Điều tra, đánh giá một số đặc điểm lâm học và tăng trưởng làm cơ sở phát triển loài giổi nhung (parachichelia braianensis dandy) theo hướng kinh doanh gỗ lớn ở kon hà nừng, tây nguyên tt
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
VIETNAMESE ACADEMY OF FOREST SCIENCES
Tran Hong Son
INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION SOME SILVICULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GROWTH AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPING PARACHILELIA BRAIANENSIS DANDY SPECIES IN THE DIRECTION OF BUSINESS LARGE TIMBER IN KON HA NUNG, TAY NGUYEN
Major: Forest planning and investigate Code: 9 62 02 08
SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS
HA NOI - 2019
The thesis is completed at: Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences
The thesis was defended in front of the Institute-level Council at the Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences at . ... .... date .. ... 2019
The thesis can be found at the National Library and Library of the Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences
Introduction 1. The urgency of the subject Facing the increasing demand of the society for timber and non-timber forest products, the reality of forestry production requires constant research and selection of valuable species to supplement the group of companies plant structure. However, the lack of information on the biological characteristics of the species, propagation techniques, intensive farming techniques ... has been a major barrier to the goal of the forestry sector in order to proactively source timber for the public wood processing industry serving domestic and export. Therefore, the research and development of promising plants is a right direction, necessary and suitable for the sustainable forest management process in our country today, in which the research and development of native tree species multi-effects are very important. The Parachichelia Braianensis Dandy is a large evergreen tree, 30 - 40m high, 60 - 120cm in diameter. This species is endemic to Vietnam, only found in the Central Highlands provinces from Gia Lai, Dak Lak to Lam Dong (Di Linh, Braian). Trees are distributed at an altitude of 600 - 1000m in natural evergreen broadleaf forests or mixed forests with coniferous trees. Despite being an endemic and narrowly distributed species in the Central Highlands, the P. Braianensis has the advantage of high growth, high productivity, yield, and commercial quality, and is used for many other purposes. each other such as handicrafts, household furniture, construction ... are very popular in the domestic and foreign markets. Over the past 30 years, there have been studies and experiments to plant this species in Kon Ha Nung area, Tay Nguyen, however studies on structural and regeneration characteristics of natural forests have been distributed. , models of the P. Braianensis forest plantation have been ... have not been studied in a systematic and thorough way to serve as a basis for proposing
the development of the P. Braianensis species in the direction of big timber business in Kon Ha Sesame, Central Highlands. Stemming from the above facts and reasons, the implementation of the Project "Investigation and evaluation some silvicultural characteristics and growth as a basis for developing Parachichelia Braianensis Dandy species in the direction of business large timber in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen "are very necessary and meaningful both in terms of science and practice. 2. The scientific and practical significance of the thesis 2.1. Scientific significance The thesis has developed scientific arguments for the cultivation and development of the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business large timber in the Central Highlands. 2.2. Practical implications Proposing a number of technical solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of trading large timber in the Central Highlands. 3. Objectives 3.1. Overall objectives: Develop a scientific basis to propose technical solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business large timber in the Central Highlands. 3.2. Specific goal:
Supplementing some forestry characteristics such as ecological characteristics, forest structure, phenology and species regeneration in the study area; Identify the growth and growth characteristics of the species of different species in the study area; Evaluate the growth ability of models of the P. Braianensis forest in Kon Ha Nung, and propose solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business large timber. 4. New point of the thesis Provide database on silviculture characteristics (ecological characteristics, structure, phenology, regeneration, growth, ...) species of the P. Braianensis; Supplementing scientific and practical basis for the development of the P. Braianensis species in the study area; Proposing technical solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business large timber in the study area. 5. Subjects and research locations 5.1. Research subjects The object of the study is the natural forest status in the study area with the distribution of the P. Braianensis antler and the model of the P. Braianensis in the period of 1986 - 2001 in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen. 5.2. Research location - Natural forest area in KBang district, Gia Lai province; - Kon Chu Rang Nature Reserve, KBang District, Gia Lai Province; - Krong Pa Forestry Company, KBang district, Gia Lai province. 6. Research limit of the thesis 6.1. Limit on research content - The thesis only focuses on researching some forestry characteristics of the P. Braianensis species belonging to natural forest stands (such as ecological characteristics, morphological structure, phenology, regeneration, and growth characteristics, increasing. chief) in Kon Ha Nung, Central Highlands; - Evaluate gibbon species growth of forest planting models in Kon Ha Nung, and propose solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business large timber; 6.2. Limited scope of research The thesis implements the research contents of Kon Ha Nung area, Tay Nguyen.
CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW OF STUDIES 1.1. Studies in the world 1.1.1. Study on classification and morphology of the Parachichelia Braianensis Studies of genus botanical classification Magnolia and Michelia have been studied by many scientists around the world, such as Figlar (2000) ,Xia et al (2008), Armiyanti, Kadir MA and et al (2010), Do, N. D, and et al (2016), ... The P. Braianensis has the scientific name Magnolia brainensis (Gagnep) named by Figlar. The P. Braianensis (Gagnep.) Dandy was first mentioned in 1938, is a large tree, 20-30m tall, upright, the diameter can reach 60cm. Leaves have red hairs, thick and dense. Oblong leaves or oval, prison base, pointed head, size 8-14 x 46cm. The leaf stalk is 1-2cm long, the leaves are broad, the red veins are below the leaf surface, there are 14 pairs of leaf veins, visible mesh veins. Flowers grow in leaf axils, single flowers, 4-5cm long and expand, flower stalks are 1cm long. Flowers have a radio, fat, covered with yellow hair. Petals 20, aligned, slightly wide; 8-10mm long stamens, 1.5mm long sessile stalks, round shape and attached triangle with 1mm long tip. The flower has 20 carpels, yellow-sheathed, bony, stalks 4-5mm long (International Plant Names Index, 2005). 1.1.2. Research on distribution and ecological characteristics The P. Braianensis is an endemic species in Vietnam, distributed in tropical and subtropical humid forests with high mountains and low mountains (Khe La, 2014). Therefore, there is no work in the world to study the characteristics of distribution and ecology of velvet species; there are only some research results on some other species belonging to Michelia only, especially the Michelia mediocris Dandy species. 