The Electronic Library The international journal for the application of technology in information environments Ubiquitous digital library and innovative community Guest Editors: Jin Chen and Jing Guo
The Electronic Library
ISSN 0264-0473 Volume 27 Number 2 2009
Ubiquitous digital library and innovative community Guest Editors Jin Chen and Jing Guo
Access this journal online _______________________________ 199 Editorial advisory board _________________________________ 200 Guest editorial ____________________________________________ 201 The unique approach to institutional repository: practice of National Taiwan University Kuang-hua Chen and Jieh Hsiang __________________________________
A dynamic RSS information push service mechanism based on ontology of user information needs Chuanfu Chen, Zhiqiang Wu, Congjing Ran, Qiong Tang, Song Chen and Xiaojuan Zhang ________________________________________________
Creating a bilingual library information environment for foreign users Fan Aihong ____________________________________________________
From information commons to knowledge commons:
building a collaborative knowledge sharing environment for innovative communities Ren Shuhuai, Sheng Xingjun, Lin Haiqing and Cao Jialin_______________
Innovation community: constructing a new service mode for academic libraries Lu Xiaobin and Guo Jing _________________________________________
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Building a virtual community platform for subject information services at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library Wei Pan and Xiaoyuan Lan_______________________________________
System architecture of Library 2.0 Xinya Yang, Qunyi Wei and Xiaodong Peng _________________________
Programming Library 2.0 that users need Qiaoying Zheng and Shaoping Wang _______________________________
Surviving in the digital age by utilizing libraries’ distinctive advantages Suqing Liu, Sansan Liao and Jing Guo______________________________
Digital libraries in China: progress and prospects Leye Yao and Ping Zhao _________________________________________
Using RFID guiding systems to enhance user experience Hsien Tang Lin, Chia Feng Lin and Shyan Ming Yuan ________________
Creating a virtual union catalog for Hong Kong dissertations and theses collections Irene S.M. Wong and Yiu-On Li ___________________________________
Changing of library services under e-research environment Yajie Zhao_____________________________________________________
Book reviews ______________________________________________ 349 Scholarly Communication in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Taiwan Edited by Jingfeng Xia Reviewed by Ross MacDonald Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and beyond: From Production to Produsage Axel Bruns Reviewed by Philip Barker The Revolution with not be Downloaded: Dissent in the Digital Age Edited by Tara Brabazon Reviewed by John MacRitchie Learning Commons: Evolution and Collaborative Essentials Edited by Barbara Schader Reviewed by Susan Cleyle Interactive Information Retrieval in Digital Environments Iris Xie Reviewed by Philip Calvert Marketing the Best Deal in Town: Your Library. Where is your Purple Owl? Nancy Rossiter Reviewed by Madely du Preez A Short-cut to Marketing the Lbrary Zusana Helinskey Reviewed by Philip Calvert
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EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
Dr Esharenana E. Adomi Head of Department of Library and Information Science, Delta State University, Nigeria
Chris Armstrong Information Automation Limited, Wales, UK Stephen E. Arnold Arnold Information Technology (AIT), USA Dr (Mrs) Asefeh Asemi Department of Library and Information Science, Isfahan University, Iran Philip Barker Professor of Applied Computing, University of Teesside, UK Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technologies and Research of the Vanderbilt University Library and Executive Director for the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, TN, USA Frank Cervone Director, Department of Library, Information and Media Studies, Chicago State University, USA Professor Ina Fourie Department of Information Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa Dr Paul Genoni Faculty of Humanities, Curtin University of Technology, Australia Dr Donald T. Hawkins Information Technology and Database Consultant, Information Today Inc., Medford, NJ, USA Nancy K. Herther Librarian for Sociology & Anthropology, University of Minnesota Libraries, USA Monica Landoni Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK Anne Morris Reader in Information Processing and Director of Teaching, Department of Information Science, Loughborough University, UK Lesley Moyo Director for Library Research and Instructional Services, University Libraries, Virginia Tech, VA, USA Professor S.M. Mutula Head of Department of Library and Information Studies, University of Botswana, Botswana
The Electronic Library Vol. 27 No. 2, 2009 p. 200 # Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0264-0473
Professor Zainab Awang Ngah Department of Information Science, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya, Malaysia David Reid Application Support Specialist, National Library of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand Loriene Roy Professor, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA Eva Semertzaki Deputy Head of Library Section, Bank of Greece, Athens, Greece Dr Miguel-Angel Sicilia Associate Professor, Computer Science Department, University of Alcala´ Ctra. Barcelona, Spain Professor (Mrs) Shashi P. Singh Head, Department of Library & Information Science, University of Delhi, India Dr Mary M. Somerville University Librarian and Director of the Auraria Library, University of Colorado, Colorado, USA Shiao-Feng Su Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Library and Information Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC Professor Pieter A. van Brakel Head: Postgraduate Programmes. c/o e-Innovation Academy, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa Gunilla Wide´n-Wulff ˚ bo Akademi University, Information Studies, A Finland Hong Xu Head, East Asian Library, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA Professor Chyan Yang Institute of Business and Management & Institute of Information Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan Associate Professor Songhui Zheng Director, Acquisitions & Cataloging Department of Overseas Journals Library, Medical College of Shantou University, Guangdong, China
