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luận văn thạc sĩ nghiên cứu các nhân tố tác động đến việc sử dụng internet banking của khách hàng ở các ngân hàng thương mại việt nam

National Formosa University
Department of Industrial Management
Master Thesis
The Factors Affecting Customer Usage of Internet
Banking in Commercial Banks: A Study in Vietnam

Graduate Student: Tran Thi Linh
Advisor: Assoc.Prof. Hu Chih-Hsiung

July, 2019
Huwei, Yunlin, Taiwan, Republic of China

學學學學: 學學學

學學: 學學學

學學學學學學學學IB, Internet Banking學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學
學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學 IB
學學學學/學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學 Venkatesh 學學學學 UTAUT 學學學學
學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學 IB 學學學/學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學
學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學學 IB 學學學學學學學學學學學

The Factors Affecting Customer Usage of Internet Banking
in Commercial Banks: A Study in Vietnam
Student: Tran Thi Linh

Advisor: Assoc.Prof. Hu Chih- Hsiung

Deparment of Industrial Management
National Formosa University


Nowadays, Internet Banking (IB) is becoming the primary trend in the
financial market and a new product of banks. Until now, all Vietnamese
Commercial Banks (VCBs) have implemented Internet Banking products to bring
benefits to customers and banks. However, the number of users is low, mainly from
large Commercial Banks. Research objective is to develop a theoretical research
framework on factors affecting the use of IB by customers in VCBs. The study
aims to determine the impact of elements in the research theory model on the
intention/level to use IB of customers, giving suggestions to Vietnamese
Commercial Banks in service development strategy. The study used Unified Theory
of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Vankatesh et al., 2003) with the
adjustment and supplement to the environment of Vietnam. Data was collected in
Viet Nam from several channels. The study shows that factors (Performance
Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence, Facilitating Conditions,
Safety/Security, Convenience and Demographic) have a significant positive effect
on Intention/Level to use IB of customers. Based on the results, several
recommendations and solutions have been proposed that are suitable for the

Commercial Banks, and the State Bank in developing IB services in Vietnam.
Keywords: Internet Banking, Commercial Banks, UTAUT, Intention to use, Level
to use

A completed study would not be done without any assistance. Therefore, the
author who conducted this research gratefully gives acknowledgment to their
support and motivation during the time of doing this research as a requirement of
completing my Degree of Institute of Industrial Engineering and Management.
First of all, I would like to express my endless thanks and gratefulness to my
advisor: Hu Chih- Hsiung. His generous support and continuous advices went

through the process of completion of my thesis. His encouragement and comments
had significantly enriched and improved my work. Without his motivation and
instructions, the thesis would have been impossible to be done effectively.
My special thanks approve to my parents for their endless love, care and have
most assistance and motivation me for the whole of my life. I also would like to
explain my thanks to my siblings, brothers and sisters for their support, and care me
all the time.
As of last, my sincere thanks come to all my friends during the time I study at
National Formosa University. Their kindly help, care, motivation gave me strength
and lift me all the trouble for the rest of my life.

Table of Contents


List of Tables

List of Figures



: Confirmatory factor analysis


: Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior

EFA : Exploratory Factor Analysis

: Commercial Banks


: Innovations Diffusion Theory


: Structural equation modeling


: Technology Acceptance Model


: Theory of Planned Behaviour


: Theory of Reasoned Action


: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology


: Vietnam Commercial Banks


: Performance Expectancy


: Facilitating Conditions


: Effort Expectancy


: Social Influence


: Safety/ Security


: Convenience


: Internet Banking


: Mobile Banking


: Intention to use


: Level to use


: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences


: Chi-square


Chapter 1 Introduction
This chapter is an introduction that describes an overview of my study,
including research background, research motivation, etc. Besides, this study will
present the reason to choose this topic.