1.1.3. Research on forest structure and regeneration Currently, there are no studies in the world on structure, layer, growth and regeneration of the P. Braianensis species. However, a number of other species of the Magnoliaceae and the Michelia have also been studied, especially the Michelia mediocris Dandy species. Scientists are interested in research such as: Zang et al (2005); Naidu and Kumar (2016) ... Studies on regeneration characteristics have shown that Michelia mediocris Dandy is a species capable of regenerating seeds quite well and soil and light factors that make a big decision. natural regeneration ability of the species. This is an important basis for other studies on the regeneration of the P. Braianensis species in our country. 1.1.4. Research on afforestation There are currently no studies on the technique of growing the P. Braianensis published. However, there were many species belonging to the Michelia and the Magnoliaceae genera which were studied on planting techniques. The authors are: Edward (1999); Rami Rez Bamonde and cs (2005); Orwa et al (2009); ... However, in the world, there has not been any research on techniques of the P. Braianensis forest planting because this is an endemic species of Vietnam. However, there have been many researches on techniques of afforestation with some species of the Michelia and Magnoliaceae such as Michelia figo, Magnolia dealbata, Michelia champaca, ... 1.1.5. Research on growth and growth 5
Studies on the growth of forest trees and stand were built into mathematical models and published in the research works of Meyer, H.A and D.D Stevenson (1943), Schumacher, FX and Coil, TX ( 1960), Alder (1980), Clutter J. L; Allion B.J (1973) ... Growth function is the simplest growth model that describes the growth process of forest trees as well as forest stands. Based on the growth function, the maximum value of the growth quantity at the final age and the maximum growth rate can be anticipated. 1.1.6. Research on use value Currently, there has not been a systematic study in the world published on the use value of the P. Braianensis species. However, the species belonging to Michelia and Magnoliaceae are considered to be multi-effects from the use of wood, landscape plants and chemical compounds. The authors include: Sosef and et al, 1998; Edward, 1999; Chan and et al, 2014; Do and et al, 2016. 1.2. Studies in Vietnam 1.2.1. Research on classification and morphology The classification of the P. Braianensis species in the country studied by scientists can include authors such as Pham Hoang Ho (1999); Nguyen Tien Ban et al (2003). Currently, most botanists in the country agree to use the name P. Braianensis (Gagnep.) Dandy is the official scientific name of the P. Braianensis species. Studies on morphological characteristics of gibbon species of the authors such as Vo Van Chi (1997), Tran Hop and Hoang Quang Ha (1997), Pham Hoang Ho (1999), Nguyen Hoang Nghia (2010) affirmed that the P. Braianensis is a big tree, 30 - 40m high, diameter can reach 60 - 100cm, so it is possible to develop large timber plantations. 1.2.2. Research on distribution and ecological characteristics The P. Braianensis is a large timber tree, distributed at an altitude of 600 - 1,000m in broadleaf evergreen or mixed broadleaf evergreen forest. Studies on distribution characteristics and ecology of the P. Braianensis species can be mentioned by authors such as: Nguyen Tien Ban and colleagues (1984, 2003); Vo Van Chi (1997); Tran Hop and Hoang Quang Ha, 1997; Bui Doan et al (2001); Ho Duc Soa (2004); Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (2009) ... The P. Braianensis is an endemic tree of Vietnam, only met at the points of Kon Ha Nung (Gia Lai), Dao Nghia (Dak Nong) and Braian (Lam Dong) and new here discovered in Pu Mat National Park (Nghe An). 1.2.3. Research on forest structure and regeneration The authors study the forest structure, where the P. Braianensis species is distributed, such as: Bui Doan et al (2001); Ho Duc Soa (2001); Vu Dinh Phuong and Dao Cong Khanh (2001); Nguyen Hoang Nghia (2010); Phan Van Thang (2014). Studies on the forest structure of the species where the P. Braianensis species are distributed evenly show that, depending on the natural forest stands, the species is either an ecological predominant group or not belonging to the ecological advantage group in the structure. the nest is broad-leaved natural evergreen or broad-leaved mixed leaves. 1.2.4. Research on afforestation The authors are interested in the study of afforestation with the species Michelia (P. Braianensis and Michelia mediocris Dandy) as: Ho Duc Soa (2001, 2004, 2009); Vo Dai Hai, 2007; Tran Van Con (2009); Nguyen Xuan Quat and Le Van Thanh (2015) ... Research results on afforestation by the P. Braianensis species in different sub-regions, on different site types and, the 6
application of measures different silvicultural techniques give overall average growth in tree diameter and height. The selection of the P. Braianensis species is the main forest tree species providing large timber in the Central Highlands Programs/Projects. 1.2.5. Research on growth The research on growth and growth for species and stands of mixed natural forests in our country faces many difficulties due to the complex research objects. Vu Tien Hinh (1987, 1998). developed a method to determine the law of growth for natural forest tree species and simulate the dynamics of diameter distribution based on regular regular growth. of mixed species of different age groups. Vu Tien Hinh (2010) studied and completed the method of determining the growth and prediction of natural forest production in Vietnam, in which the author applied a combination of both methods of investigation, that is, method of investigation on temporary plots by beveling method and method of survey on fixed plots. The average diameter of the year has been determined for 33 species of natural forest in the Northeast and 34 species in the Northwest. This is a good reference for forestry research and production in the provinces of our Northeast and Northwestern regions. 1.2.6. Research on use value The P. Braianensis is a large tree, wood has sense and core distinguish, yellowish green core and light yellow, smooth, glossy. Wood has a density of 0.65, good wood, smooth, flexible structure, less cracked, less termite, easy to process, often use household furniture, sawn boards, make plywood and use in building houses (Nguyen Tien Ban et al., 2003; Vo Van Chi, 1997; Tran Hop and Hoang Quang Ha, 1997; Vietnam Red Book, 2007; Nguyen Hoang Nghia , 2010 ). 1.3. General discussion - In the world, researches on the P. Braianensis tree stop at the classification of plants, morphological characteristics. However, studies on distribution, ecology, forest structure, regeneration and planting techniques have not been conducted. Because, the P. Braianensis tree is endemic to Vietnam, only met at the points Kon Ha Nung (Gia Lai), Dao Nghia (Đak Nong) and Braian (Lam Dong); Recently, it was discovered in Pu Mat National Park (Nghe An) and, so far, no documents have been found about the wildly distributed Macaque species in another country. - The research results in the world do not have any research on the P. Braianensis, because this is an endemic species in Vietnam. Yes, only studies related to genus Michelia and Magnoliaceae. This is the basis for proposing the development of silvicultural measures with the P. Braianensis forest in general. - In Vietnam, the research works on the P. Braianensis trees are still relatively few, the studies only focus on plant classification, description of morphological characteristics, distribution areas. Researches on afforestation only stop at some single plantation techniques in some models of mixed forest restoration. Therefore, the research has only solved every single aspect so there is not enough scientific basis to develop this species, in particular, there is no in-depth and systematic research on forest characteristics. biology (structure, regeneration, ecology and distribution) for the species of the P. Braianensis. Studies on growth and growth of species are also rarely paid attention to on the location tracking plots for a long time.
