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EMERGING LIBRARY TECHNOLOGIES It’s Not Just for Geeks
IDA ARLENE JOINER Librarian Universal Academy Irving, TX, United States
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CONTENTS Acknowledgments Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks
1. Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby Introduction What is Intelligence? What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Market for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Areas Within Artificial Intelligence (AI) Deep Learning Machine Learning Machine Translation Technology (MTT) Artificial Emotional Intelligence or Emotion AI Speech Recognition Technology Industries Impacted by Artificial Intelligence (AI) Challenges and Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Challenges for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Opportunities for Artificial Intelligence (AI) Applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) AI in Medicine AI in Music AI in Libraries The Role of Libraries Internships/Mentorships Job Retraining Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
2. Robotics: Robots to the Rescue Introduction What is a Robot? What is Robotics?
A Brief History of Robotics Market for Robotics Challenges and Opportunities for Robotics Challenges for Robotics Opportunities for Robotics Applications of Robots in Various Industries Robots in Healthcare Robots in Education Robots in Libraries Chicago Public Library Westport Connecticut Library Peters Township Public Library Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh Seattle Public Library Wilson (CT) Public Library University of Texas at Arlington Library University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) FabLab The University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) Library Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
Is It a Bird, Is It a Plane: It’s a Drone Flying Your Way
Introduction What is a Drone? A Brief History of Drones Types of Drones Single Rotor Drones Multirotor Drones Tricopters (Three Rotors or Propellers) Quadcopters (Four Rotors or Propellers) Hexacopter (Six Rotors or Propellers) Octocopters (Eight Rotors or Propellers) Fixed Wing Drones Features in Common Challenges and Opportunities for Drones Challenges for Drones Opportunities for Drones Applications of Drones Drones in Entertainment Drones in Agriculture
Drones in Law Enforcement Drones in Real Estate Drones in Photography Drones in Deliveries Drones in Engineering Drones in Monitoring and Protection Drones in Education Drones in Libraries Mandel Public Library in West Palm Beach Florida Arapahoe Colorado Libraries Joint Library of Broward College & Florida Atlantic University Georgia Highlands College Library University of South Florida Library Colgate University Library Ohio Wesleyan University Idaho Schools and Libraries Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
4. Driverless Vehicles: Pick Me Up at the. . .? Introduction What is a Driverless Car? A Brief History of Driverless Vehicles Self-Driving Car Market The Self-Driving Car Major Players Waymo (Self-Driving Unit of Google Parent Alphabet) Uber Tesla Daimler-Mercedes Benz Porsche/Huawei Volkswagon Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) Volvo Audi BMW Ford General Motors (GM) Apple Nvidia Baidu
Industries Impacted by Driverless Cars Challenges and Opportunities for Driverless Vehicles Challenges for Driverless Vehicles Opportunities for Driverless Vehicles Role of Libraries Internships/Mentorships Job Retraining Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
5. Information Seeking With Big Data: Not Just the Facts Introduction What is Big Data? How Big is Big Data? History of Big Data Applications of Big Data Challenges and Opportunities for Big Data Challenges for Big Data Opportunities for Big Data Industries Impacted by Big Data Big Data Implications for Libraries Big Data Library Examples University of California Berkeley Libraries New York University Elmer Holmes Bobst Library Harvard University Library Analytics Toolkit Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries University of Michigan Library Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
6. Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality: What Is Your Reality? Introduction What are Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality?