1.1 Research background
The development of information technology becomes a trend of growth and
competitiveness of the Vietnam Commercial Banks (VCBs). To enhance their
capacity to compete from fresh products and services of foreign banks, VCBs are
not only necessary to improve the traditional profession but also to make the
banking application products modern. E-Banking service in Vietnam was born as
one milestone that marked the transformation of our country’s banking system. EBanking not only meets the practical needs of the people, but also opens up
opportunities and challenges in the service to compete in the process of
international economic integration. The benefits of providing Electronic Banking to
clients, banks, and the economy are convenience, fast, and accuracy of the
transactions (Do Thi Ngoc Anh, 2017).
Internet Banking (IB) is one of the best services of E-Banking (The Bank.VN,
2019). It is used to access and perform banking transactions over the Internet.
When using IB, you can control your account online without having to go to the
banks. Just have internet-connected devices and access codes that banks provide
that. The consumer can perform all transactions at anytime, anywhere (The
Bank.VN, 2019). With banks, IB creates more profits, attracts more customers,
saves costs, and is more competitive among banks. With clients, IB offers a lot of
things like check account, transfer money, payment online, etc. helping save money
and time. IB turns into a necessary development step of the banking industry. By


the end of April 2018, 94% of local banks had invested in digitalization, of which
42% considered digital banking to be the top priority in their business strategy.
Over the past three years, Internet Banking services in Vietnam have sped up by 6.3
times (fintechnews.sg, 2018).
In Vietnam, over 25 years of birth and development, Vietnamese Commercial
Banks system has continuously developed in scale, quality, and operational
efficiency. The number of Commercial Banks (CBs) continues to increase (The
State Bank of Viet Nam, 2016). Now, CBs system in recent years has had several
positive changes in services aimed to better-serving customers’ need. Including EBanking products and services in banks has helped banks diversify products and
services rather than stop at past traditional services, opening opportunities, and new
competitiveness. In the individual, the appearance of IB services is an effective
accomplishment, which broke the boundaries and limits on place and time in the
supply of banking services. IB show up help banks meeting the demands of Internet
payments in Vietnam.
But in Vietnam, IB service appears slower than in other countries like
Malaysia, Thailand (Nguyen Duy Thanh, Cao Hao Thi, 2011). Until now, all CB
have deployed IB services to serve consumers. However, the habit of clients using
it is still low; the usage level is not much, mainly used in large CBs (Do Thi Ngoc
Anh, 2017). Large businesses and people who work in offices in urban areas are the
primary users (tapchinganhang.com, 2017). Vietnamese people used to have a habit
of using cash which is reflected in the high proportion of card used to withdraw
money via ATM (over 83.2% of ATM transactions are cash withdrawal), payment
turnover through card acceptance units, and IB service accounts for too little (Nong
Thi Nhu Mai, 2015). This is also a problem for banks in developing IB service,
exploiting the vast potential market of Vietnam. Now, users are not faithful to the


IB service. They move to use other service providers. There are many reasons for
this, and possibly because customers have difficulty entering this service, they do
not esteem and mistrust IB’s safety and security.

1.2 Research motivation
The world is entering the Industry 4.0 – an era in which technologies such as
virtual reality, everything connected to the Internet, 3D printing, big data, artificial
intelligence are implemented in all areas of life (VnExpress.net, 2017). This
revolution is a significant trend affecting the socio-economic development of the
world, including Vietnam. The Industry will strongly influence other sectors in
general and the banking industry 4.0. Digital banking model is a model operating
on a technology platform. Through software and Internet systems, this model has
and will change the entire system format of banks (The Bank.vn, 2019). Banks will
provide new products with modern features such as M-POS, IB, Mobile Banking
(MB), SMS Banking chip card, QR payment, electronic wallet, etc. These new
products and services will be increasingly developed to create favorable conditions
for people to use more. IB, MB, SMS Banking services are being used most
Mobile Banking is a phone banking service with a feature that allows
consumers to make a wide range of transactions with simple, convenient operation
on the mobile phone only (Timo.vn, 2019). Mobile banking is only for phones and
must have an Internet connection with the Internet (The Bank.vn, 2017).
SMS Banking is a mobile phone banking service that helps customers to trade
with their Bank by texting the specified syntax through the call station. The feature
also serves as notification arising on account transactions for the customer
(Timo.vn, 2019). Its disadvantages entirely depend on registered phone numbers
and must remember the query syntax and password (The Bank.vn, 2017).