Guest editorial About the Guest Editors Jin Chen is Professor and PhD supervisor of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Director of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library and the Institute of Information Science & Technology (IIST). He has taken charge or taken part in more than 60 research projects, including National Science & Technology Key Project, Shanghai Science & Technology Key Importance Project and International Cooperation Project, etc. To date, he has published more than 240 papers and four books and taken the position of Guest Editor on three occasions. He is now the editor and referee of many domestic and international journals. Dr Jin Chen can be contacted at: Jinchen@sjtu.edu.cn Jing Guo is a Subject Librarian in Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library. She is also undertaking a PhD in information science at the School of Information Resource Management in Renmin University of China. Jing Guo can be contacted at: firstname.lastname@example.org
This special issue of The Electronic Library (TEL) focuses on the “Ubiquitous digital library and innovative community”. The topic, as well as the papers contained herein, covers a broad range of the latest issues and developments in digital libraries, such as the applications of new information and communication technologies, user interfaces, networks, Web 2.0, innovative concepts and best practices within academic communities. We thank The Electronic Library for producing this issue that allows us to report and review the latest research and ongoing developments in Chinese and oriental libraries with respect to their innovative practices and research into digital libraries. So we are very happy to introduce this special publication which comprises selected important scholarly communications of the 2008 Digital Library Conference held in Shanghai and hosted by Shanghai Jiao Tong University Library (SJTUL). In this issue, Kuang-hua Chen and Jieh Hsiang present the practical and unique approach to construct an Institutional Repository at the National Taiwan University (NTU). The system design is based on DSpace, but they modified many functional modules of DSpace in order to fulfill the requirements of Chinese users. In the ubiquitous computing environment, the challenge is how to formalize ontology models applicable to it to describe user information needs, especially explicit information needs. The paper by Chuanfu Chen and colleagues proposes a technical solution for digital libraries to establish the information needs ontology based on a comprehensive understanding of personalized user information needs and offer information push service by Really Simple Syndication (RSS). The authors acknowledge the support of Dr David Raitt, Editor of The Electronic Library, during the whole process of putting this special issue together. Gratitude is also expresed to all the referees involved, who reviewed all the papers and commented upon them: Miguel-Angel Sicilia, Marshall Breeding, Sun Wei, Yi Jin, Lin Xia, Qin Jian, Zeng Lei, Zhang Jia, Ye Ying, Chu Jingli, Fan Bingsi, Shen Guchao, Liu Wei, Jiang Airong, Yang Peichao, Xiao Dehong, Yan Jinwei, Xue Fangyu, Zhu Qiang, Huang Min, Lin Haoming, and Huang Yongli. Finally, many thanks are due to the special issue team members for their hard work: Li Li, Xu Jing, Ding Xiaoying, Ma Chen, Ding Jianmin, Song Haiyan, etc.
The Electronic Library Vol. 27 No. 2, 2009 pp. 201-203 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0264-0473
The number of international students and overseas faculty in many universities, including China, has grown rapidly in recent years. How to help foreign users overcome the language barrier and make a full use of the library is a realistic problem. Aihong Fan describes the creation of a bilingual library information environment for foreign users and introduces the practical exploration of Tsinghua University Library and also gives some suggestions for the future. Currently, Information Commons is a hot topic. Many papers at the conference focused on this subject and proposed valuable research avenues. The paper by Ren Shuhuai (Shanghai University Library) and his colleagues together with Lin Haiqing (University of Auckland Library, New Zealand) assimilates the theories of knowledge management, collaboration and Library 2.0, intended to integrate the digital library, physical resources, virtual resources and human resources into one whole entity. Xiaobin Lu and Jing Guo put forward a completely new mode called “Innovation Community” especially suitable for academic libraries. They present an IC2 practice case, aiming at supporting the cultivation of innovation ability, encouraging user participation, joint construction, interaction and communication. On the other hand, Wei Pan and Xiaoyuan Lan propose the virtual communities platform which gives subject users a more convenient and more attractive environment to preserve their research results and share their experiences based on the next-generation discovery and delivery system (Primo) and the subject service virtual communities at SJTUL. The paper by Yang Xinya and his co-workers puts forward the five-tier model of service oriented architecture (SOA). According to the architecture, three application systems are designed – LMS based on librarians, knowledge service system based on patrons, and a knowledge search engine. The Library 2.0 system is constructed and applied in Chongqing University library. The paper by Zheng Qiaoying and Wang Shaoping proposes the programming idea and performance of Library 2.0 and provides some of the major practices in SJTUL to illustrate Library 2.0 programming. In the digital age, how can we make libraries adjust their traditional roles? Library user surveys were conducted and are discussed in the article by Suqing Liu, Sansan Liao and Jing Guo. Through exploring the changing user needs and expectations, and utilizing the library’s distinctive advantages, then library resources can be much better used and library users can be better served. Another useful survey is conducted by Leye Yao and Ping Zhao. Their paper provides an overview of Chinese Digital Library (DL) projects as revealed by various library web sites and it also illustrates the current status of the DLs in China by offering insights into the digitization of resources, technologies and services. Tackling a different subject, Hsien Tang Lin’s co-authored paper provides details of a guiding system to enhance user experiences in museums and art galleries by means of RFID and Blogs. The system also builds a channel between creators of art works on display and other visitors. With such functionalities, users have the opportunity to acquire information, using a mobile device, about a specific object in a context-aware manner. Irene Wong and Yiu-On Li discuss the creation of a unique platform which is a free and valuable reference tool for scholars and researchers around the world to electronically cross-search the theses and dissertations of Hong Kong postgraduate students. It also provides insights into how librarians can maximize the functionalities of library integration systems to enhance cross-searching on OPACs. Such theses