What is Augmented Reality (AR)? Brief History of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Brief History of Augmented Reality Market for Virtual Reality (VR)/Augmented Reality (AR) Major Players for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Challenges and Opportunities for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Challenges for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Opportunities for Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Applications of Virtual and Augmented Reality Applications of Virtual Reality in Libraries Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
7. If You Print It, They Will Come: 3D Printing in Your Library Introduction What is 3D Printing? How Does 3D Printing Work? A Brief History of 3D Printing 3D Printing Market Types of 3D Printers The Most Popular Type of 3D Consumer Printer Challenges and Opportunities for 3D Printing Challenges for 3D Printing Opportunities for 3D Printing Applications of 3D Printing Medicine/Healthcare Retail Aerospace Architecture Education Manufacturing 3D Printing in Libraries Touro College School of Health Sciences Cline Library MakerLab, Northern Arizona University Photos Stephen F. Austin State University, Ralph W. Steen Library Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation
Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
8. Wearable Technologies From A to Z Introduction What is Wearable Technology? Brief History of Wearable Technologies Market for Wearable Technologies Types of Wearable Technologies Challenges and Opportunities for Wearable Technologies Challenges for Wearable Technologies Opportunities for Wearable Technologies Implications for Wearable Technologies in Libraries Applications of Wearable Technologies Universal Orlando Resort Water Park University of Pittsburgh Innovation Challenge Wearable Health Devices—Clinical and Translational Science Institute University of California San Diego Healthcare Wearable Technology Ryerson University Library & Archives Digital Media Experience Lab Conclusion Questions for Further Discussion Considerations for Implementation Proposal Glossary Suggestions for Further Reading Bibliography
9. How to Get Stakeholder Buy In for Implementing Emerging Technologies in Your Library
Blogs and Publications Podcasts Books Trend Reports Attend Conferences Consortiums and Groups Conclusion
178 179 179 179 180 180 180
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent Almighty GOD! Thank you for creating me . . . your humble servant! I dedicate this book to the memory of my late parents Joseph Jackson Joiner, Sr. and Nan Virginia Williams Joiner, and to my late brother Joseph Jackson “Joey” Joiner, Jr. To my family: Joseph “Beane” Taylor, Joseph Jackson “JJ” Joiner, III (Donniel and angels), Tionna Joiner, Pierce “Petey” Joiner, Mari “Toy” Joiner, Linda Williams, Angela Cleveland, Pam Lewis, the Joiners, Williams, Popes, Mr. Burl J. F. Moone, III (Adopted Dad), Uncle Paul and Aunt Betty Wysong, my beloved dog Figaro, and the rest of my entire family. I LOVE YOU ALL! Dr. Robin Skrine (Ashley, Ashton, and Arden): MY BFF! You always kept me on track and reminded me “You got this girl!” To Mr. Dion “Hood-e Hood”: Thank you for always reminding me that I could “do this!” You have helped me overcome so many obstacles and challenges! Everyone knows how amazing you are! You bless so many people all over the world! When God created you, he smiled and said, “GO FORTH AND BLESS OTHERS AS I AM BLESSING YOU!” A special thank you to Mrs. Diane Harris and Ms. Janice Blackmon (Founders of Universal Academy) and the rest of our Universal Academy family: Dr. Dana Jobe, Mrs. Pamela Ward, Principal Sheraton Duffey, Dr. Tera Jones, Mrs. Linda Stevens, Mrs. Daphne Hood, Mr. Gerald “Big” Peoples, Mr. Roderick “Little” Peoples, Ms. Jessica Lee, Mrs. Watts (you always encouraged me from my first day), Mrs. Angela Johnson, and everyone else at team UA! Many thanks to my Elsevier team: Dr. Glyn Jones (Publisher), Lindsay Lawrence (Project Manager), Debasish Ghosh (Editorial Project Manager), and Ashwathi Aravindakshan (Copyright Coordinator). I would not have been able to do this without your assistance! I wish to acknowledge the following persons for their hard work and support: Dr. Tom Lauwers, CEO of Bird Brain Technologies, who provided comments on the draft Robotics chapter; author Ann Whitney Gleason, who provided moral support, lessons learned, and best practices; Janet Crum, Laurel Scheinfeld, Joan Wagner, Keith Pardini, and Edward xi
Iglesias, who provide content for the 3D printing chapter; Dr. Lori Collins, who provided content for the Drones chapter; Courtney Guhl, and Dr. Alice Scales! I would like to thank all of my pastors over the years who have given me love and encouragement: Rev. Dr. Johnnie Monroe, Rev. Dr. Ronald Peters, Rev. Dr. Randall “Pastor Randy” Bush, Rev. Heather Schoenewolf, Rev. Patrice Fowler-Searcy, and Rev. Kate McGee. To my friends all over the world: I LOVE YOU AND GOD BLESS YOU ALL!
