Longman exam skills new proficiency use of english teachers book
EXAM SI Use of English Teacher's Bool<
CONTENTS MAP SECTION
Key to diagnostic test
Key to Students' Bool<
University of Cambridge sample answer sheets
C am brl~e G..eltifLcate oLe.tQfLcleJJ C'J "JJ.£nglisb The UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations to the Certificate of Proficiency consists of five papers: Paper Paper Paper Paper Paper
1: 2: 3: 4: 5:
Reading Writing Use of English Listening
From December 2002 each paper contributes 40 marks to the overall total of 200 marks. In order to pass, a candidate must achieve a minimum score of about 60% of the total marks. The marks for all the papers are combined; it is not necessary for candidates to achieve a pass mark in each individual paper.
a cloze test with fifteen gaps.
the learner's knowledge of grammar and vocabulary.
One mark for each correct answer.
a text containing ten gaps. Each gap must be filled with a word formed ii'om the stem provided.
the learner's knowledge of vocabulary and word formation.
One mark for each correct answer.
six questions each containing three sentences with a gap in them. The missing word is the same for the three sentences. Candidates must find one word which fits all three sentences.
eight sentences which must be transformed using a given word.
the learner's knowledge of grammar and vocabulary.
Two marks for each correct answer.
• two texts on which you answer a total of four questions.
• the learner's awareness of the use of language in a text.
• Two marks for each correct answer.
• a summary-writing on the two texts.
• the learner's ability to extract relevant information from texts and write a short summary.
• Up to a total of fourteen marks.
the learner's knowledge of . vocabulary (phrasal verbs, collocations, set phrases, etc.).
Two marks for each correctly answered question.
E ofLcleJJc'J Us~EngJls_
New Proficiency Use of English Students' Book consists of: . • a comprehensive introduction to the new format Cambridge Proficiency Use of English paper with exercises analysing the tasks and building up efficient strategies for dealing with them. • fifteen main units each consisting of a grammar section, a vocabulary section and a section devoted to the summary task. • five full-length Practice tests at Proficiency level and in Proficiency format, including exam tips. • appendices covering frequently-used idioms, phrasal verbs, and verbs, nouns and adjectives used with dependent prepositions. The fifteen main units are theme-based and cover all the main topics that are listed by UCLES for the new format exam (from December 2002 onwards).
111e fifteen main units are theme-based and cover all the main topics that are listed by UCLES for the new format exam (from December 2002 onwards). New Proficiency Use of English Teacher's Book contains the sections listed below. • Introduction. • Diagnostic test. This photocopiable test contains 50 four-option, multiple-choice questions and is based on the Advanced grammar points contained in the fifteen main units of the Student'.s Book. You may use it at the start of a course to identify which areas of advanced grammar a class or individual student has most difficulty with. • Diagnostic test answer key. • Answer key to the Students' Book Introduction, Units 1 to 15 and the five Practice tests. New Proficiency Use of English may be used in a number of ways: • Sequentially (i.e. from Unit 1 to the end in order). • In non-sequential order to supplement grammar practice in the class's main coursebook. • In non-sequential order to provide practice of advanced grammar points which have been identified as causing difficulties by means of the diagnostic test. • In non-sequential order to complement the topic of a coursebook extension and further practice of relevant vocabulary.
unit and to provide
• By doing the summary sections in sequential order, to provide thorough, practice of the skills required for Part 5 of the Use of English paper.
Whichever of these methods you use, it is strongly recommended that you work through the Introduction to the new format Paper 3 on pages 6 - 19 of the Studei1ts' Book with your class before your students attempt any of the other sections.
Each unit starts with a Grammar overview. This summarises the main points related to the unit grammar that learners at this level are expected to be familiar with. For easy reference, the information is presented in the form of tables. One way to exploit these would be to ask your students to study the tables at home, and to check any points of difficulty with you at the start of the next lesson. Each unit then presents a number of Advanced grammar points. These are points which commonly cause difficulty at this level and/or which are frequently tested in Cambridge Proficiency Paper 3 questions. Each point consists of one or more Focus questions which are designed to get the students thinking actively and analytically about the grammar point, rather than just reading a grammar rule. A brief explanation of the structure and usage of each point follows the Focus activity. You may want to ask your students to cover this explanation with a piece of paper while they do the Focus activity. The Focus questions for each Advanced grammar point have answers in the key. A variety of Practice exercises follow the Advanced grammar points. Those which come earlier in the grammar section practise only the items presented in the Advanced grammar points. The later Practices may also include items from the Grammar overview. In the grammar section of each unit there is at least one Practice exercise in the style of Proficiency Paper 3 Part 1 and/or Part 4. Each Practice activity has answers in the key. Some units also contain activities entitled Use your English. These are designed to encourage freer practice of grammar points that have been studied. These sections do not have answers in the key.
