Introduction Leadership is the focus of most of the other areas of organizational behavior
Joseph Campbell & George Lucas Lucas had read The Hero with a Thousand Faces while working on the script of the first of the Star Wars movies, and had gone on to read the Masks of God and other writings. When Star Wars debuted in 1977, it followed the Hero very closely.
Monomyth This fundamental structure contains a number of stages, which include: (1) a call to adventure, which the hero has to accept or decline, (2) a road of trials, regarding which the hero succeeds or fails, (3) achieving the goal or "boon," which often results in important self-knowledge, (4) a return to the ordinary world, again as to which the hero can succeed or fail, and finally,
(5) application of the boon in which what the hero has gained can be used to improve the world.
What is Leadership? Has been controversial in terms of its definition
Leadership does remain pretty much of a “black box,” or unexplainable concept.
One thing everyone can agree on… Leadership DOES make a difference
What is Leadership? Continued
Characteristics of managers versus leaders
Historically Important Studies on Leadership - Iowa Iowa leadership studies Designed primarily to examine patterns of aggressive behavior Used scientific methodology Demonstrated that different styles of leadership can produce different reactions from the same or similar groups Laissez faire led group produced the greatest number of aggressive acts
Historically Important Studies on Leadership – Ohio State Ohio State leadership studies Started with the premise that no satisfactory definition of leadership existed The first study to point out and emphasize the importance of both task and human
dimensions in assessing leadership
Historically Important Studies on Leadership - Michigan Early Michigan leadership studies Showed that supervisors of high producing groups were more likely to have employee-centered and general supervisory styles. Showed that low producing groups had supervisors with task-oriented and close supervisory styles.
Traditional Theories of Leadership Trait theories of leadership – originally based on intelligence, now:
Five-factor model: “Big Five” personality traits (extraversion has highest correlation) From traits to states and skills development
Focused on skill development besides traits Optimism, hope, resilience, EI, and selfefficacy
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued Group and exchange theories of leadership
Followers’ impact on leaders Leader-member exchange (LMX) model (rewards vs. costs)
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued Three domains of leadership
Leader-based Follower-based Relationship-based
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued Contingency theory of leadership
Fielder’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness Leader-member relationship Degree of task structure Leader’s position power
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued
Fielder’s contingency model of leadership effectiveness (continued)
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued Contingency theory of leadership (continued)
Research support for the contingency model Methodologically sound validation studies have on the whole provided substantial support for the theory
Fielder’s contingency theory in perspective First highly visible leadership theory Emphasized the importance of both the situation and characteristics Stimulated a great deal of research
Traditional Theories of Leadership Continued Path-goal leadership theory