CHAPTER 2 CONTENT AND METHOD 2.1. Content - Study morphological characteristics, phenology, physiology and distribution, ecology of the Parachichelia Braianensis: + Morphological characteristics of tree parts; + Physiological characteristics (leaf anatomy, chlorophyll content a and b in leaves); + Characteristics of post-species phase of the P. Braianensis species; + Distribution and ecological characteristics. - Study the forest structure and natural regeneration characteristics of the forest distribution: + Characteristics of high tree layer structure (average criteria of timber tree layer, structure of forest density, N/D structure, high tree structure, second layer structure and canopy cover); + Biodiversity of natural forest stands with the P. Braianensis species distributed; + Characteristics of natural forest regeneration (density structure of regenerated tree layers, structure of regenerated tree layers, decentralization of regenerated tree height, quality and origin of regenerated tree layers). - Study and evaluate models of the P. Braianensis plantation in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen: + Situation of development of models of plantation forests have been established; + Evaluate the technical measures applied in the plantation forest model; + Growth and development of gibbon species in plantation models. - Study on growth and growth characteristics of the P. Braianensis species in Kon Ha Nung, Central Highlands: + Some criteria for growth of forest stand and species of gibbon; + Growth model diameter of velvet species. - Proposing orientations for some solutions to develop the P. Braianensis in the direction of big timber business in Kon Ha Nung, Central Highlands: + Technical solutions to nurture natural forests where the Parachichelia Braianensis species are distributed in the direction of business large timber; + Technical solutions for afforestation the P. Braianensis in the direction of business large timber. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Approach - Access to the system - Access to the ecosystem - Participatory approach 2.2.2. Methods of collecting and processing data 22.214.171.124. Method of inheriting secondary documents - Inheriting 10 OTC positioning from the topic "Study of forestry characteristics (succession, structure, composition, regeneration, growth, hydrological climate, soil ...) of some forest ecosystems themselves mainly in Vietnam ”of Assoc. Dr. Tran Van Con has established in
K'Bang district, Gia Lai province, in which, the thesis inherits the growth monitoring data from 2004 2012, and has additional surveys at the time of 2017. 126.96.36.199. Research method of biological characteristics of the P. Braianensis * Setting up OTC research - Natural forest area in KBang district, Gia Lai province: Inherited 10 OTC positioning (symbol from OV1 to OV10), area of 1 ha (100m x 100m) from the project of Assoc. Dr. Tran Van Con established in K'Bang district, Gia Lai province. - Kon Chu Rang Nature Reserve, KBang District, Gia Lai Province and Krong Pa Forestry Company, KBang District, Gia Lai Province: Prepare 6 OTC, size 2.500m2 (50m x 50m) for research. In addition, 3 more OTC projects with the size of 2.500m2 are set up in the stands of natural forests where the velvet species are distributed in the district of KBang to study. Total 9 OTC. * Morphological and morphological characteristics of the P. Braianensis species In each study area, choose 6 mother trees the P. Braianensis as standard plant to study morphological and phenotypic characteristics. Special observation and monitoring indicators include: Period of leaf change; the time of budding, flower buds, flowers, and results; fruit ripening period; describe and photograph morphology, leaf size, flowers, fruits, seeds; wrong cycle. Monitoring and recording of the animal phase of the species in three consecutive years (2014, 2015, and 2016). * Study some physiological characteristics Anatomy of the velvet leaf anatomy: The structure of leaf anatomy at different stages of development is shown through stages of forest formation (stage of regeneration tree - position under canopy, canopy, and canopy), determined by taking 9 leaf samples from 3 standard trees/each position in the forest canopy structure. Determination of the content of photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll): Determination of chlorophyll content and chlorophyll b in the leaves of the P. Braianensis in different positions in the forest canopy structure according to the method of Grodzinxki A. M and Grodzinxki D. M (1981). * Characteristics of distribution and ecology of the P. Braianensis species - Ecological characteristics: Using GPS locator to collect information on topography, slope, elevation belt ... At the same time, collect information on forest status, shrub layer characteristics, fresh carpets ... in the place where the velvet antler is distributed; combine collecting hydrological climate data at monitoring stations in the study area. * Study forest structure and regeneration characteristics of natural forest stands with distribution of the P. Braianensis species - Locate plants and identify plants + Numbering trees and mapping tree positions: all trees measured in the secondary plot are numbered and marked for each tree, and mapping their location in the OTC location. + Identify the name of the tree: all the surveyed trees in all 3 levels: tree species, regenerated tree species are identified species names. - Measuring the forestry indicators in the researched OTC: DBH, tree height, canopy diameter, growth quality, regenerating tree ... - Painting of forest furniture: Standing and horizontal surgery in accordance with methods of Richards and Davis (1934). On each OTC, a typical forest strip of 250m 2 (50m x 5m) is defined. 9
Then determine the position, height, diameter of the trunk, width, and foliage thickness of all trees on the forest strip and are shown on paper cups with a scale of 1/100. 188.8.131.52. Method of assessing models of the P. Braianensis forest planting The thesis applied semi-structured interview tool in PRA toolkit to collect information related to the research contents of the thesis. For each model of plantation enriched with natural forest, typical and temporary 03 OTC layout, the area of each OTC is 2.500m2. For concentrated plantation models, typical and temporary OTC 03 layout. The area of each OTC is 500m2. Total OTC is 15 plots (6 forest enrichment OTC and 9 OTC plantations). In the OTC, collecting and measuring all information on forest plant species, including growth criteria, tree quality, survival rate, productivity of planted forests ... 184.108.40.206. Methods of studying the growth and growth characteristics of the P. Braianensis species From the collected data, the thesis selects 12 the P. Braianensis trees, which represent different age levels for analysis, each level is 5 years old (age of A I = 1 - 5 years old, AII = 6-10 years old, AIII = 11-15 years old, and each age group takes 4 trees to cut down and determine the diameter at different trunk positions corresponding to each age. Standard trees after cutting down, conducting sawing into segments (D0, D1, D1.3, D2, D4, D6, D8, D10, D12, D14, D16, D18, D20). Through the number of years at each cutting board on the different positions of the stem, determine the diameter in different positions corresponding to each age. 220.127.116.11. Data processing methods The survey data is synthesized and analyzed according to the research objectives of the thesis topic based on the algorithms of R software (Nguyen Van Tuan, 2014). 2.3. Characteristics of the study area - Geographical position: K'Bang was established on May 19, 1985 on the basis of separation from An Khe district. K'Bang is located in the northeast of Gia Lai province, including the northeastern mountains and Kon Ha Nung plateau. - Climate: The average annual rainfall is more than 2,400 mm, the most rainy months are September, October and November. The wet season is humid, the dry season is enough moisture in the type of high mountain climate. The average annual humidity is over 90%, the southern district is below 90%. - Topography and soil: K'Bang district owns the most rugged mountainous terrain of Gia Lai province. Surrounding the west of the district is Mang Yang mountain range with a height of over 1000m with the highest peak of Kon Ka Kinh in Gia Lai province and gradually decreasing from North to South and from West to East. K'Bang has all kinds of soils distributed in Gia Lai province. Communes in the north of the district mainly have soil types developed on basalt, most of which are covered by natural forest and nutrient-rich soil, which is favorable for trading forest trees, specialty trees and industrial trees like Cinnamomum cassia, Litsea, Coffee, ... - Forest resources: The total forest area of K'bang district (in 2015) is 125,385 ha, accounting for nearly 70% of the total natural area of the district, of which: Natural forests have 123,650 ha, accounting for 98.6%, and Plantation only 1,735 hectares, accounting for 1.4%. Reviews and general reviews * Advantage : 10
- The study area has favorable climate and soil conditions for the development of many agricultural and forestry plants. - Infrastructure conditions, especially transportation, are gradually improved, convenient for trading and trading with other districts in the area. - Large area of forest and forestry land, rich land, very convenient for the development of forest trees, especially the restoration of natural forests and afforestation for large timber supply. - People are ethnic minorities who live closely with generations of forests and have experience in forestry production. - The area receives special attention to support economic development, infrastructure, agricultural and forestry extension activities of local authorities. * Hard: - Large area of mountains and forests but many areas are difficult and difficult to travel, so it is difficult to manage, protect and exploit forest resources effectively. - Forest area of Kon Ha Nung area is distributed in difficult terrain conditions, so it greatly affects management and protection activities of localities. The phenomenon of illegal encroachment and illegal logging by people still occurs. - Percentage of ethnic minorities accounts for a large proportion, most of these people have obsolete farming practices, low educational level, so it is very difficult in the propaganda of protection and development. forest, transfer of scientific and technical achievements to the people.
CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Morphological characteristics, phenology and ecological distribution of the P. Braianensis species in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen 3.1.1. Morphological and physical characteristics a) Morphological characteristics The P. Braianensis is a large timber tree, trunk diameter (D1.3) in the surveyed stands varies from 27,6 to 65,1cm, (with D1.3 to 160cm, 40m high), round body straight, the average height (Hvn) ranges from 17,6 to 29,4m. The root has high buttresses, natural branches, young branches and leaves with dark colored feathers, canopy diameter ranges from 3,7 - 9,0m. Leaves are single, sprouting, with leaves, original cover, young brown leaves, gradually turning dark brown, oblong or oval leaves, 8 - 15cm long, 3,0 - 6,5cm wide, stalks leaves 2.5 - 3cm long. The front of the leaf is dark green, the back is brown or reddish brown, hairy. The fruit grows in clusters, each cluster has 10-15 fruits, the fruit is 1,5 - 2,0cm long, 1,0 1,5cm wide. The fruit base is attached to the fruit bearing branch. Green fruits are green, lumpy, and ripen into 3 - 4 pieces, revealing inner seeds. The P. Braianensis seeds have a red membrane covering, each fruit has 10 - 15 seeds. Physiological characteristics: - Structure of anatomical leaf anatomy:
+ The P. Braianensis leaves in different canopy sites in the forest structure have a thickness ranging from 231,09 ± 0,03 μm (natural regenerated tree in the position under the forest canopy) to 237,38 ± 0,04 μm (tree over canopy), and there is a statistically significant difference between the canopy positions in the forest structure. + The upper cutin layer of the P. Braianensis leaf has a thickness ranging from 2.97 to 3.76 μm and there is no clear difference between the leaf sampling positions. However, the upper cuitin layer of the P. Braianensis leaves in the canopy position is 0,24 - 1,32 μm higher than the position below the canopy. + The upper epidermis of the P. Braianensis leaves has a thickness ranging from 18,60 ± 1,00 μm (position in the canopy) to 52,76 ± 1,04 μm (position of canopy), and there is a statistically significant differences between leaf sampling locations in the forest structure. - Thickness of roost layer ranged from 54,26 ± 1,04 μm to 81,77 ± 0,97 μm and there was a clear difference between sampling positions in the forest structure. The thickness of the layer of rooster tissue is 0,48 - 0,72 times lower than that of the tissue layer. Meanwhile, the thickness of the defective tissue ranges from 112,34 ± 0,54 μm to 113,76 ± 0,25 μm and there is no significant difference between the sampling locations. Chlorophyll content in the leaves of the P. Braianensis The total amount of chlorophyll (chlorophyll a + chlorophyll b) in the leaves of the P. Braianensis varies greatly and there is a statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the different sampling locations in forest canopy. Total chlorophyll content ranged from 6,69 ± 0,33 mg/g fresh leaf (canopy position) to 12,47 ± 0,11 mg/g fresh leaf (position in canopy). Thus, the P. Braianensis tree in the canopy position and at the bottom of the canopy shows the light neutrality at these stages and absolutely loves light when the tree grows overcapacity. Physical characteristics The post-phase phases of the P. Braianensis species are not large fluctuations between the study areas. There is a period of young leaves from December of last year to January of the next year, and the period of shoots is from February to March. The period of young shoots and leaves is 2 months. The period of buds starts from March to April (Kon Ha Nung and Krong Pa) to April - May (Kon Chu Rang), flowers from April to May, but the main flower season focuses mainly in May. The period fruits from May to June and ripe fruits from September to October. The fruits ripen if not harvested in time, the fruit will crack into 3-4 pieces, and the seeds will be dispersed out. The average number of fruit per standard branch in 3 years has a statistically significant difference between the study sites. In Kon Chu Rang, on average, there are 257 ± 5 ,5 fruits/branches in 3 years, higher than the meaning of 20 - 39 fruits/branches compared to Kon Ha Nung area (on average, 218 ± 5,5 fruits/branch) and significantly higher than the 7 - 12 fruits/branch compared to the Krong Pa area (206 ± 10 fruits/branch). However, there is no statistically significant difference in the number of fruits/branches in the three years of observation between Kon Ha Nung and Krong Pa areas. Thus, it can be affirmed that the false fruit cycle of the P. Braianensis antler has not been significantly affected by the height or sub-climate conditions (annual average temperature, average annual rainfall ...) in the study area, meaning with the wrong period of the fruit of the P. Braianensis is every year. 12
3.1.2. Distribution and ecology characteristics Characteristics of natural distribution area of the P. Braianensis species is an endemic species of Vietnam, found in Kon Tum, Gia Lai and Lam Dong, in evergreen broadleaf evergreen or broadleaf evergreen mixed forest with pine forest, at an altitude of 600 - 1.000m. The P. Braianensis species often grows into mixed populations with Michelia mediocris, Podocarpus annamensis, Cephalotaxus fortunei and some other species of the Fagaceae. Through the results of the actual survey of the project, the P. Braianensis distributed at elevations from 757m (in Kon Ha Nung) to 815m (Kon Chu Rang NR) in evergreen broadleaf forest. Ecological characteristics of the P. Braianensis species The soil grows well on many types of soil with different parent rocks such as Bazan, Granis ... In general, it is good soil, good drainage, nutrient-rich, soil depth is over 80 cm, the organic matter content of A layer is > 3%, the protein content ranges from 0,43 to 0,88%, and the dry season lasts no more than 4 months. 3.2. Characteristics of forest structure and natural regeneration have the P. Braianensis species distributed in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen 3.2.1. Characteristics of high tree structure at the natural forest stands where the P. Braianensis species are distributed The average criteria for timber trees - Fluctuations in the forestry indicators (D1.3, Hvn, Dtan) of the stands of natural forests where the P. Braianensis species are distributed are relatively large, ranging from 32,6 to 87,0%, of which, the forest stands in Kon Ha Nung had the highest fluctuations in all the forestry indicators surveyed. Changes in targets D1.3 in Kon Ha Nung range from 64,3 to 87,0%, while in Kon Chu Rang and Krong Pa, the coefficient varies only from 51,4 to 70,8%. Similarly, for the expenditure of Hvn and Dtan, in Kon Ha Nung, the coefficient of variation is much higher than the remaining forest stands. - The average density and cross-section of forest stands were not significantly different with 95% confidence among stands in Kon Ha Nung, Kon Chu Rang, and Krong Pa (p> 0.05). The average density of stands varies from 548 trees/ha (KHN 12) to 1.127 trees/ha (KHN 04), of which 75% of forest stands have an average density of 927 trees/ha. - Average reserve of forest stands has not been significantly different between stands in Kon Ha No and Krong Pa; between Krong Pa forest areas and Kon Chu Rang forest, and between forest stands in Kon Ha Nung and Kon Chu Rang. The average volume of stands in Kon Ha Nung reached the highest value, M = 307 ± 69,6 m3/ha, ranging from 212,7 to 434,0m3/ ha; Next is the stands at Kon Chu Rang (M = 227,8 ± 29,9 m3/ha), and the lowest is the forest stands in Krong Pa (M = 221,5 ± 22,1 m3/ha) ). The density structure of the stands of natural forests where the P. Braianensis species are distributed The density of high tree layer of natural forest is high and low, varying greatly, ranging from 548 trees/ha (KHN12) to 1.127 trees/ha (KHN04), in which Kon Ha Nung area, The average tree density is high Nbq = 850 trees/ha higher and coefficient of variation (CV%: 23,8%) is greater than 2 areas of Kon Chu Rang (Nbq = 759 trees/ha, 11,0%) and Krong Pa (Nbq = 593 trees/ha, 6,9%). 13