contain a wealth of research and Yajie Zhao explores the way in which the e-research is changing the nature between researchers and libraries, and suggests how librarians can become more engaged with professional research under the e-research environment. The papers in this special issue provide a useful look at the increasing activity of the academic community and the ubiquitous digital library. Although most of the papers are from China, we nevertheless believe that all the innovative research and practices detailed in the papers will be an enlightening experience for TEL readers throughout the world. These papers were a source of interest in the 2009 Digital Library Conference and we trust that readers of this special issue will embrace the ideas contained within and help to replicate and spread them even further. Jin Chen and Jing Guo Guest Editors
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0264-0473.htm
The unique approach to institutional repository Practice of National Taiwan University
Kuang-hua Chen National Taiwan University Library, Taipei, Taiwan, and Department of Library and Information Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Received 1 October 2008 Revised 20 November 2008 Accepted 30 November 2008
Jieh Hsiang National Taiwan University Library and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the practical and unique approach to construct an institutional repository (IR) at the National Taiwan University (NTU). Design/methodology/approach – In general, IR systems are used to preserve the research outputs of academic organizations. The preserved contents as a whole will demonstrate the achievements and influences of organizations. The NTU Repository (NTUR) project is the action which is the response of NTU Library to the converging and emerging issues. The system design of NTUR is based on a well-known open-source package, DSpace, but many of its functional modules are modified to fulfill the requirements of Chinese users. The content acquisition of NTUR is carried out by a machine-aided manual approach, which quickly accumulates the volume of registered digital objects in NTUR. Findings – With comparison to other IR systems, it is found that a content-rich system with the much friendlier user interface like NTUR could be constructed in an effective way. The post-processing for search results – which is very unique feature of NTUR – could be also implemented effectively. Practical implications – Many investigations point out that an open-access IR system can decrease the cost in dissemination of scholarly information and increase the impacts of research outputs. Originality/value – The practical approach to the construction of an institutional repository at NTU has been proposed. The approach can make NTUR quickly acquire a large volume of digital objects. This makes NTUR a much more content-rich repository with comparison to other similar IR systems. Keywords Generation and dissemination of Information, Digital storage, Academic libraries, Open systems, Taiwan Paper type Research paper
The Electronic Library Vol. 27 No. 2, 2009 pp. 204-221 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0264-0473 DOI 10.1108/02640470910947566
The authors thank the members of the NTUR developing team at National Taiwan University Library. They are: Su Chuan Chang; Mei-lin Kuo; Se-liang Wu; Zhe-an Wu; Yu-ting Chiang; Ting-fai Ho; Cipher Kao; Chiu-chu Liu; Hsiao-ying Hung; Hou Ieong Ho; Shih-Li Chen; Feng-i Lin; Ya-tzu Liu; Hsin-Yi Yeh; Yi-chun Liu; Bai-hsuan Lee; Ren-shiang Liu; Yun-jung Young; Tsan-jiun Ho; Ya-fang Weng; Wen-chi Huang; Ying-fang Huang; Ying-lin Liu; Yu-Chieh, Lin; Feng-ju Chen; Ching-hua Liao; Li-yun Chiang; and Yi-ling Tu.<br>This work is partly supported by Ministry of Education, Taiwan under the grant numbers 95M1087, 96M1101, and 97M1069. This work is also partly supported by Excellent Research Projects of National Taiwan University.
Introduction Nowadays, it is mainstream to present various digital documents, videos, audios, and multimedia via WWW browsers, since the browser is regarded as the de facto common platform for Internet applications. In addition, the line between users and authors of Web resources has been blurred and the roles of publishers have become less important than ever before. The quick development of WWW is a challenge and also an opportunity to universities or research institutes, which may create alternative ways to publish, disseminate, and acquire scholarly information without the intervention of publishers and aggregators. As a result, the cost derived from publication and acquisition of scholarly information will be reduced and the time of dissemination of scholarly information will be decreased as well. The purpose of dissemination of information is to make information usable or citable. Citation has been regarded as a good way to clarify the roles and positions of researchers in the whole research structure. Although the reasons to cite other papers are multiple, it is well recognized that at least some connections exist among cited papers and citing papers. Bibliographic couplings and co-citations are two obvious examples. Citation also demonstrates a very special function, i.e. the influence or impact of papers, researchers, and research institutes. Academic evaluation has become an important topic, especially, the evaluation for universities or research institutes. Citation, therefore, has been used as a way to evaluate academic performance. To increase citation times of research outputs will be a plus for academic evaluation in research institutes. And an Institutional repository (IR) seems to be one of the solutions to increase the citation times. Although many definitions for IRs could be found in literature, the idea of an IR is very simple. It is to deposit every part of researches from the very beginning to the final publication for universities or research institutes. With the observation to publishing research results in recent years, many researchers prepare their papers or articles using word processors and submit them in digital form rather than printed form. As a result, the volume of “born-in-digital” documents increases very quickly. However, Lynch (2003) pointed out that we still have no good ways to preserve these research results in their digital form. The idea of the IR may be a good turning point to rethink the model, mechanism, and means for the preservation and dissemination of scholarly information. From the viewpoint of universities or research institutes, to encourage faculty to publish research outputs and to make dissemination of papers effective are the better means to increase the citation times of published papers and then to increase universities influences. IR systems as academic portals of universities or research institutes, the preserved scholarly information as a whole will demonstrate the achievements and influences, and make accessing scholarly information much more convenient. Deploying an IR system seems be the best way to share research results with other universities and institutes in the world. The National Taiwan University (NTU), one of the important universities in Taiwan, has been making many significant achievements in researches and has been publishing a great deal of research results. It is necessary for NTU to fulfill a good model to preserve and disseminate NTU’s research outputs. NTU has initiated a task force for a National Taiwan University Repository (NTUR) project and has established an operational IR system which is also called NTUR. In the meantime, the NTUR system contains 56,769 items of various types of scholarly information including