These sections have been specially designed to reflect the stronger emphasis on vocabulary and word grammar in the new format Cambridge Proficiency exam. The vocabulary items and word grammar which are presented and practised in these sections relate to the overall theme of each unit and thus do not follow exactly the same pattern in every unit. However, every unit contains a word formation task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 2 and a gapped sentences task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 3. The vocabulary sections in some units also contain tasks in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 1 and/or Part 4. Special features Phrasal verbs and idioms are presented in the context of texts or sentences which relate to the unit theme. This makes it easier for the students to learn how they actually function in sentences and to deduce their meaning from the context. Practice of these phrasal verbs is also contextualised within the theme. Alphabetical lists of idioms and phrasal verbs appear in the appendices in the Students' Book. Several activities recommend using dictionaries in class. At Proficiency level, bilingual dictionaries or companions are not a sufficient guide to the subtleties of meaning or usage which need to be understood and handled by students. Therefore, it is recommended that you have sufficient copies of advanced level English-English dictionaries, such as the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, for students to consult while working together in pairs or small groups. By looking up new words and alternative meanings, students take an active part in expanding their own vocabulary and are more likely to remember new items than if they were translated for them. In addition, several activities in the vocabulary section invite students to add their own ideas and examples to those offered in the book. Again, this encourages an active role in their own learning process and helps to build the learners' confidence. Possible answers to these activities are suggested in the answer key. Study tips in this section offer ideas for recording and remembering new vocabulary. It is recommended that you read through these tips in class and invite comments and further examples, where appropriate, from the students. You may also want to check later if students are using any of the strategies that have been suggested in earlier units and to discuss which they have found helpful. The vocabulary section also contains Use your English activities. These are word games, pairwork activities or discussion activities which are designed to offer freer practice of vocabulary and word grammar. These activities do not have answers in the key.
• Units 1 to 4 focus in detail on how to answer questions 40 to 43. • Units 5 and 6 focus in detail on how to identify the four content points to be included in the summary. • Unit 7 focuses on how to rephrase the content points in your own words. • Unit 10 deals with paraphrasing the first draft of a summary. • Units 8, 9,11,12,13,14 and 15 offer practice of complete Part 5 tasks (Questions 40 - 44) with varying levels of help and guidance. In addition, Practice tests 1 - 5 contain complete Part 5 tasks (Questions 40 to 44) with some tips. Before doing any of the Summary sections, it is strongly recommended that you work through the introduction to the new format summary task on pages 14 -19 of the Students' Book with your class. For some units, Information provided in the key.
boxes including background information about the topic are
Practice tests: marking There are five full-length Practice tests in the Students' Book. Part 1: Questions 1 - 15
1 mark per correct answer
Part 2: Questions 16 - 25
1mark per correct answer
Part 3: Questions 26 - 31
2 marks per correct answer
Part 4: Questions 32 - 39
2 marks per correct answer
Part 5: Questions 40 - 43
2 marks per correct answer
1 mark for each correctly identified content point plus up to 10 marks for the summary-writing task 75 marks .,<
'.' To convert to a score out of 40 (the total possible adjusted score for Proficiency Paper 3), divide the student's total marks by 75 then multiply that figure by 40. Note: Answers to questions 40 - 43 are provided in the key. For question 44, the four content points are listed, but model summaries are not provided as it is not possible to anticipate the range of appropriate answers that may be given.
Summary: marking First, allocate one mark for each content point which has been correctly identified. There is a maximum number of ten marks available for the summary writing task itself. To qualify for high marks (between eight and ten) the summary: • • • •
must be within the limit of 50 - 70 words. must not include sections copied word-for-word from the original texts. should be logically organised with appropriate use of connecting phrases. should be grammatically accurate and correctly spelt.
If the summary fulfils none of the criteria listed above, allocate marks between zero and two. Allocate marks for average summaries between three and seven, depending on how well the criteria above have been fulfilled.