EMERGING LIBRARY TECHNOLOGIES: IT IS NOT JUST FOR GEEKS INTRODUCTION As technology continues to drive nearly every facet of our lives from 3D printing to self-driving vehicles to drones, people are coming to our academic, public, school, and other types of libraries and information centers in record numbers to learn more about these emerging technologies.
WHAT ARE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES? According to BusinessDictionary.com, emerging technologies are technologies that are perceived as capable of changing the status quo. They are new technologies that are currently developing or will be developed over the next 5À10 years, and which will substantially alter the business and social environment.
WHY DID I WRITE THIS BOOK? I have more than 25 years of technology, project management, library, and training experience in academic, public, and school libraries and every industry imaginable. I have managed multimillion dollar projects either on time or ahead of schedule and under budget including training for more than 65,000 employees throughout North America and several large- and small-scale technology implementations. As a technology project manager, I developed proposals and presented them to get shareholders on board for implementing content management, learning management, websites, and other technology-related projects. In my role as a librarian, I have trained and mentored librarians and other information professionals on technology in academic, public, and school libraries. I have taught and assisted children, teens, tweens, adults, and the elderly with technology. I have published articles in MacWorld and ComputerWorld magazines. In February 2018, I was a panelist on the Top Technology Trends
Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks
panel at the American Library Association (ALA) Mid-Winter conference where I discussed drones in libraries and how to keep abreast of emerging technologies. I published “Drones: Agriculture’s New Best Friend” in Elsevier’s SciTech Connect online publication in May 2018; “How to Get Stakeholder Buy-In for Implementing Emerging Technologies in Your Academic Library” in Elsevier’s Library Connect online publication in May 2018; “Public Libraries: The Great Tech Equalizer” in the March 2018 issue of the Princh online journal; and “Is There a Drone in Your Library’s Future?” in the December 2017 issue of Public Library Quarterly. I wrote this book to help information professionals from technology novices to experts in all types of libraries and resource centers who want to learn, use, and help others with the latest, greatest, and hottest emerging technologies that we hear about on a daily basis. This book is a guide to navigate you through learning and implementing emerging technologies in your library or information center without all of the land mines that I have encountered throughout my career.
WHY SHOULD YOU READ THIS BOOK? If you are looking for a roadmap to help guide you through the emerging technology ever changing, ever expanding, ever exciting road ahead of you, you want to read this book. There are chapters on many of the emerging technologies that we see everywhere everyday such as robotics, artificial intelligence, drones, 3D printing, big data, driverless vehicles, virtual/augmented reality, and wearable technologies. The “Keeping Abreast of these Emerging Technologies” chapter was written to keep you from feeling overwhelmed with such a plethora of emerging technology information that is always changing and neither stops nor slows down, but is a train picking up speed. This chapter offers strategies and resources to keep you informed and updated on these technologies. The “How to Get Stakeholder Buy-In for Implementing Emerging Technologies in Your Library” chapter discusses how to get your stakeholders on board to support your technology initiatives that you want to implement and features a checklist that you should follow before approaching your stakeholders with your proposal.
Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks
There is a “Glossary” at the end of each chapter that features short definitions for unfamiliar words that you might encounter. “Suggestions for Further Reading” are included at the end of each chapter where popular journals, Ted Talks, and other informative resources are featured. Each chapter includes “Questions for Further Discussion” that you might use to spur discussions on the technology topic. You might even decide to create resource materials, training materials, webinars, online courses, workshops, programs, and other resources to assist your patrons. The “Considerations for Implementation” at the end of each chapter allows you to “look before you leap” into the emerging technology. You can consider the audience, costs, staffing, training, marketing, legal issues, and other areas before implementing the technology into your library. There is a “Bibliography” at the end of each chapter where you can locate the material referenced in the chapter and do further reading. There are several examples of possible emerging technology scenarios that you might encounter in your library or information resource center included below with the corresponding chapter in the book.