The approach to institutional repository 205
journal articles, conference papers, lecture notes, technique reports, etc. Among these 56,769 items, 29,329 items are bundled with full texts. The purposes of this article are to discuss the necessity of constructing IR systems from the viewpoint of dissemination and citation of scholarly information and propose practical and unique approaches to constructing IR at National Taiwan University. The approaches enable us to effectively construct IR systems and quickly acquire a large volume of digital items. The structure of this article is as follows. Section 2 will discuss the advantages of online papers in terms of dissemination and citation. Section 3 will briefly review the current status and development of institutional repository. Section 4 will present our approaches to building and deploying NTUR, discuss major modifications to original design of DSpace package, describe the ways we applied to acquiring knowledgeable items, and explain the copyright issue in IR. Section 5 is a brief conclusion. Dissemination of scholarly information Since Denis de Sallo published the first issue of the Journal des sc¸avans in 1665, research output has been disseminated through journals for hundreds of years (Hallam, 1970, p. 406). This seems to be a default model for dissemination of scholarly information. According to the statistics of ISSN International Centre (2007), there are about 905,090 registered periodicals. This statistic reveals that a great number of journals were created to disseminate scholarly information based on the traditional model. Although the types of publishers and the types of publications have been changed along with the passing of time, this model has basically not changed too much. However, there are at least three problems in the default model from the viewpoint of universities or research institutes. The first is that it is hard for a university to know its own research results when taking a university as a whole; the second is that it is difficult for a university to trace research results from the temporal perspective; the third is the continuing increases in the cost of acquisition of journals. In addition, this model is not efficient and effective from the viewpoints of dissemination and citation of scholarly information. In general, a scholarly information cycle for current processing of scholarly information consists of creation, evaluation, publication, acquisition, indexing, storing, retrieval, reading, and citation (Cleveland and Cleveland, 2001, p. 23). We could examine the relations of each stage of information processing. Basically, from creation, evaluation to publication takes a long time and suffers from a high cost when we apply traditional model. Therefore, some reformations are adopted to speed up the processing of publications of scholarly information. The introduction of electronic journals (e-journals) is one such effort. At the present time, the number of e-journals continues to increase according to the report of Glose et al. (2005). The increasing rate is about 25 percent in two years (see Figure 1 for details). That means most researchers believe e-journals will help the dissemination of scholarly information, otherwise the number of e-journals would not increase so rapidly. Many contributors are involved in the scholarly information cycle including researchers, publishers, librarians, and information systems. The roles of researchers are multiple. They could be creators, reviewers, and readers. Therefore, citation behavior occurs naturally between the creators and readers who become creators themselves later on. Citation is regarded as the base of research development, since
The approach to institutional repository 207
Figure 1. The growth of online electronic journal
almost all researches are based on the preceding researches. Researchers usually “cite” the ideas and papers of pioneers. A citation includes two objects: one is the citing work; the other is the cited work. Although there are many reasons for a citation (Weinstock, 1971), the cited work has something to do with the source work. In addition, citation has been regarded as one of the important factors for evaluation of research institutes, universities, and researchers. That is to say, the publication and dissemination of scholarly information are not only for research purposes, but also for an increase of influence of research institutes and researchers. Let us take a look at the statistics of publication and citation of papers written by researchers in Taiwan as shown in Table I. National Taiwan University is the top
Table I. Statistics of top universities in Taiwan from 1996 to 2006
Table II. IR systems in Asian countries
Country China Japan India Taiwan Hong Kong Israel Malaysia Australia Russia Pakistan Philippines Singapore Indonesia Korea New Zealand Turkey
No. of IR systems 10 57 34 10 3 1 6 37 20 1 1 3 2 3 13 6
Note: The numbers in parentheses are collected via personal communication with researchers in the corresponding countries Source: Author-collected data from Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR)