The density of the P. Braianensis belongs to the high tree layer in the surveyed plots is quite low, ranging from 4 to 63 trees / ha, accounting for 0,6 - 8,3% of the density of forest stands, in which Kon Ha No billion area rate In the forest stand is higher than the other two areas. However, there was no significant difference between the regions, between Kon Ha Nung and Kon Chu Rang (p = 0,614> 0,05); Krong Pa with Kon Khong Rang (p = 0,545), and between Krong Pa and Kon Ha Nung (p = 0,081). The structure of N/D of the surveyed stands in Kon Ha Nung, Kon Chu Rang and Krong Pa has reduced distribution, the largest number of trees in the smallest diameter (diameter of 10-14cm), the number of concentrated trees from 115 trees/ha (KRP) to 181 trees/ha (KCR) and decrease gradually when the diameter increases, the lowest number of trees ranges from 1 tree/ha in diameter 98 - 102cm (KHN) and diameter 62 - 66cm to 66 - 70cm (KCR) to 3 plants/ha in diameter 70-74cm, and 74-78cm (KRP). High tree structure The forest composition of OTC natural forests with the P. Braianensis species distributed in Kon Ha Nung, Kon Chu Rang, and Krong Pa is quite rich, showing very high species diversity, ranging from 26 to 100 species/ha. However, the number of key species involved in forest formation ranges from 4 to 7 species/ha only. The predominant species are usually valuable, fast growing and light-demanding trees, such as: Fagaceae, Syzygium wightianum Wall. Ex Wight et Arn, Gironniera subaequalis Planch., Ormosia balansae Drake, Machilus parviflora Meisn, …, with the coefficient of composition (IV%) from 5.1 to 28.8%. The number of species participating in forest formation tends to increase when the total number of species increases (the total number of species increases from 25 to 40 species) in the stands at Kon Chu Rang, Krong Pa, and Kon Ha Nung (KHN 11, KHN 12, and KHN 13). However, this trend started to decrease when the total number of species in the forest stands increased (the total number of species increased from 40 to 100 species) in the remaining stands in Kon Ha No (from KHN 01 - KHN 10). The structure of the layer and the crown cover the trees In addition to the shrubs and fresh carpets, the natural forest tree layer where the velvet species is distributed is divided into 3 main canopy layers: - Canopy floor (H1> 20m): This is a floor with a height greater than the average height of the stand, average height H1> 20m. Consisting of light-demanding, fast-growing, large-sized plants, growth surpasses the main canopy of the forest. The dominant tree species such as: Dialium cochinchinensis, Syzygium wightianum, Machilus parviflora..., accounting for 18,4 - 36,2% of the total trees in the high tree layer of the stand. - Main canopy layer (10m the average height of the stand, ranging from 10 - 20m and forming a continuous band. The dominant species such as Fagaceae, Syzygium cumini ... account for 33.1 - 64.6% of the total trees in the stand. Most of the species of the Parachichelia Braianensis are found to have a height distribution in this canopy but not yet a dominant species. - Lower canopy floor (H3≤10m): This floor consists of trees with a height lower than the average height of the stand, ranging from 5 - 10m, including light-demanding trees or shade-tolerant 14
plants (shade trees), missed later will participate in the main canopy and canopy floor) dominate such as: Symplocos racemosa, Artocarpus rigidus..., accounting for 14.6 - 42.4% of the total stand of trees. 3.2.2. Biodiversity of natural forest stands has a distribution of the P. Braianensis species Biodiversity indicators The general trend in the diversity index of species richness (R), Shannon index (H), and Margalef species richness index (d) tends to increase when the total number of species (m) in forest stands naturally, there is an increase in the distribution of the P. Braianensis. This indicates stability in the P. Braianensis of change in the community responding to disturbances in the surveyed stands. However, the uniformity index (J’) tends to decrease when the total number of species in the forest stands increases. Renyi diverse index The general trend of Renyi index of natural forest stands in the area of the P. Braianensis species distributed in Kon Ha Nung is at a high level and there is no big difference between the studied OTC. Comparison between 3 survey areas showed that 6 curves denoting Renyi index have Hα index intersecting, ie in forest stands, there is a richer forest stand but less uniform distribution. (ie, lower homogeneity) compared to the remaining stand. 3.2.3. Characteristics of natural forest regeneration with the P. Braianensis species distributed Structure density of regenerated tree layer The average density of regenerated tree layers in the natural forest stands with of the P. Braianensis species is relatively rich, but there is no difference between the study areas. The average density of regenerated trees in stands in Kon Ha Nung is NtsLP = 38.576 ± 5.409 trees/ha, ranging from 7.680 trees /ha (KHN 13) to 71.250 trees/ha (KHN 07), in which, Kon Chu Rang and Krong Pa stands, density of regenerated trees ranges from 8.800 trees/ha (KCR 03) to 17.280 trees/ha (KRP 01), averaging from NtsLP = 10,880 ± 1,303 trees/ha (Kon Chu Rang) to NtsLP = 14.986 ± 1.155 trees/ha. The structure of the regenerating tree layer The number of regenerated trees appearing in the surveyed stands is quite diverse, ranging from 16 to 46 species, of which only one species (KRP02) to 8 species (KCR 03) appears in the formation. The dominant tree species in regenerated tree layers such as Nephelium lappaceum, Callicarpa candicans, Dialium cochinchinensis, Ormosia pinnata ... are mainly inferior timber species, light-demanding and fast-growing species; with composition coefficient ranges from 1,59 to 6,90. The forest composition of regenerated trees also appears some valuable timber species such as Prunus arborea, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon,... with the coefficient of formation ranging from 0,82 to 2,11. Therefore, the impact of silvicultural measures must aim at reducing non-purpose regenerating species, enabling the tree to regenerate and develop. Decentralized height of regenerated tree The number of regenerated trees decreases as height increases. The number of regenerated trees at a height of <1m accounts for the largest proportion, ranging from 41,8 to 65,9% of the total number of regenerated trees; then, gradually decreasing at the height of 1-3m (18,8 - 48,8%) and height > 3m (4,9 - 21,8%). The reason for this phenomenon is due to the development process, regenerating trees are influenced by many factors, such as the canopy cover, mother trees sown, fresh carpet shrubs ... In the first stage, most of the trees are re-grown. born bear the ball so after 15
germination, seedlings exist with high density. Through natural selection process, the number of regenerated trees decreases with time (height). Quality and origin of regenerated plants In the natural forest stands surveyed, the proportion of regenerated trees from seeds accounted for 64,4 - 87,3% of the total regenerated trees, 51,7% higher than the rate of regenerated trees originating from shoots (12,7 - 35,6%). In Kon Ha Nung, the rate of regenerated seeds is much higher (80.4% on average), followed by Krong Pa (77,1%) and the lowest, Kon Chu Rang (71,9%). The quality of good regenerated trees (A) accounts for the majority of regenerated trees in the stand, ranging from 48,7 to 74,5%, followed by; average quality (11,9 - 31,2%) and lowest, bad quality of regenerated trees (8,13 - 29,4%) 3.3. Situation of development of existing the P. Braianensis forest planting models in Kon Ha No, Tay Nguyen 3.3.1. Situation of development of existing the P. Braianensis forest planting models The cultivation and testing of the P. Braianensis species by the method of enriching the forest as well as the research on the techniques of forest plantation the supply of businees large timber has been paid attention to be implemented quite early, clearly showing the important and potential role testing of the P. Braianensis species in the restoration of natural forests and trading in businees large timber forests in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen areas. However, this interest has not been invested in research and development in a systematic way to bring this potential tree species into production on a large scale. 