DRIVERLESS VEHICLES: PICK ME UP AT THE. . . Several of your patrons work in industries that are going to be affected by driverless vehicles and are worried that they are going to lose their jobs. They come to your library to learn more about driverless vehicles and what they can do to be proactive in their careers. They want to know what resources you have on driverless cars and what they will need to do to prepare for and apply for jobs in driverless vehicle technology. Your patrons in a public library have seen the Google driverless vehicle on their street and want to learn more about the technology and the challenges and opportunities. You research and develop a library guide that provides an overview of driverless cars including where users can find additional information. You host town meetings with driverless vehicle experts, legislators, workforce development professionals, community and faith organizations, and social service agencies that can all provide information on the future of driverless cars, how they will affect the public, and what services they can provide to people who will lose their jobs or want to change careers.
Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks
IF YOU PRINT IT, THEY WILL COME: 3D PRINTING IN YOUR LIBRARY As a librarian or information professional you might have been tasked with researching and writing a grant to obtain a 3D printer and once the printer arrives, you become the 3D printing expert who manages and trains others on using the printer. You might have had others come to your library to obtain assistance on 3D printing that they can use for writing their own grants.
IS IT A BIRD, IS IT A PLANE: IT IS A DRONE FLYING YOUR WAY Your library decides to buy and circulate drones and your role is to purchase them, set them up, learn the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) regulations, and train other librarians and staff using the train the trainer model, and manage the “drone loan” program. Adults might visit your library to obtain information on drones before purchasing one also. In your school, the physical education and social studies teachers each want to purchase a drone for their classes. They request information from you on drones before purchasing them. In both instances, you are expected to be the expert who provides all of the information that they might need such as information on drones, drone legislation, cost and purchase information, the pros and cons, and the future of drones.
ROBOTICS: ROBOTS TO THE RESCUE You have robotics day in your public library that is located in a poor urban area. Many of the children who will be attending are poor and do not have food to eat outside of school but love technology. You collaborate with the schools in your community, faith and community–based organizations, restaurants, robotics departments at local colleges and universities, and offer free food, career information on robotics, college and university information on STEM/STEAM careers, and everything that students might need in order to be able to pursue robotics. Throughout the year, you offer workshops where students and parents can come into your library and learn, play with, and program the robots also. Your role is to organize, market, and coordinate the workshops.
Emerging Library Technologies: It Is Not Just for Geeks
In academic libraries, librarians can collaborate with robotics faculty and students to learn more about robotics and create instructional materials for information professionals and others who are interested in learning about robots. Librarians can partner with robotics departments to provide space in their library to showcase student robotics projects. They can also collaborate with robotics departments to obtain expertise on any questions that might arise from information professionals and other patrons on robotics and circulating them to patrons.
CONCLUSION In conclusion, you might have encountered some of these emerging technology requests and challenges that I included previously. Just remember to use this book as a guide to lead you through this sea of unchartered emerging technology waters. You are not alone! This book is your lighthouse!
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Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby INTRODUCTION Imagine your car senses that you are tired and takes over control of the wheel, or your virtual personal assistant recognizing that you are having a difficult day, plays calming soothing music, or your robot dog brings your favorite pair of slippers, and finally a computer that can defeat the greatest chess player in the world, or can predict what you will purchase online or who is more likely to commit a crime? This is artificial intelligence. It is in every facet of our lives and is growing so fast that no one can fully predict where it is heading. This chapter is an overview of artificial intelligence with an emphasis on how it is used in libraries (Fig. 1.1).
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? We know that intelligence has something to do with thinking and so if we put both words artificial and intelligence together, we might define AI as “not natural or not real thinking.”