university in terms of both published papers and cited papers. However, it only ranks 83 in the world in terms of number of papers and ranks 231 in terms of cited times of papers, respectively. The reasons might be many-fold. Two of the reasons may be these papers are not broadly disseminated and not easily accessed. Actually, on the one hand, research outputs in Taiwan are scattered in many different information systems without some kinds of integrated information systems to present a whole picture of research achievements and to feature searching and browsing functions to potential users. In addition, many operational information services provide only metadata and abstracts rather than full texts. On the other hand, there is no systematic way to deposit important digital materials such as conference papers and technical reports, which are very important for a few disciplines like computer science. As a result, for research institutes or universities in Taiwan or other Asian countries, whose academic impacts are relatively lower with comparison to American and European research institutes, to make their research results freely available to public in form of full texts via Internet should be a very good strategy to increase their academic influences and earn their reputations. As mentioned above, the e-journals will speed up the processing of scholarly information. However, the cost of acquisition of e-journals is not actually reduced, because many publishers bundle e-journals and printed journals together. This creates an obstacle in some sense for the general public to access scholarly information. In recent years, two concepts, open access (OA) and Institutional Repositories (IR), have had a great influence on dissemination of scholarly information. OA is the answer to the third problem mentioned in the very beginning of this section. In contrast, IR is the answer to the first and the second problems. In general, OA and IR are almost mentioned together, but not necessary. OA depicts a model for scholarly information, i.e. a model of freely online scholarly information available to general public. The major
goal of an IR, in contrast, is to demonstrate the research results of university or research institute as a whole and the information system of IR is regarded as an academic portal for university or research institute. One research conducted by Lawrence (2001) pointed out the cited times of online papers of computer science is 157 percent larger than those of offline papers. Another research said freely available online papers will increase their cited times from 50 percent to 250 percent (Hajjem et al., 2005). If we further consider the cost of dissemination for scholarly information, the traditional model is even less efficient and less effective. Ginsparg (2001) reported ArXiv (http://arxiv.org) as a dissemination system; it operates at a factor of 100-1000 lower cost than a conventional peer-reviewed system. Of course, ArXiv is an open-access item repository. Bergstrom (2001) has reported that the journals purchased by using 91 percent of budget only created 38 percent citations, but freely available online scholarly information and other resources purchased by using the rest 9 percent of budget created 62 percent citations. These statistics shows the following insights: . open access greatly decreases the cost in dissemination of scholarly information; and . online papers greatly increase their cited times. . Freely available online papers contribute major part of citations These insights together make clear the importance of open-access institutional repositories for universities and research institutes. To sum up, open-access institutional repositories can disseminate scholarly information of universities and research institutes in an efficient and effective way. They will also reinforce influence and magnify reputation of universities or research institutes. In addition, the published papers are not only the outputs of researches, but also parts of a continuum of scholarly communication. The continuum is composed of outputs of all activities in researches. IR systems could be the appropriate information systems to preserve all of the outputs and then record the research history accordingly. Current development of institutional repositories The Institutional repository has been recognized as an information infrastructure for scholarly information from the viewpoint of research institutes. Many universities and research institutes all over the world have started building their own IR systems. Currently, though, only a small number of countries have official policies to support IR development at the government level. However, the support is very active at the university level. The following briefly discusses the current development of IR. Europe and America In the USA, over 40 percent of universities have put their own institutional repository systems into operation. 88 percent of the remaining universities are thinking about the construction of IR systems (Lynch and Lippincott, 2005). That is to say, over 90 percent of USA's universities have taken or are taking serious steps to construct their own institutional repository. Van Westrienen and Lynch (2005) have surveyed the institutional repository in Europe and the USA. The results showed that almost every university in Germany, Netherlands, and Norway has exploited IR systems. Furthermore, some universities built more than one IR systems for different
The approach to institutional repository 209
purposes. These statistics show the importance of IR has been fully recognized by the advanced academic or educational organizations in the developed countries. Although only a few countries have drawn up government-level policies, the promotion of IR, the construction of IR systems and the application of using IR systems as platforms for preservation and dissemination of scholar information have become a global trend.
Asian countries Table II shows the current status of construction of IR systems in Asian countries. It shows that the numbers of IR systems in Japan, India, Australia, Korea, Russia, and Taiwan are more than in other Asian countries. The percentage of construction of IR Systems in Asian countries is about 4-10 percent except mainland China. The percentage in Hong Kong is higher than other countries, since the number of universities in Hong Kong is relatively much smaller. It should be noted that the statistics may vary in different investigations executed by different researchers. For example, some investigations identified only two IR systems in mainland China (Oliver and Swain, 2007). CNKI (www.cnki.net) in China is a special case among these IR systems. CNKI is a centralized IR system for about 300 universities in China and the number of universities is increasing. As a result, the specialty of each university could not be known by simply using CNKI. However, taking the CNKI as the presentation of integrated research outputs of China is very useful and helpful from a user’s perspective. Although Table II shows the numbers of IR systems in Japan and Korea are 57 and 3, respectively, those numbers increase very quickly according to the reports of DRFIC2008 conference held in Osaka, Japan. Most universities in Korea develop their IR systems using a product of joint efforts, dCollection. As a result, the number of IR
Figure 2. The growth of IRs in Japan
systems has increased rapidly to 215 (Lee, 2008). However, the major contents are dissertations or theses, which are imported from existent digital libraries systems. The same situation occurs in Japan, too. Figure 2 shows the growth of number of IR systems in Japan. The National Institute of Informatics is responsible for the development of IR in Japan, which reviews applications of IR projects, allocates budgets, monitors performance, etc.