If the IB service is handled through a computer, MB is a telephone banking
service operation only on the mobile phone (Timo.vn, 2018). SMS Banking is a
mobile phone banking service that helps customers to trade with their Bank by
texting the specified syntax through the call line. The feature also serves as
notification arising on account transactions for the customer (Timo.vn, 2018)
IB is becoming popular and thriving in Vietnam (Huynh Song Hao, Bank of
Foreign Trade, 2015). Nguyen Truong Giang (2008) suggested that if your
computer is connected to the Internet, you will be provided and guided with all
banking products and services. It will be immediately noticed that IB can be used
on both Internet-connected laptops and phones (even phones cannot install
applications) while MB, SMS Banking is only for phones (The Bank.vn, 2017).
More than expected, when registering for Internet Banking service, you can make
the following transactions with only one account. Customers enjoy the benefits of
new technology, and this is also a potential business opportunity for banks.
Through the market, we can see that IB services implemented by many banks. But
there are places, and customers can only perform simple operations such as
checking accounts, transferring money, some areas, so many types of transactions
that were previously required to go to the transaction room can be completed only
in minutes with the networked computer. Even the ATM is the same. Some
machines can inter-bank money transfer, credit card payment, insurance premiums,
electricity bills, service registration, etc. but many others cannot.
The e-commerce market is continually developing. The computer network has
connected global financial markets into a unified and continuous market. By
overcoming obstacles in space and time, it has helped reduce costs, facilitating
transactions (Pham Thi Ha An, 2018). International banks are conducted smoothly
and quickly. With the growing telecommunications infrastructure, taking care of


customers at banks by remote means through video calls becomes easy and
convenient (congthuong.vn, 2019). Shortly, virtual reality technology and threedimensional images will replace human communication completely.
Vietnam has favorable conditions for access to Industry 4.0. With a youthful
population composition, virtually live in the countryside, but the level of education
and access to new technology services of Vietnamese customers are high collated to
another country in the world. The rate of mobile phone use of Vietnamese people is
also high; on average, a person owns over one mobile subscriber (The State Bank
of Viet Nam, 2017). In this context, the banking industry and the payment field in
particular in Vietnam have witnessed substantial impacts from the 4.0 industrial
revolution, along with introducing a series of technologies applied in the banking
and finance sector which have offered many opportunities and challenges for the
banking industry, comprise payment activities in Vietnam. Because of industry 4.0
with the use of economic interest by the size and sharing economy, the deployment
of high-tech digital technology involves internet connection, big data analysis,
cloud computing, sensor technology, virtual reality, etc. will help reduce transaction
costs, transport, management, contribute to financial savings for Vietnamese banks.
Industry 4.0 also improves profits ensure high availability for the system in meeting
customers’ demand for E-Banking services.
Although bringing many profits to both banks and clients, the development of
IB services by banks in the country and around the world faces many difficulties
and challenges. Worldwide, Internet Banking was formed early. It is the most
growing in developed and developing countries are less developed at a slower pace
for some difficulties.
Creating success in providing IB products is a critical issue for Vietnamese
banks now. Recognize and accurately assess the influence of each determinant on

the use of IB by customers, whereby proffering suggestions to bank administrators
in the strategy of developing IB service with great significance important for CB’s
Viet Nam. Stemming from the above argument, this research chooses the topic:
“The factors affecting customer usage of Internet Banking in the Commercial
Banks” to research with the motivation give suggestions to VCBs in the tact of
growing IB service.

1.3 Research question
IB is a coming hot trend and attractive to many users in Vietnam. Customers
enjoy the benefits of new technology, and this is also a potential business
opportunity for banks. The features of the IB service are also appreciated as
convenient and straightforward to use. The banks have made steps to update the
latest security technologies to ensure the benefits of the service users (Timo.vn,
2019). Through the market, we can see that IB, mobile banking services, etc. are
implemented by many banks. But there are places, and customers can only perform
simple operations such as checking accounts, transferring money, some sites, so
many types of transactions that were previously required to go to the transaction
room can be completed only in minutes with the networked computer. Even the
ATM is the same. Some machines can credit card payment, insurance premiums,
electricity bills, service registration, etc. but many others cannot.
Besides, in Vietnam, the Internet has been developing and innovating
positively. According to Dammio.com (2018), the Internet in Vietnam continued to
evolve, and there were several small positive turns based on achievements gained
from 2017 and previous years.


Figure 1.1 Statistics of internet users in Vietnam
Source: Dammio.com (2018)

With a inhabitants of 96.02 million and urbanization of 35%, the amount of
Internet users in Vietnam in 2018 reaches 64 million people, reaching 67% of the
populace. If staying in the top 10 countries with excellent access to the Internet,
then this is will a happy signal help the promotion of technological development in
For the duration and frequency of Internet access in Vietnam

Figure 1.2 Statistics of equipment using technology in Vietnam
Source: Dammio.com (2018)

Compared to 2017, the average daily amount of time a user spends on
accessing the Internet on a PC / Tablet device is no different. It is 6 hours, 52
minutes. Meanwhile, 2 hours 37 minutes is the time when users invest online with
mobile devices, and 1 hour 21 minutes is the time to experience “music” every day.