3.3.2. Evaluation of technical measures applied in the P. Braianensis plantation models in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen The models of the P. Braianensis plantation in Kon Ha Nung area are located in the natural distribution area of the species, on the sites of red brown Feralit soil, basalt red soil, quite flat terrain, with a slope of 5 - 150. Seed sources used for afforestation and forest enrichment are collected from natural forests, not selected. The standard of seedlings for planting is generally small, the average stem diameter is from 0,45 to 0,50 cm, the average tree height reaches 50cm. 3.3.3. Growth and development of the P. Braianensis species plantation models Survival rate, growth and growth of the P. Braianensis species The plantation models of the P. Braianensis according to the method of forest enrichment and afforestation to supply large timber all have a relatively high survival rate, ranging from 66,0 to 91% when the forest reaches the age of 13 - 29 years, in which, forest enrichment planting models with survival rates ranged from 73,0 to 75,0% (P. Braianensis), from 76,0 to 78,0% (Michelia mediocris), and models of afforestation for timber supply large survival rate of Giua velvet ranged from 66.0 to 91.0%. In general, in the P. Braianensis afforestation models at the age of 14-21 years, the proportion of forest stands reached 66,0% compared to the original design and still ensured the density needed for the purpose of afforestation businees large timber. The average growth targets of diameter and height of P. Braianensis have not been statistically significant at the 95% confidence level between the enrichment planting models with the models of large timber plantations. However, the average growth rate of the canopy diameter in the
business large timber plantation models is 0,03m/year higher than the average of the forest enrichment models. Canopy cover, forest canopy and regeneration under forest canopy in planted forest models The models of P. Braianensis plantations all have quite high canopy cover, ranging from 0,7 to 0,9, with such high canopy, which will greatly affect (strongly and strongly suppress) plant species. Forest enrichment in general and the P. Braianensis tree in particular. The models of forest enrichment planting are basically, the forest canopy layer in the ice should not overwhelm the planting tape. In addition to participating in the lower canopy floor, some trees have also started to participate in the main canopy along with the trees in the bandage, on average only 3-5m lower than the main canopy. The number of regenerated trees under forest canopy in the surveyed stands is also quite large, ranging from 3.060 to 8.438 trees/ha. The species of regenerated trees under the canopy of P. Braianensis are also quite diverse, mainly species: Syzygium wightianum, S. Zeylanicum, Cratoxylum maingayi, Pterospermum heterophyllum, Endospermum chinense, Dialium cochinchinensis, Choerospondias axillaris... The average height of regenerated tree ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m. The successes and shortcomings of the Macadamia plantation models have been built - The successes of the built models: + The site of P. Braianensis plantation is relatively suitable, the plantation models are located in the natural distribution of the species; + Methods of afforestation and afforestation concentrate with different technical measures, quite suitable to the ecological characteristics of the P. Braianensis species; + Forest planting models are all aimed at enriching forests, planting forests to business large timber, with appropriate planting density; + Experimental models for planting business large timber are applied fairly technical measures from the stage of fertilizer application, care, monitoring and evaluation, so the plants grow relatively well. - Some shortcomings of models built: + Through surveying and surveying forest planting models, many localities have a need to grow the P. Braianensis but the afforestation has not been successful due to the selection of the right subjects, cultivation techniques and too forest nurturing care is still limited; no specific conditions for site planting were identified; + The source of seed used has not been selected (not selected, because the plantation units collect from many sources, mainly from natural forests, so there are also poor quality mother trees) so the quality of trees seeds are not guaranteed and standards of unsecured seedlings (young trees, the height is only 20 - 30cm, so seedlings are not competitive with the encroachment of weeds, vines and shrubs), so they do not like suitable for forest enrichment and afforestation for business large timber supply; + Models of plantation forest, especially models of forest enrichment planting, caring and rearing after the expiry of basic construction period (3 years) are not allowed to continue, not open canopy for forest plantation. Head grows well. So the tree in the ice is planted in the ice tree to squeeze and overwhelm, leading to forest plants grow and develop poorly. 17
3.4. Growth and growth of the P. Braianensis species in natural forest stands in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen 3.4.1. Some indicators of stand growth and species of the P. Braianensis in forest stands Some indicators for growth of forest stand and species of the P. Braianensis The P. Braianensis species in the surveyed forest stands at a very low rate, from 1,7 to 6,2% of the total number of individuals in stands and reserves accounting for 2,4 - 37,4% of the total forest reserve. This shows that the number of individual species of the P. Braianensis is low but most of them are large timber trees, with average trunk diameter ranging from 27,6 to 65,1cm, and height average from 17,6 to 29,4m, higher than the mean of 114,3 - 243,2% of the average forest stand diameter and 99,8 - 156,4% of the average forest stand height. Some indicators of growth of new individuals from adjacent classes participate in trees in the surveyed stands In the period from 2004 to 2017 in the surveyed forest stands, the number of newly emerging individuals from the adjacent regeneration class participating in the high tree layer between the time of the survey has not been significantly different. at all surveyed stands. At the time of the survey in 2008, the number of newly emerging individuals participating in high tree layers ranged from 2 - 30 new individuals/ha and the number of new individuals appeared the most, ranging from 59 - 99 individuals/ha at the time of the survey in 2012. However, at the time of the survey in 2004 and 2017, no new individuals were seen from the nearby regeneration tree. The average cross-section increased by new individuals participating in the tree layer reached 0,02 - 0,30m2/ha and the average volume added to the stand was from 0,26 to 4,64m3/ha. 3.4.2. Growth model of the species of the P. Braianensis in the surveyed stands in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen Growth model of the P. Braianensis species diameter The annual growth rate of ZD tends to increase strongly in the period from 1 to 5 years, ZD = 0,23 - 0,83 cm/year, then tends to increase/decrease at different ages, ZD = 0,57 - 0,83 cm/year (6-10 years), ZD = 0,20 - 0,78 cm/year (11-20 years), and the annual growth is relatively stable in the period after 20 years (ZD = 0,61 - 0,72 cm/year). Periodic growth (5 years) ranges from ZnD = 2,05 - 3,53 cm/year. The average periodic growth rate ∆nD = 0,56 cm in the first 5 years, then increases to ∆nD = 0,75 cm (6-10 years) and tends to decrease in the following years. Table 3.1. Predictive growth equation for average trunk diameter of the P. Braianensis tree according to age TT