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Taiwan In comparison to USA and European countries, the promotion and construction of IR in Taiwan started relatively late. In the early stage, only seven universities started to implement their IR systems. After NTU applied an IR project granted by the Ministry of Education, it organized an IR30 task force which plans to install IR systems in 30 universities in one year. At present, 37 universities or institutes have joined IR30 task force (complete list of participating universities available at: http://ir.org.tw/). Table III shows a few universities which have installed their own IR systems. They are National Taiwan University (NTU), National Chiao Tung University (NCTU), National Cheng Kung University (NCKU), Feng Chia University (FCU), National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), Kun Shan University (KSU), National Chengchi University (NCCU), and National Sun Yat-Sen University (NSYSU). Among these universities, NCCU, NCTU, NCKU, NSYSU, and KSU adopted NTUR which is enhanced by NTU based on DSpace package. In contrast, FCU and NTHU have used DSpace system directly. However, NTHU will also use NTUR in the near future. NTU had decided to use DSpace beta version 1.4 implemented by HP and MIT as the base to develop NTUR with modification and enhancement. DSpace has been used by many universities, proving that it meets the common needs of many universities. However, users in Taiwan have their own special requirements and these features are not provided by the DSpace package. The NTUR system was launched in early 2007 and was presented to many presidents of universities in Taiwan for the purpose of IR promotion. NTU also provided system documents such as Standard of Procedure, Reference of System Specification, User Manual, System Manual, Training Courses, FAQ, etc. All of these are for one main goal, namely to persuade universities in Taiwan to construct their own IR systems and to pave a smooth way for them with the precious NTU's experience. University
Note: The numbers are subject to change Source: Author-collected data from Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR)
Table III. IR development in Taiwan
Institutional repository at NTU There exist several solutions for the construction of IR systems. We could purchase turnkey solutions, develop totally new systems, use open-source packages, or design IR systems by modifying open-source packages. Nevertheless, once it was decided to construct an IR system, we have to analyze the requirements and features, consider the available resources, and adopt the best solutions. With the observation on the current development of IR in the world, the three major solutions to constructing IR systems are shown as follows: (1) Purchase commercial software or services: For example, Columbia University purchases the services provided by ProQuest, i.e. the Digital Commons. However, Columbia University has decided to use DSpace in the near future. (2) Use open-source package: For example, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor uses DSpace. University of Southampton uses EPrints. (3) Modify open-source package: For example, NTU modifies DSpace based on the local requirements. Each solution has its own right way which research institutes will take. Research institutes intending to exploit IR systems have to consider the costs of each potential solution including short-term cost and long-term cost. The NTUR developing team has carefully surveyed each solution and considered resources available. Finally, the third solution is adopted and DSpace is used as the base for NTUR. Among many available open-source packages, the reasons we use DSpace are shown as follows: . DSpace is implemented using Java. This meets the policy of NTU Library for system development. . DSpace is platform independent. It could be installed on Windows-based systems or Linux-based systems. A lot of Java APIs are available. This makes us much easier to modify original DSpace package. . DSpace has been adopted by more than 300 institutions (DSpace, 2008). From the operational viewpoint, it has been proved its stability and effectiveness for the large volume of data with variant types. . DSpace supports OAI-PMH. It is convenient to fulfill integrated search or federated search later on. . DSpace integrates handle mechanism. The digital object registered in IR systems has a unique URN. As a result, researchers could cite registered object in IR systems. . DSpace has complete frontend and backend. The time to develop a system based on DSpace will be shortened. As a matter of fact, DSpace has been continuingly developed by HP and new versions of DSpace will be released ceaselessly. However, the NTUR developing team has decided to use DSpace 1.4 beta version as the base system and will not follow the new version of DSpace. That means NTUR developing team will develop the new features based on DSpace 1.4 beta version and local requirements. The NTUR system has the similar system architecture as DSpace 1.4 beta version shown as Figure 3. It is composed of storage layer, business logic layer, and application layer. Each layer consists of many functional modules. Those modules with thick line
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Figure 3. System architecture of NTUR
are modified by the NTUR developing team and the rest modules with thin line are remained unchanged as original DSpace’s design. In general, storage layer is responsible for management of the registered items and submission of items; business logic layer is responsible for administration, authorization and workflow of submission; application layer is responsible for interaction between outer systems and users. The following will discuss the major modifications to DSpace. Items acquisition and copyright issue are discussed as well. All of these demonstrate the unique way in which we have applied to constructing NTUR. Web UI In order to improve the degree of user friendliness, the NTUR developing team has been adding new features for our potential users based on local requirements, e.g. the post-processing for search results, the ranking for uploads and downloads, the multi-language interface, and the identification of document formats. The NTUR developing team will continue modifying the web-based user interface and hopes users could use NTUR with ease and by instinct. The homepage of NTUR system is shown as Figure 4. The top right corner shows the links for switching among different language interfaces and numbers of “items with full text/total items”, number of “visitors”, and number of “online users”. Users could switch to one of multi-language interfaces on the fly while browsing items or searching items. The message of numbers of “items with full text/total items” clearly
Figure 4. Homepage of NTUR
declares the current items registered in NTUR. To our knowledge, NTUR is one of the larger IR systems which stores items with full texts in comparison to other IR systems in the world. The right-hand side of NTUR’s homepage shows information about the top upload and top download of communities and authors. This information will help users have an overview of usage of NTUR’s contents. The center of NTUR’s homepage shows the list of colleges with the number of their own items. In fact, the community settings in NTUR system are departments rather than colleges. Displaying colleges instead is to avoid a long list of communities in homepage. Users could drill down from each college to see the details of communities by clicking on the “ þ ” symbol on the left of each college. The left-hand side of NTUR’s homepage shows the feature of browsing “Communities & Collections”, “Titles”, “Authors”, and “By Date” and information about “News and Activities”. Clicking on the “Communities & Collections” will pop up the details of communities and the corresponding collections as Figure 5 shows. When clicking on the “By Date”, we will have a temporal perspective on the registered items in NTUR. Examining these intelligent items along the time line, we will have the idea about which and when research issues or topics have been the hot ones. Reviewing items by this mode will help users, especially, scientific historians interested in NTU, to trace the development of researches in NTU. Another little but not the least modification to the user interface is that NTUR promptly shows icons of registered items with the corresponding file format. For example, Figure 6 shows PDF-format items with the designated PDF icon. Users will know immediately the formats of retrieved items and can access items directly by
