiving information (internal and external) and transmitting it to others. A great deal of information may be of an informal nature. Disseminator: Passes on factual and value information to the department. Spokesman: Acts as the spokesman for the organisation by providing information about the organisation, both internally but especially externally. DECISIONAL role ‘fixing’. This role is the most crucial and arises from the manager’s position of formal authority, which means that he or she has unique access to information. Consequently, the manager is the only person able to take decisions which arise from and affect the department. Entrepreneur: The manager makes decisions about changing what happens within the organisation or department by initiating action and encouraging change, especially in a changed environment. Disturbance Handler: Has to make decisions about events because these events are often outside his or her control. Has to react to unpredictable situations. Thus it is important to be able to react as well as plan. Resource Allocator: Central to the organisation, the manager has to take control of the allocation of scarce resources and determine the direction of the organisation.
Negotiator: Negotiates inside and outside the organisation and at the same time commit resources. A great time user. These three basic management roles are not all embracing and change depending upon the manager’s position in the organisation.
The selection of a suitable employee is fundamental to the success of an organisation. In the first instance, the application form obtains information about a potential employee simply and in a number of different ways. However, the application form is often poorly constructed, asks the wrong questions or fails in its function to assist management. (a)
The main purpose of the application form is to identify candidates closest to the existing or previously prepared person specification. In addition, it can eliminate unsuitable candidates and act as a preliminary to interview. It can also form the basis of future human resources by establishing a record keeping system for future reference.
The application form should be able to provide information on personal details on age, address and family background. It also provides information about the candidate’s education and employment experience, present employment terms, experience and leisure interests. It is particularly useful in assessing the candidate’s effectiveness in writing, self expression and ambition and character. In addition, the application form should contain a general section allowing the applicant to express career ambitions and aspirations in his or her own words.
A personal development plan is a clear progressive action plan for an individual which incorporates a wide set of developmental opportunities including formal training. The concept of the personal development plan is one which enables employees to link their development needs with those of the organisation and thus to motivate them and to improve morale. Preparation of a personal development plan: STEP 1 – Analyse the current position/job analysis: Identifying the skills required for future work and the current skills of each of the job holders. A manual skills analysis can be conducted where the hand, finger and body movements are recorded in great detail. This can lead to a faults analysis where the analyst produces a specification showing what typically causes frequently occurring faults and how to identify and resolve them. Analysis of the required skills can also be achieved through a personal SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) Analysis. The manager has an input into this by identifying the skills required of the employee on a simple grid: THE INDIVIDUAL SKILL SWOT ANALYSIS Performance High Low Liking of Skills
Like and do well
Like but don’t do well
Dislike but do well
Dislike and don’t do well
The outcome of this exercise is to include more of the employees’ individual interests into their actual role. The analysis of the current knowledge and skills of the job-holder can be found from appraisals and observations. STEP 2 – Set goals to cover performance in the existing job: An outline of the individual development needs is found from the skills analysis. Identify deficiencies in the current skills of job holders and outline the necessary development needs. Forecast future changes in the current role and identify goals. A deficiency list is produced which is used to formulate an individual training plan. As far as reasonably possible all objectives should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely). This is then used to identify the training required. STEP 3 – Draw up the action plan: All the different development needs are collated from the sources outlined in the first two steps and are entered into an action plan with the most important training identified first.
It is often believed that employment rewards are based simply on payment. However, as individuals become more discerning, they seek more from employment than monetary reward alone. It is important for managers to understand that monetary rewards are in many ways less important in the modern economy than previously thought, especially in services and the professions. (a)
Intrinsic rewards are within the control of the individual and include feelings of personal satisfaction, status, recognition, responsibility and pride in the work.
Extrinsic rewards are those forms of reward which are not in the control of the individual but at the disposal of others; usually the individual’s superior. Extrinsic rewards can be ‘seen’ and include wages and salaries and also ‘perks’ such as bonuses, prizes and working conditions.
Common types of extrinsic reward include most importantly basic pay and conditions, often added to by bonuses and incentive schemes. Performance related pay has entered many service activities where traditional ‘bonuses’ do not readily apply. In addition, share option schemes have become popular as have car usage or loans and other schemes of various types, such as holidays as a form of extra bonus. Some organisations offer payment benefits beyond those required by law; pension scheme generosity often based on non-contributory arrangements or other forms of enhanced pension schemes. Private health care insurance and other insurance, including life, disability and sickness are offered beyond those required by law or tradition. Crèches and other facilities aimed at family employees are popular, as are subsidised loans for purchase of goods other than those of the employer and medical facilities or subsidised payments to private health schemes.
Any organisation which employs individuals will at times be the subject of conflict of some sort. Conflict is not necessarily a sign of problems, but nevertheless managers need to recognise and control it as appropriate. (a)
Conflict which is constructive can lead to outcomes which can be seen as beneficial to the organisation because it often challenges existing business practices and ideas. It can introduce different ideas, solutions to problems and define power, authority and responsibility limits. It can also encourage creativity, innovation and change and is capable of bringing problems into the open.
Destructive conflict can lead to outcomes which can be seen as damaging to the organisation overall. It can undermine personal relationships, distract attention from the task, dislocate group cohesion and alienate individuals and groups from another.
The causes of conflict include departmentalisation and specialisation, the nature of the work involved and formal objectives diverging from the objectives actually being pursued by management or individual departments or where objectives are concealed by management. In addition, conflict can occur when individual roles are poorly specified, departmental and individual boundaries overlap or contractual relationships are unclear. Other causes include issues where individuals are undertaking simultaneous roles, or there are differences in perception as to an individual’s position in the organisation or the individual’s effort and output in comparison to others. Differences can also arise through the individual’s perceived authority and importance, often leading to personality differences and clashes.
Part 1 Examination – Paper 1.3 Managing People 1
December 2005 Marking Scheme
Identification and description of the four broad leadership styles described by Tannenbaum and Schmidt. (Three marks per style) Brief description of the four factors. (One mark each)
(Up to 12 marks) (Up to 4 marks) (Maximum for part (a) 16 marks)
The Tannenbaum and Schmidt leadership style which best describes (i) (ii)
Dean Thomas Lee Allen
(Up to 4 marks) (Up to 4 marks) (Maximum for part (b) 8 marks)
Explanation of action centred leadership and justification of Lee Allen’s approach.
(Up to 8 marks) (Maximum for part (c) 8 marks)
Description of Feidler’s two approaches and appreciation of Emma Jenkin’s position.
(Up to 8 marks) (Maximum for part (d) 8 marks) (Total for question 40 marks)
Brief description of Mintzberg’s view of the management process.
Description and discussion of the three management roles
(Up to 3 marks) (Maximum for part (a) 3 marks)
Interpersonal role – Figurehead – Leader – Liaison
(Up to 4 marks)
Informational role – Monitor – Disseminator – Spokesman