The rule of growth of diameter of the gibbon tree at the surveyed stands for the whole period (from 1-30 years old) was simulated through the Johnson-Schumacher jaw form (D1.3 = 28,465 * exp (- 30,182/( A (1-30) + 6,910) is most appropriate, based on the model parameters that exist in the whole, the correlation coefficients (R2), and AIC values are the smallest of 3 values. The results show that the rule of changing the average diameter growth of the P. Braianensis tree by age is as follows: - Growth process trunk diameter increases with age; - In the research scope of the thesis (from 1 to 30 years), growth of trunk diameter has not reached the maximum point. Therefore, during this period, adjusting the density as well as the impact of silvicultural techniques is necessary to promote the growth of diameter of the P. Braianensis tree in the growing period of the fastest and strongest increase in diameter. 3.5. Proposing some solutions to develop the P. Braianensis species in the direction of business timber business in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen 3.5.1. A number of technical solutions to nurture natural forest with the P. Braianensis distribution in the direction of business large timber - Based on some growth indicators of diameter, height and timber quality as well as demand and value, the P. Braianensis wood meets the criteria under current regulations. Therefore, afforestation with large timber supply is perfectly suitable and feasible. - Appropriate conditions for planting: The P. Braianensis supplying business large timber in Kon Ha Nung needs to ensure the ecological ecological requirements of: (i) Climate conditions, (ii) Terrain conditions, (iii) Conditions soil, and (vi) Vegetation condition, in which the site of planting should be ensured to ensure Feralit soil on the stone with the magic of crabs; Good soil, drainage, soil depth above 80cm, soil rich in nutrients, and dry season lasts no more than 4 months. The P. Braianensis is a large tree, growing fast, good wood; The wide ecological range can be grown in many regions/sub-regions with similar ecological characteristics, but most suitable in places with elevations between 600 and 1.000m. Places with average annual temperature of about 19 - 250C, average rainfall of 1.500 - 2.500mm/year ... - About seed sources: In the year of flowering, annual results, cycle of fruits often every 2 years, the main fruit season from September to October every year, high yield can ensure the supply of seed sources for planting forests on a large scale. The P. Braianensis is regenerated by seeds, less likely to regenerate shoots, so it is only traded from seeds. However, if the main season is not harvested in time, the fruit will crack into 3-4 pieces, and the seed will be dispersed out. - Determining the structure of high tree layer and regenerated tree layer to have a direction to adjust the target tree species, especially the species of the P. Braianensis, gradually eliminating nonpurpose tree species, meeting economic objectives. Large wooden joint of the forest. Determining the density of high tree layer and regenerated tree layer to assess the ability of species to use nutrient space in the stand, thereby adjusting the density of high tree layers and regenerating trees in the 19
approach with even distribution, especially, favorable conditions yhe P. Braianensis species in the high tree layer provide quality seed sources, as well as the development of the P. Braianensis seedlings under the forest canopy. - Based on the features of anatomical structure, the total amount of chlorophyll, the ratio of chlorophyll a/b in the samples of the P. Braianensis in different canopy sites in the forest structure can be seen: The P. Braianensis can be slightly shaded at the stage of regeneration (under the canopy), the stage in the canopy when expressing medium light preference, and can rise to the perfect light on the 5-7 year old stage. Therefore, in afforestation, there should be appropriate silvicultural solutions for plants to grow and participate in high tree structure as well as dominant tree species in stand, especially planting forest towards business large timber. + The P. Braianensis antler grows slowly in the first 3 years, so it is necessary to take care continuously for the first 5 years. The first three years of care 2 times/year by giving birth to vegetation and weeding, 2 years later just need to clear the vegetation once a year. Technical measures to take care such as clearing creepers and shrubs; Hoe, cultivate soil around the stump with a diameter of 1.0m. For models of forest enrichment planting, in addition to the above care, it is necessary to handle open canopy in the bandages, avoid pinching and overwhelming the main crop. Planting enriches poorly exhausted secondary forests with tight bandages from 1/3 - 1/2 height of forest canopy and planted on shrubs above 3m high with 3m wide band, creating favorable ecological microclimate conditions for birth the head of the the P. Braianensis tree. + Nourish the forest the P. Braianensis plant enriches poorly degraded secondary forest by opening the canopy to increase the illumination for the plants, ensuring that the trees are not shaded on the top of the growth to create conditions for the trees to join. into the main canopy. The time of opening the forest stand is in the 7th - 8th and 10th years - 11 years. With the technique of tightening the trees, pests and plants cover the main crops, cut the liana, comprehensive shrub, and re-promote natural birth. - Silvicultural measures affecting the forest are eliminating non-purpose tree species, trees with bad quality, poor economic value. In order to adjust the density appropriately, create conditions for valuable plants and regenerating trees to have good growth and development conditions, especially the P. Braianensis species in the stands. - The impact method is to regulate the composition and morphology distributed in the direction of even distribution through the nurturing and promotion of natural regeneration of valuable regenerated tree species, in which the the P. Braianensis is preferred. At the same time, combining the growth of vines, bushes, and vegetation creates favorable conditions for regenerating species to grow and develop well. 3.5.2. Some technical solutions for forest plantation the P. Braianensis in the direction of business large timber - Kon Ha Nung area (Central Highlands) is a natural distribution area of the P. Braianensis, so it is suitable for planting and developing this species. It is recommended to select areas with forest soil, good soil, low rate of mixed stone, deep soil layer. - Need to research and create breeds the P. Braianensis has high productivity, quality, exceeds 15 - 20% compared to the current mass for forest planting. In the immediate future, there are 20
no varieties selected and tested for provenances, so it is necessary to use the varieties collected from the transformed seed forests in Kon Ha Nung area. - Planting method: Planting enriches poorly exhausted secondary forests with tight bandages from 1/3 - 1/2 height of forest canopy and growing on shrubs above 3m high with 3m wide bandages, creating postnatal gas conditions. ergonomically suitable for the growth of the P. Braianensis tree. In addition, it is also possible to grow in a banded mix, a ratio of 1: 1 ( P. Braianensis : Michelia mediocris). - Techniques for planting and taking care of planted forests: + Creating seedlings: The P. Braianensis tree when nursery is light shade, suitable for shade of 50% in the period of 1 - 4 months of age, 30% in the period of 5-8 months of age, removing the cover 1 month before planting. Create seedlings with PE plastic pots, size 12cm x 20cm, potting mix: 93% soil A + 2% phosphate + 5% micro organic fertilizer. Top dressing with diluted NPK mixture directly applied to the bed. + Treating vegetation: Treating vegetation cover completely or by band or by crowd. The direction of ice is open in the East-West direction to increase the lighting time of the day. Combine the removal of pests and diseases on the ice, leaving the target tree, and large wood regeneration trees. + Soil preparation: digging holes with the size of 40cm x 40cm x 40cm. + Standard of seedlings for enrichment planting and planting of business large timber supply forests, it is necessary to ensure a minimum of stem diameter from 1,0 to 1,3cm, tree height from 1,0 to 1,5m to ensure success. + Planting season: August - September. + Planting miles after planting 1 month and taking care for the first time after planting for 3 months. + Cultivated forests should be taken care of continuously for 5 years. In the first 3 years of care 2 times/year by clearing the vegetation and weeding the root, 2 years later just need to clear the vegetation once a year. The first time in the beginning of the rainy season (May - June), the second time in the middle of the rainy season (September - October).