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Figure 5. Snapshot of clicking on “Communities & Collections”
Figure 6. Snapshot of a search result
clicking on the icon without many clicks. The corresponding PDF document will be displayed accordingly. Media filter A media filter is responsible for filtering out the contents of registered items. The major modification for this part is to enhance the features of parser. An institutional repository contains large volume of items with various formats. The majority of items are in PDF format compared to other file formats. Therefore, it is very important to process PDF files correctly. An open source Java PDF library, PDFBox, is bundled with DSpace package. However, the functions of PDFBox are not good enough, especially for Chinese. Therefore, while users search items or browse items, the contents may be scrambled. This makes users confused and inconvenient. Generally speaking, PDF files are created by using many different ways. For example, a PDF file could be created from an MS Word file, Postscript file, Tex file, or the like. In addition, there are too many solutions to created Chinese PDF files in the early days. This delivers a challenge to process Chinese PDF files for an operational IR system. In fact, the correction rate of PDFBox is about 0.3 for Chinese. Therefore, the modification to media filter is a very important task. Search features In order to make users of NTUR have a much more structured view to the retrieved results rather than just a list of items, the NTUR developing team has been focusing on the post-processing features. Figure 6 shows a snapshot for search results. The search results are post-processed based on “Category”, “Author”, and “Year” as shown in the left-hand side of the snapshot. Category demonstrates the classifications of search results based on communities and collections. Users could know the distribution of the search results and have an idea about which departments have carried out the similar researches. While clicking on “Author” as shown in Figure 7, users will have a view of which researchers focus on the related research topics. The feature is very helpful for decision makers of institutions to find the experts in their institutions. While clicking on “Year”, users will have a view of the temporal distribution of search results. It is useful for users to trace the development and to know the peak of related research from the temporal viewpoint. As a matter of fact, it takes time to post-process the retrieved items. In order to make users not wait too long, the NTUR developing team applies Ajax to make post-processing efficient and to makes users enjoy new features at the same time. Browsing features The browsing feature designed by DSpace is to search designated items among all items and to show them in the current “page”. In order to make this feature much more efficient, DSpace applied sliding-window-like method which works like to drag the user’s view to a particular section of data items. Therefore, there is no actual paging for browsing items in the original design of DSpace. However, users are used to the paging mode while they use the search engines or other search features of database systems. The NTUR developing team has modified the browsing features by adding a clear paging mode and the option of number of items per page. Please take a look at the thick rectangle in Figure 6.
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Figure 7. Result of clicking on Author
We would also like to make users to easily examine the full texts by just one click rather than many clicks. That is to say, the retrieved items are not only paged, but also associated with designated icons to denote their file formats of full texts. In contrast, those items without associated icons have metadata only. Database The NTUR developing team will release the package of NTUR system to help other research institutes in Taiwan to deploy their own IR systems according to the project granted by Ministry of Education, Taiwan. We have to consider the different situations of various research institutes. For example, NTUR could be installed in Linux systems, Solaris systems or Windows systems; the database management system could be the open-source softwares; NTUR could be also compatible to the commercial database management systems. In fact, PostgreSQL is bundled in DSpace package, but most users and database administrators in Taiwan are not familiar with it. On the contrary, MySQL is much more popular. As a result, we decided to replace PostgreSQL by MySQL in NTUR. However, in order to make the NTUR effective when the volume of data becomes larger and larger, the ORACLE database management system could be used as well. The database schema of the original DSpace package is very simple. Only four relations are designed by DSpace developing team: (1) basic elements table; (2) basic element relationships table; (3) object browsing table; and (4) other elements table.
In order to support many new added features for local requirements, the NTUR developing team designs new tables, e.g. authority control table, term mapping table, author-document table. In addition, new attributes are proposed for the existent tables, e.g. attributes for users and communities, attributes for file linking, attributes for access control, and attributes for other languages.
Content acquisition In fact, the content acquisition plays the same important role as functionality implementation in a successful IR system. Sometimes, the former is even more important than the latter. After all, a powerful information system without useful and meaningful information is not helpful. For an IR system, the content is obviously crucial for its potential users. However, content acquisition is the most challenging task in constructing IR systems. On the one hand, it is very difficult for staffs of IR systems to ask faculty or researchers to submit or upload their research outputs to IR systems. On the other hand, it is also very difficult to demonstrate its usefulness and influence, if an IR system contains only a few items of knowledge. The best strategy is to present an IR system with enough valuable items at its debut. The IR system with enough valuable items itself is the best way to attract the potential contributors and of course the users. The content acquisition of NTUR in NTU is carried out by a machine-aided manual approach, which could quickly accumulate the volume of registered digital objects in NTUR. The NTUR developing team implemented search robot tools which could collect digital items with desired file formats. The robots are triggered to collect research papers, articles, technical reports, course slides, preprints and the likes from the intranet of the NTU. In addition, we have made contact with the database providers who had preserved and provided the published papers, whose authors are our faculty and researchers, and discussed the way to get the copies back to our IR system. As a result, NTUR made its debut with more than ten thousand items in early 2007. As a follow-up, the NTUR developing team designed promotion brochures, hosted orientations for potential users, cooperated with interested researchers and departments, and persuaded authorities to draw up regulations for IR for long-term development. Copyrights