Mainly the frequency of users accessing the Internet in Vietnam is high.

Figure 1.3 Statistics on the duration and frequency of Internet access in Vietnam
Source: Dammio.com (2018)

Up to 94% of users are online and about 6% go online at least once a week.
Thus, the frequency of users accessing Vietnam is high, and people consider the
Internet as a “spiritual food” in the absence of modern life.
IB transaction index in 2018 reached 187.3 million transactions, increased
by 44.3 million sales compared to 2017 (Dammio.com, 2018). But the level of cash
payment in Vietnam is still high and the ratio of cash in total amount is high
compared to many countries in the world, even though the infrastructure for online
payment has some specific development steps. Viet Nam has the proportion of
Internet users, high social networks, but the Internet payment rate is not
proportionately (VnExpress, 2018). 40% of Vietnam’s population has a bank
account, but still, up to 90% of daily spending in cash, 99% use cash when paying
under $5 and heaving up to 85% of transaction at ATM is withdrawal
(tapchitaichinhs.vn, 2019). These figures follow him, showing that the goal of
developing non-cash payments will be a lot of challenges. So what makes people
prefer to use the cash more than online payment technology? The reason is that the
client lacks awareness of IB, on the benefits that IB brings. Developing IB services
is challenging to implement by VCBs, and this is also the problem set out for VCBs
in developing Internet Banking services, exploiting large potential markets.

Compared to developed countries, Vietnam’s institutional environment is
lacking and weak. The economy of Vietnam is still the leading cash-consuming
economy most people do not have the habit of using banking services, including IB
service. The technology that banks in Vietnam are using is also worse than banks in
developed countries. It can also be said that in Vietnam, IB is not yet developed and
widely disseminated, and the elements affecting the use of IB by clients in Vietnam
differ from those in developed countries. Creating success in providing IB products
is a critical issue for Vietnamese banks today. Thus, the question is: what are the
elements affecting the use of IB by customers in Vietnamese Commercial Banks?

1.4 Purpose
The aims of this study are:
(1) Developing a theoretical research model of factors affecting the use of IB
by clients at CBs in Vietnam.
(2) Showing the level of impact of elements in the theory’s study model on

the intention/level of IB usage of customers.
Providing comments to Vietnamese Commercial Banks in the development
strategy of IB.
As mentioned above, the research on IB is mainly done in developed
countries, where the institutional environment is very refined; the level and
technology capability of banks is also high. In contrast, the context of
implementing this topic is Vietnam, a transitional economy, where the
institutional environment is lacking and weak people have a habit of using
cash, their capabilities, and technological level. Commercial Banks are also
limited. Therefore, the results of this study have the following theoretical

Enriching the understanding of IB and identifying factors, the influence of
elements on the intention and the level to use IB of current customers and


potential customers in Commercial Banks in the transition’s content

Developing a theoretical framework on using IB of customers in CBs by
the transition economy.

1.5 The structure of this study
The thesis has five parts. Chapter 1 is an introduction that describes an
overview of the research background, research motivation, research question, etc.
The second is the literature review that will summarize IB in the world and Viet
Nam. The chapter also mentioned the features and benefits that IB brings to us.
Also, factors are affecting the use of IB services in commercial banks. There will
use as fundamental to develop this study. The next following is the research
method, which presents the research framework, research hypotheses, research
method and data analysis. Chapter 4 would explain the empirical study and
synthesis results. Finally, section 5 would discuss the results and research finding.
This chapter concludes the discussion, conclusion and limitation, and future study.
References plus appendix will be showed at the close of the thesis.

Chapter 2 Literature Review
This section will also provide a more specific and comprehensive view of IB
services in the world and Vietnam in particular. It also presents the development of
Internet Banking services at CBs in Vietnam. This chapter also talks about
foundational theories.