CONCLUSION, EXISTENCE, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Conclusion * Morphological and ecological characteristics The P. Braianensis Dandy is a large tree, D1.3 = 27,6 - 65,1cm, round body is straight, Hvn = 17,6 - 29,4m. The root have buttress, high natural branches, young branches and leaves with dark colored hairs. The period of young leaves is from December last year to January of the next year, and the period of shoots is from February to March. The period of young shoots and leaves is 2 months. The period of flower buds ranges from March to April (Kon Ha Nung and Krong Pa) to April - May (Kon Chu Rang), flowering period from April to May, but the main flower season focuses mainly in May. The period fruits from May to June and fruits ripens from September to October. The P. Braianensis Dandy has the wrong cycle every year. * Characteristics of distribution and ecological 21
The P. Braianensis Dandy is species endemic of Vietnam, found only in the Central Highlands provinces from Gia Lai, Dak Lak to Lam Dong (Di Linh, Braian) and recently discovered in Pu Mat National Park (Nghe An) ), and so far no documents have been found about the natural distribution of other. The P. Braianensis grows well on many soil types have a origin with different of parent rocks; prefer good soil, drainage, nutrient-rich, soil depth above 80 cm. * Characteristics of structure and natural regeneration - High density of trees ranges from 548 to 1.127 trees/ha, in which the density of The P. Braianensis is quite low (4 - 63 trees /ha), accounting for 0.6 - 8.3% of the density of forest stand. - The structure of N/D in the surveyed stands has the form of distance distribution, the largest number of trees in the smallest diameter (10-15cm) and decreases gradually when the diameter increases. - Forest composition in the surveyed forest stands is quite diverse, ranging from 26 to 100 species/ha, of which the main species involved in the forest composition are only 4 - 7 species/ha. The predominant species are usually valuable, fast growing and light-demanding trees, such as: Fagaceae, Syzygium wightianum Wall. Ex Wight et Arn, Gironniera subaequalis Planch., Ormosia balansae Drake, Machilus parviflora Meisn, …, with the coefficient of composition (IV%) from 5,1 to 28,8%. - The P. Braianensis Dandy only appears in the forest composition (according to IV%) in 11/19 OTC sites of Kon Ha Nung and Kon Chu Rang with IV% coefficient of 5,20 - 11,82%, particularly in Krong Pa does not have the presence of the P. Braianensis in the forest composition. - The abundance of the P. Braianensis species has large variation between the foests stands survey, the R index ranges from 2,17 to 3,20. Species diversity index is quite high, ranging from 3,27 to 4,06. - The density of regenerated trees ranges from 7.680 - 71.250 trees/ha. The density of the P. Braianensis species is relatively low in forest stands, ranging from 0 to 833 trees/ha, accounting for less than 3,51% of the rate of regenerated trees in surveyed forest stands. - The number of regenerated tree species participating in the regeneration of tree species in the number of trees (Ni) ranges from 1 to 8 species, of which in Kon Ha Nung forest stands, number of species ranges from 2 to 7 species, Kon Chu Rang (6-8 species) and Krong Pa (1-7 species). The rate of regenerated trees from seeds accounted for 64,4 - 87,3% of the total number of regenerated plants, 51,7% higher than the rate of regenerated trees originating from shoots (12,7 - 35,6%). * Characteristics of growth - The number of individuals participating in timber trees ranges from 459 - 689 trees/ha, of which the P. Braianensis has 8 - 36 trees /ha, accounting for 1,7 - 6,2% of individuals in surveyed forest stands. - The average cross-sectional area of the forest stand reaches from 34,32 to 51,93 m 2, in which, the basal area of the P. Braianensis species reaches from 1,19 to 14,72 m2, accounting for 2,628,8%. The average volume of forest stands reaches from 451,9 to 812,2 m 3/ha. - ZD of the P. braianensis species tends to increase strongly in the period of 1-5 years, Z D = 0,23 - 0,83 cm/year, then tends to increase/decrease at different ages, and Z D is relatively stable in the period after 20 years.
- Based on the age factor (A) of P. braianensis, it is possible to predict the growth factor in diameter (D1.3) through the growth function Johnson - Schumacher, with the equation: D1.3 = 28,465 * exp ( - 30,182 /(A (1-30) + 6,910)). * Situation of development of existing the P. braianensis forest planting models - The models of plantation in Kon Ha Nung have been interested in research and experiment since 1986 until now, mainly through 3 stages: (i) 1986 - 1988 period of forest enrichment planting in the direction awakening of species (Michelia mediocris and P. braianensis, 1: 1 ratio), with an area of 105ha; (ii) Period 1992 - 1994, planting enrichment forest, with an area of 100ha; and (iii) In the period 2000 - 2001, forest planting the P. braianensis provided large timber, with an area of 9 ha of concentrated forest. - The average growth and growth of planted forests the P. braianensis there is a large fluctuation between the surveyed stands, average diameter growth is from 0,53 - 1,12cm/year; average height growth is from 0,61 - 1,00m/year, and average canopy growth is from 0,11- 0,25m/year. * Proposing some solutions to develop the P. braianensis species in the direction of business large timber in Kon Ha No, Tay Nguyen (i) Planting in areas with forest land, good soil, thick soil layer; (ii) Researching and selecting varieties the P. Braianensis has high yield, quality, exceeds 15 - 20% compared to the current mass; (iii) Seedlings keeping in the field should be ensured (Dgoc = 1,0 - 1,3cm, Hvn = 1,2 1,5m); and (iv) Measures of fertilizer application (basal fertilizing, top dressing) and care should be taken in the first 5 years need to be applied. Measures of care applied: clearing creepers and shrubs; hoe, cultivate soil around the base of 1m, open forest canopy to ensure nutrient space for the P. braianensis tree to grow, develop well and participate in the main canopy of the forest stand. 2. Existence - The thesis is based only on 12 the P. braianensis trees and calculus to build the equation for estimating the growth of trunk diameter at position by age, but has not studied deeply with large sample volume and above wide scope. In addition, the thesis only studies the growth and growth of diameter but has not studied the growth and growth in height of the the P. braianensis trees. - Because the area of the P. braianensis plantation models is not much in the remaining area, the evaluation of the models has not been comprehensive and complete. The monitoring and evaluation of the models is not continuous, especially after the end of the project, so it is impossible to assess the process of dispersing, pinching canopy from the bandages to suggest intervention solutions. reasonable for each stage of development of the stand. 3. Recommendations - Continuing to study the model of predicting the growth of age at breast height of age for a long time and on a large scale. Moreover, it is necessary to study the growth and growth of the height of the P. Braianensis trees. - It is recommended to treat the pinched trees in the bandage to create the necessary nutritional space for the P. Braianensis to grow and participate in the main canopy. - Need to remodel the converted seed forests to serve the P. Braianensis forest. - Continuing to study continuous technical measures to develop the P. Braianensis forest into a major forest plant, supplying business large timber in Kon Ha Nung, Tay Nguyen areas. 23