The copyright problem is another important issue for a successful IR system. The faculty or researchers hesitated to submit their research outputs to IR systems, since they usually transferred the copyrights of their publications to publishers. Actually, SHERPA/ROMEO project has surveyed this issue and designed a color system to denote the status of publishers (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo.php). The NTUR developing team has considered this issue and further analyzed it from technical and legal viewpoints. We advocate the “Separation of Copyrights”, i.e. copyrights could be separated into three different concepts. The first is self-archiving right, the second is full-text indexing right, and the third is access right (Hsiang and Hung, 2005). After the authors transferred the copyrights to publishers, authors will still reserve some rights according to the agreement between them. If authors have the self-archiving right, they and the institutes they belong to have the right to preserve the published papers in electronic form. If authors have no self-archiving right, authors and the institutes they belong to still have the full-text indexing right at least. This is because a textual item could be regarded as “a bag of words”. Indexing is a processing which just points out
which words the textual item contains, which has nothing to do with the self-archiving right or access right. As a result, an IR system with full-text indexing allows users to search the needed items and the system will redirect users to the information systems which has the right to preserve these items. However, this does not mean the users could read the full texts of these items. Whether the users could read full texts or not depends on the access right which they may have or not. According to the “Separation of Copyrights”, the NTUR developing team has carefully developed various features of NTUR system, which conforms to the copyright policies of different publishers and may directly show the full texts to users or may redirect users to the information systems of designated publishers. Nevertheless, our IR system features the full-text search capabilities to users, provides metadata for every registered item with informative links, and, if possible, shows the full texts to users. Although, NTUR works stably and features useful functions, there are still many problems and challenges. We continue to think about the following issues: the modification of system architecture, the management of system resources, the effectiveness of information retrieval, the challenge of item acquisition, the mode of item visualization, and the authorization of data items. Conclusions Institutional repositories have received much more attention from researchers and research institutes globally. IR systems can preserve research outputs, demonstrate research results, and reinforce academic influences. In addition, connection among various IR systems in the world under a virtual umbrella will create global platform for open access, reduce the costs in access of research resources, and speed up the dissemination of scholarly information. Many investigations have concluded that freely available online papers to the public will increase their citation times. The advantages of constructing IR systems are very obvious to all of us. National Taiwan University has fully recognized the aforementioned advantages and built up the NTUR to serve our faculty and potential users from all over the world. Currently, the number of registered items in NTUR is 56,769. Among these registered items, 29,329 items are with full texts. It is one of the bigger IR systems in the world. In addition to enhance the features of NTUR, the NTUR developing team has been focusing on item acquisition and developing the best practice for this challenging task. Hopefully, the experience of developing and constructing NTUR will be the good reference to other academic institutes in Taiwan and in the world. In order to demonstrate the research outputs of Taiwan as a whole, we plan to build and deploy a virtually integrated IR system to serve as an academic portal for Taiwan in the near future. Via this gateway, the general public and researchers all over the world could easily access the research outputs of our country. Therefore, researchers in Taiwan may make great contributions to research communities and increase their influences on academic researches. References Bergstrom, T.C. (2001), “Free labor for costly journals?”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 15 No. 4, available at: www.econ.ucsb.edu/ , tedb/Journals/jeprevised.pdf Cleveland, D.B. and Cleveland, A.D. (2001), Introduction to Indexing and Abstracting, Libraries Unlimited, Englewood, CO.
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DSpace (2008), Who’s Using DSpace? available at: http://wiki.dspace.org/index.php// DspaceInstances Ginsparg, P. (2001), “Creating a global knowledge network”, Proceedings of the second ICSU Press-UNESCO Conference on Electronic Publishing in Science, available at: www.icsu.org/ 5_abouticsu/CDSI_web/EPS2/ginspargfin.htm Hajjem, C., Gingras, Y., Brody, T., Carr, L. and Harnad, S. (2005), Open Access to Research Increases Citation Impact, Technical Report, Institut des sciences cognitives, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Montre´al, available at: http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11687/ Hallam, H. (1970), Introduction to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries, Frederick Ungar, New York, NY. Hsiang, J. and Hung, H.-Y. (2005), “On developing digital repositories in Taiwan”, Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, Vol. 43 No. 2, pp. 173-89. Huang, M.H. (2007), “Taiwan: towards the challenge of the top universities in the world”, Evaluation Bimonthly, Vol. 5, pp. 16-21. ISSN International Centre (2007), ISSN Statistics: Number of Records per Type, available at: www.issn.org/files/issn/statistiques/number_of_records_pertype.pdf Lawrence, S. (2001), “Free online availability substantially increases a paper’s impact”, Nature, No. 411. Lee, N. (2008), Institutional Repositories in Korea, available at: http://ir.library.osaka-u.ac.jp/ metadb/up/DRFIC2008/NaneeLEE.pdf Lynch, C.A. (2003), “Institutional repositories: essential infrastructure for scholarship in the digital Age”, ARL, No. 226, pp. 1-7, available at: www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br226/ br226ir.shtml Lynch, C.A. and Lippincott, J.K. (2005), “Institutional repository deployment in the United States as of early 2005”, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 11 No. 9, available at: www.dlib.org/dlib/ september05/lynch/09lynch.html Oliver, K.B. and Swain, R. (2007), “Directories of institutional repositories: research results & recommendations”, Proceedings of World Library and Information Congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council, available at: www.ifla.org/IV/ifla72/papers/ 151-Oliver_Swain-en.pdf Van Westrienen, G.V. and Lynch, C.A. (2005), “Academic institutional repositories: deployment status in 13 nations as of mid 2005”, D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 2005 No. 11, p. 9. Weinstock, M. (1971), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Vol. 5, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp. 16-40.
Further reading Adachi, J. (2008), NII's Initiative for Institutional Repository over CSI: Retrospect of 2006-2007 and Prospect of Phase II, available at: http://ir.library.osaka-u.ac.jp/metadb/up/ DRFIC2008/Adachi.pdf Ghosh, S.B. and Das, A.K. (2006), “Open access and institutional repositories – a developing country perspective: a case study of India”, Proceedings of World Library and Information Congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council, available at: www.ifla.org/IV/ ifla72/papers/157-Ghosh_Das-en.pdf Glose, M.B., Fletcher, L.E. and Bromberg, S.D. (2005), Fulltext Sources Online, Information Today, Medford, NJ.