2.1 An introduction to Internet Banking
Internet Banking is a utility that was offered early in countries around the
world. In 1980 a bank in Scotland (Tait and Davis, 1989) rendered it. These
services are soon terminated because they are not accepted and used by bank

customers. By 1990, information technology and electronic services developed
rapidly, and banks start again providing this service (Daniel, 1999). Banks
increasingly expand Internet Banking services in many countries around the world.
Currently, IB has become the primary trend of banks in the USA, Europe,
UK, Europe, Asia-Pacific (Vuong Đuc Hoang Quan, 2016)
In America, transactions based on Internet banking have become
economically and efficiently for the US banking sector to reduce expenses and
improve the quality of service for existing customers and the potential of global
banks Safeena R. et al. (2011).
In the UK and European countries, most clients use IB to view deposit account
balances, savings accounts, daily transaction checks, balance collation. Using the
IB service helps banks in here reduce operational costs and employee work time at
customer contact centers, affiliates to respond to customers and perform repetitive
transactions. Customers also enjoy the fast, accurate service, ensuring privacy,
saving time to travel (Vuong Duc Hoang Quan, 2016).
In the Asia Pacific, IB has been being deployed in many countries like China,
Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand. The Central Bank in China has encouraged
IB services since 2000 (Lad, 2015). HSBC began to provide IB services to
1/8/2000 in Hong Kong. In Singapore, IB service has appeared since 1997. In
Thailand, Internet Banking service is available from 1995 (Moinuddin, 2013).
Especially after the financial crisis of 1997, the Thai banks with the pressure to cut
expenses have turned to promote the provision of Internet Banking services. They
consider this a solution to reduce the expenses of workers and increase the
satisfaction of clients.


Banks in developing countries are also gradually providing IB services but at
a slower rate than developed countries. India in 2008 had a website, 62% of banks
had transactions via the Internet (Malhotra, 2010) but the use of this service in
private, state and foreign banks was uneven (mainly was in the state bank). Large
banks have also provided IB service in Brunei (Seyal et al., 2011), but the habit of
clients using the service is not high.
There are many decisions about Internet Banking. Loyd, (2007); Shao,
(2007); Lee, (2009) argue that IB is an Internet portal that helps users to use
different banking services, including investment payment bill. According to
Ramath et al. (2010), IB is the latest initiative in modern banking services. IB
established as an active distribution channel for Traditional banking products.
Sullivan and Wang (2005) consider IB a process innovation, whereby users carry
out their banking transactions without having to go to bank staff. It also allows nonbank clients to access banking sites in the public network when MB or bank
computers only provide limited closed systems for existing customers. Speaking by
Sara (2007), IB is a banking service as the launch of banking services, loan forms,
account balance requests, transfers, and provided through the Internet. IB services

Clients don’t have to gain any additional software or store data on their
computers because of all transactions occur on Internet server servers.


Customers can carry out their banking services wherever they want, need to
have a computer, a modem, Wi-Fi or 3G regardless of where they are (at
home, at an office, or in a place outside the country).


Customers can use banking services 24/7, and 365 days/ year.



Customers can pay for financial services such as interest, insurance,
securities investments, etc.
In Vietnam, IB service is a banking application provided via the Internet,
including information and services from service providers; search service,
customer information, account balance, and other information requirements
(The State Bank of Viet Nam, 2011).
It can be said Internet Banking is an application that banks provide users via

the Internet to query account information, transfer, pay bills, open online accounts,
free cards, and post, signing online loan, etc. on the Bank’s website of Internet
access without going to the banking counter (E-Banking 2019). Customer can
select the transaction they want. Internet Banking is a way to distribute products
and services to home, office, school, anywhere, and anytime.

2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of Internet Banking services
2.2.1 Advantages of Internet Banking services
(1) About customers
IB service is quick and convenient, helping customers save a lot of time to
the Bank to perform transactions, suitable for clients who have a bit time to deal
with the Bank directly.
Customers can trade with the banks via the Internet at any time (24/7) and
anywhere quickly, conveniently and without customers must go to the banks, the
transactions are confirmed immediately (Wang et al., 2003; Pew, 2003)
Lower fees are understandable for Internet Banking services because of
savings in human resource costs, depreciation of fixed assets if banks must serve by
direct transaction method at bank branches.


Customers can transfer money, easily manage accounts, easily monitor their
accounts at any time and can quickly identify all any fraudulent activity or threat to
the customer’s mind before it can happen.
Internet Banking provides customers with the latest information on exchange
rates, look up financial information of partners, etc. so help them increase
investment opportunities, increase income.
And also, with the standardization of IB service, clients are served
dedicatedly and accurately instead of having to depend on different attitudes and
qualifications of bank employees.

