Motivation Motivation refers to the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior. Motivated employees are willing to exert a particular level of effort (intensity) for a certain amount of time (persistence) toward a particular goal (direction).
Deficiencies… Esteem Needs • Recognition (external motivator), Attention (external motivator), Social Status (external motivator), Accomplishment (internal motivator), Self-respect (internal motivator) Social Needs • Friendship, Belonging to a group, Giving and receiving love Safety Needs • Living in a safe area, Medical insurance, Job security, Financial reserves Physiological Needs • Air, Water, Food, Sleep
Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory Need to know Selfactualization
Need for beauty
– Lowest unmet need has strongest effect – When lower need is satisfied, next higher need becomes the primary motivator – Self-actualization -- a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied
Characteristics of Self-Actualized People • Acceptance and Realism: have realistic perceptions of themselves, others and the world around them. • Problem-centering: are concerned with solving problems outside of themselves, including helping others and finding solutions to problems in the external world. • Spontaneity: are spontaneous in their internal thoughts and outward behavior. While they can conform to rules and social expectations, they also tend to be open and unconventional. • Autonomy and Solitude: have the need for independence and privacy. • Continued Freshness of Appreciation: tend to view the world with a continual sense of appreciation, wonder and awe. • Peak Experiences: have what Maslow termed peak experiences, or moments of intense joy, wonder, awe and ecstasy.
How Four Drives Affect Needs 1. Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information 2. Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention 3. Social skill set determines how to translate drives into needs and effort
Implications of Needs/Drives Theories • Four-drive theory – provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill drives – employees continually seek fulfillment of drives – avoid having conditions support one drive over others
• Maslow – allow employees to self-actualize – power of positive experiences
Executive Coaching • Uses various behavioral methods to help clients identify and achieve goals • Just-in-time personal development using feedback and other techniques • Generally effective, but many techniques make it difficult to pinpoint what is effective