However, many experts define intelligence as a blend of several abilities such as perception or being able to perceive and understand your environment or surroundings. Another is being able to learn and remember new information. This could be remembering facts, singing, playing an instrument, or any new acquired skill that involves a great deal of mastery. Being able to reason is another area of intelligence where you are able to draw conclusions from what you just learned. Another big part of intelligence is problem solving. Here you use your knowledge, skill, and experience to solve and find a new solution for a problem. The highest level of intelligence is being able to understand and use language.
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)? There are probably as many definitions for AI as there are areas within AI and the numbers keep growing. However, I am including a few below. AI refers to “robots, computers, and other machines with a humanlike ability to reason and solve problems” (McPherson, 2018, p. 4). Artificial intelligence is the theory and development of computer systems that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. Artificial intelligence makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. Most AI examples that you hear about today—from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars—rely heavily on deep learning and natural language processing (https://www.sas.com/en_us/insights/analytics/what-is-artificialintelligence.html). AI or machine intelligence (MI) is intelligence displayed by machines, in contrast with the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals. AI is the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with human beings. It is technology with the ability to reason and solve problems. AI mainly focuses on understanding and performing intelligent tasks such as reasoning, learning new skills, and adopting to new situations and problems. It is a combination of computer science, psychology, and philosophy (Mogali, Artificial Intelligence and its applications in Libraries).
Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby
AI refers to science and engineering that explores how to simulate various issues and functions in the field of human intelligence. AI technology fields cover perception, recognition, reasoning, the learning process, natural language, machine translation, games, chess, and so on. From Apple’s SIRI to self-driving cars, AI is progressing rapidly. While science fiction often portrays AI as robots with human-like characteristics, AI can encompass anything from Google’s search algorithms to IBM’s Watson to autonomous weapons (Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence. Future of Life Institute. Max Tegmark). AI is a major part of many cutting-edge technologies, including robotics, driverless cars, web searches, and video games. AI technologies use sophisticated algorithms, or sets of instructions, to solve very difficult tasks (Hulick, 2016, p. 12). Some AI technologies work behind the scenes to figure out who and what people like while they are using social media or shopping online (Hulick, 2016, p. 12).
A BRIEF HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AI has a very long history dating back to antiquity with mention of intelligent robots and artificial beings in mythology. However, Peggy Thomas writes in her book “Artificial Intelligence” that the “First glimmer of a ‘thinking machine’ came in the 1830s, when the British mathematician, Charles Babbage, envisioned the world’s first intelligent machines” (Thomas, 2005, p. 14). Babbage, often referred to as the father of computing, attempted to design the analytical engine for performing computations such as those needed to create navigational tables and read symbols other than numbers. His partner in the venture was Lady Ada Lovelace (daughter of the poet Lord Byron). Unfortunately, the project lacked financial backing and the machine was never built. Many experts feel that the birth of AI began at the Dartmouth Conference of 1956 where several experts such Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, and others asserted that “every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it.” They persuaded conference attendees to accept “Artificial Intelligence” as the name of the field. This conference is where AI gained its name, its mission, its first success, and its major players, and is widely considered the birth of AI.
Emerging Library Technologies
(The History of Artificial Intelligence. Wikipedia) https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/History_of_artificial_intelligence#cite_note-39.
MARKET FOR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) The artificial intelligence market was valued at $16.06 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach $190.61 billion USD by 2025 (https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/artificial-intelligence-market-74851580. html?gclid5EAIaIQobChMIgtiWk9Hx2QIVWp7ACh0VUAnKEAAYAy AAEgIksfD_BwE). International Data Corporation (IDC) reports in their Worldwide Semiannual Cognitive/Artificial Intelligence Systems Spending Guide that “the market for cognitive/AI solutions will experience a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 55.1% over the 2016À2020 forecast period” (https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId5prUS41878616). However, Lauren Bride writes in Information Management magazine that “AI requires deep mathematical understanding often only found at academic institutions or enterprise organizations like Microsoft Corp., Google and Amazon. It will take several years before mainstream businesses can create their own AI models and algorithms in real time” (https://www.information-management.com/opinion/marketplace-forartificial-intelligence-services-emerging-in-2020). There is continued skepticism that AI is only as good or intelligent as the data behind it (Fig. 1.2).