About banks

IB services help save personnel expenses and operation space at the counter.
Internet Banking services help banks expand their networks and increase
competitiveness without investing in building branches.
With the Internet connecting the world, through Internet Banking, banks can
increase the ability to implement the globalization strategy without having to open
more branches abroad.

About the economy
Fast internet banking services, and 24/7 support help speed up the flow of

money increase efficiency for the economy.
2.2.2 Disadvantages of Internet Banking services
(1) About customers
Customers cannot perform a cash deposit. When customers want to deposit,
save or wish to withdraw cash to spend, they cannot play via IB service but


customers must go directly to the Bank or can withdraw cash at ATM.
(Vietcombank, 2019).
Security: A disadvantage of Internet Banking is that computer hackers and
scammers can threaten security capabilities. Hackers can attack customer account
information, stolen money on the account.
Internet Banking is difficult for beginners, with older people. Especially for
the elderly, they have difficulties in using the Internet, remember the login
password, how to use the service with utilities.
Clients cannot do the IB service if the device has no internet connection or
customer transactions become difficult, making the transaction unsuccessful if
suddenly disconnected from the Internet or a slow connection.
(2)About Banks
The high cost of purchasing and maintaining machinery and equipment.
Wang et al. (2003) said that one of the main disadvantages of IB is the expenses of
buying and maintaining computer equipment. Pooja (2010) also noted that the
banks providing Internet Banking services is profitable, the operational efficiency
is higher than non-supplying banks, but banks must invest in technological
equipment at a high cost.
Quality of Internet banking service depends on network quality, transmission
speed, and terminal equipment. This affects the quality of service delivery more or
less, to the number and extent of customer use of this service.
With a potentially risky Internet Banking service such as hackers, computer
viruses can have significant harms to the Bank, losing customer trust to the Bank.


Internet Banking is restricted in service provision. In rural and mountainous
areas, they lack the means of Internet access devices many cities do not have
waves. It is difficult to access and successfully carry out transactions via IB.

2.3 The foundation theory for studying the behavior of accepting
Internet Banking customers
Many theories are used as a platform to study Internet Banking around the
world. Tan and Teo (2000) use the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior
(DTPB) in studying the acceptance and using Internet Banking in Singapore. Ingo
and Bomil (2002) in Korea use Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) studying the
adoption of Internet Banking. Ali Saleh and Khalil (2013) use the Theory of
Planned Behaviour (TPB) to research, etc.
1. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)
Venkatesh developed UTAUT et al. (2003). UTAUT based on the
comparison of theoretical models of consumer acceptance of technology in
previous studies like TRA, TPB, TAM, IDT, DOIT, MM (Dynamic Model), and
MPCU (PC source model). By comparing and analyzing factors, scales of elements
in 8 theoretical models in explaining the technology adoption of customers,
Venkatesh et al. (2003) developed theoretical models.
Performance Expectancy

Effort Expectancy



Social Influence

Facilitating Conditions




Voluntariness of use

Figure 2.1 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology – UTAUT
Source: Vankatesh et al. (2003)

Research on the acceptance of IB by customers has some studies using
UTAUT theory as research by Foon et al. (2011) in Malaysia, by Koloud and
Ghaith (2013) in Jordan, Dong (2009) in China, etc. These studies add some factors
to the original UTAUT model. For example, Foon et al. (2011) added the element
of Computer Efficiency, Concern, Confidence; Saibaba and Naryana (2013) added
the factor of Computer Efficiency, Awareness, Confidence; or Dong (2009) added
the element of Service quality, Self-confidence. Research results different in the
influence of elements on the intention to use IB of consumers between studies. The
number of studies using UTAUT to explain the behavior of using IB of customers
is not much compared to TAM, TPB but not so that this theory is less valuable in
teaching the practice of using IB compared to other models (Koloud and Ghaith,
So Study on using a theory UTAUT of Venkatesh et al. (2003) as the basis of
research theory to explain the behavior of clients using IB service in VCBs. Reason

TRA, TPB, DTPB, TAM, IDT models are limited in explaining the intention

of using the technology of customers.
The theory is said to be most effective in solving the intention and behavior
of accepting the use of technology, accounting for 70% of the difference in
the intent’s interpretation to use technology (Venkatesh et al., 2003) and it is
built on the similarity of and previous models have tested the measuring

scale of the variables.
Internet Banking is one of the new technology applications put into use in
Vietnam. Customers in Vietnam with a cash habit are challenging to change
consumer behavior is often affected by others, they are afraid of complicated


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