Figure 1.2 Digital artificial intelligence interface 3D rendering.
Artificial Intelligence: AI is Nearby
AREAS WITHIN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) DEEP LEARNING Deep learning is one of the most powerful approaches in AI. It involves feeding example data to a large and powerful neural network. It allows machines to be able to recognize objects in images and transcribe speech almost perfectly. However, it does require lots of training data and computing power (Knight, 2018; https://www.technologyreview.com/ s/609762/google-and-others-are-building-ai-systems-that-doubt-themselves/). It is a form of machine learning based on layered representations of variables referred to as neural networks. Deep learning has made speechunderstanding practical on our phones and in our kitchens, and its algorithms can be applied widely to an array of applications that rely on pattern recognition (The present of Artificial Intelligence: Top areas already being disrupted. Everis NEXT. September 21, 2016; https://everisnext.com/2016/09/21/artificial-intelligence-top-areas/). It is a technology that helps a program recognize general patterns in a way that is somewhat similar to how a human brain works. Deep learning is a promising technology that computer scientists are using to help computers learn. It is based on neural networks. “The human brain is a neural network with approximately 100 billion neurons linked with 100 trillion connections.” Jason Brownlee writes about examples of deep learning in “8 Inspirational Applications of Deep Learning.” Some of the deep learning examples include: Colorization of black and white images and movies—In the past, this was intricately done by hand as it was a difficult and painstaking task that relied on accuracy and attention to detail. However, today deep learning can be used to use the objects and their context within the photograph to color the image, much like a human operator might approach the problem. Automatic machine translation—Given words, a phrase, or sentence in one language, the system automatically translates it into another language. This has been available for some time. However, deep learning is achieving top results in the automatic translation of text and the automatic translation of images. Object classification in photographs—This requires the classification of objects within a photograph.
Emerging Library Technologies
It involves identifying one or more objects within the scene of the photograph and drawing a box around them. Character text generation—New text is generated, word-by-word or character-by-character. It is capable of learning how to spell, punctuate, form sentences, and even capture the style of the text in the corpus. Image caption generation—Given an image the system must generate a caption that describes the contents of the image. Automatic game playing—The system learns how to play a computer game based only on the pixels on the screen (Brownlee, 2016; https:// machinelearningmastery.com/inspirational-applications-deep-learning/). Computer games—Google’s DeepMind used a deep learning technique called deep reinforcement learning to teach a computer to play the Atari game Breakout. Robotics—Deep learning is also heavily used in robotics these days. The robots react to people pushing them around. They get up after falling. They perform elaborate tasks that require gentleness and care such as loading and unloading a dish washer. Self-driving cars—Deep learning is used in self-driving cars also. They are able distinguish between different types of objects including people, animals, and road signs (Hadad, 2016; http://www.yaronhadad.com/ deep-learning-most-amazing-applications/).
MACHINE LEARNING Machine learning uses algorithms to build analytical models that help computers “learn” from data. It is being applied to huge quantities of data. Machine learning occurs when a program changes itself so that it can perform better in the future. Uber uses machine learning technology in a myriad of ways including routing their drivers, surge pricing, and in their self-driving cars (Knight, 2018; https://www.technologyreview.com/s/ 609762/google-and-others-are-building-ai-systems-that-doubt-themselves/). As of 2017, a quarter of organizations are spending 15 percent or more of their IT budget on machine learning capabilities, and the number of machine learning examples is expected to rise in the near future (https://www.redpixie.com/blog/examples-of-machine-learning). Insurance—The insurance industry is spending heavily on machine learning and is planning to increase the amounts in the near future. Machine learning in the insurance industry will help to prevent the more