Diagnostic test • This test can be used at the start of a course to identify which areas of advanced grammar a learner entering the CPE level has most difficulty with. 1 You wonderful! Is that a new perfume you're wearing? a are smelling b smell c will smell d have been smelling 2 Their train is a bound
to get in at 19.05. b likely c due
3 It gets on my nerves that way that Carol
a forever boasts
4 Since I : a have known
b is forever boasting
about her job. c never boasts d is never boasting
you; I have never seen you cry. b know c am knowing
5 When I lived in Paris, I strolling along the banks of the river Seine. a was enjoying b had enjoyed c would enjoy d used to enjoy 6 We to the new Harry Potter film on Saturday. If we can get tickets, would you like to come too? a were going b were thinking c had planned d had been meaning to go of going to go to go 7 Our last holiday in Italy was a quite b fairly 8 The louder he talks, a very irritated
I become. b so irritated c the more irritated d more irritated do
9 She prefers an evening at the cinema a to going out b rather than go out 10
Rod is too poor a that he can buy
11 He talk to. a must 12
be famous, but that doesn't necessarily mean he's interesting to b could
13 Given the chance, many children
a are watching
a Owl is a
to bars or clubs: c than going out d to go out
a new car. b so as to buy c for buying
The lecture's been cancelled, so we a might b could
marvellous. c exceedingly
b will have watched
nocturnal creature(s). b An owl is a
as well go for lunch now. c should d will TV uninterruptedly for hours. c will be watching d will watch
is an instrument for looking at small objects. a A microscope b Microscope c The microscope
d One microscope
My brother has you. a the contacts
d a contact
in the personnel department who might be able to help b contact
c the contact
That's strange - I sent the parcel by courier, so you now. a must b couldn't c should
have received it by d needn't
The engagement ring he gave her a couldn't have b might have
been more beautiful. c shouldn't have d must have
My teacher says it's a pity I didn't start lessons when I was younger, because she thinks I have become a professional musician. a must b would c may d could
20 Several witnesses said they saw the woman and child leaving the building together. However, as the child was smiling and holding the woman's hand, they assumed she his mother. a had to be b must be c must have been d was to be 21
He told me he a was to
~ finish a report before he could join us for a drink. b must have to c had to d must have had to
22 This is a argued 23 He begged a that she forgive 24 That was
to be the best film the famous director has made. b accepted c hoped d thought :
him. b that she c for her forgiving should forgive
d her to forgive
party last night - I haven't had so much fun for years! b some cone d no
25 Unfortunately, children nowadays are able, or prepared, to read classic works, such as Peter Pan or Treasure Island, in the original versions. a little b little c few d a few 26 I would normally have been on that train that was derailed yesterday, but
............... told me I should take my car to work instead. a anything b everything c something 27 We've had a burglar alarm installed in our holiday cottage about leaving it unoccupied for long periods. a lest we should b in order that c so that we will we should 28
d nothing feel happier d for fear that we will
her excellent qualifications, she hasn't yet found a suitable job. a Thanks to b Despite c Although d As a result of
29 The plot was
complicated it spoiled my enjoyment of the book. b such c so d so much
these new regulations to come into force, our work would become much more difficult. a If b Should cHad d Were
If you you. a do
keep teasing the dog, you shouldn't be surprised that it snaps at b will
32 If you had paid more attention in class, you
a would have
b will have
better marks now. c ought to have d should have
33 She can't have studied chemistry at school if she
is. a doesn't even know
b hadn't even known
what a heavy element
c wouldn't even know
d won't even know
34 I'd rather
all those stories about me as a child to my new boyfriend, Mum. I was awfully embarrassed. a not have told b you didn't tell c you wouldn't tell d you hadn't told
35 I wish you
a won't interrupt
when I'm telling you something important. b wouldn't c didn't interrupt d hadn't interrupted interrupt
36 What's the matter? You look as though you
a are seeing
37 Oh no! It looks like my rucksack
bus. a has left
b has got left
a ghost. d had seen
behind in the scramble to get on the c had left
d had been left
38 The book was banned in Britain because it was seen
minorities. a be
b to be
39 I think it's disgraceful that the children aren't
break. a let
b let to
offensive to racial d having been go outside during the
40 The colours you've chosen are lovely, dear, but next time try
shading within the lines a bit more. a keeping b to be kept
c and keep
41 The girl said she went up the tree because her brother
a had dared her
b had dared her to
c was dared
d allowed to your d that you should keep climb it. d had dared
the news of the birth of her first grandchild, Mary burst into tears of joy. b Having heard c Being heard d Having been heard
are staff to enter this area without wearing protective clothing. a Absolutely not b Out of the c On no account d In no way question
44 Scarcely had the islanders recovered from the earthquake
began to erupt. a that
45 Only after a dozen attempts
a did she pass 46 Hardly
a voted anyone
b she passed
48 I don't think it's my fault;
computer crashed! a all 49 What I really want
her driving test. c passed she
I like most about summer. c which d that I did was touch that key there, and the whole c that
d the only
up your bedroom. b would be for you c is for you to to tidy tidy
50 He doesn't like children chatting in class
for the independent candidate. b did anyone c anyone voted vote
gaps 2, 7 and 14 gaps 3, 6 and 1 gaps 9 and 11 gap 5 gap 10
Strategy building II Tasks 26 laid; 27 deep; 28 flight; 29 sank; 30 custom; 31 stand
EJ and II 1 in; 2 for; 3 As; 4 far; 5 one; 6 only; 7 in; 8 led; 9 result; 10 issued; 11 spite; 12 caused; 13 no; 14 on; 15 rather
ar.t.,~t:Key' word tranSfOJ1UatLnns Strategy building I Task
Strategy building II Tashs 17 noun; 19 adverb; 20 adjective; 21 noun; 23 verb; 24 noun; 25 adverb
Strategy building II Tasks
Strategy building III
32 • identifying synonymous phrase: forever -+ no matter how often • changing verb tense: present continuous
recount (the other verbs formed from count are account, discount and miscount)
-+ present simple
33 • identifying synonymous phrase: immediately after -+ no sooner ... than • changing after + gerund -+ no sooner + past perfect
Strategy building IV
• identifying synonymous phrase: stop being unrealistic bring someone down to earth • changing verb to noun: lost -+ the loss • identifying dependent preposition the loss of
o gaps 17, 18, 19,21,22,23
3S • identifying synonymous phrase: because -+ but for ... (not) • changing verb tense and making it negative: simple past -+ wouldn't have + past participle 36 • identif)ing synonymous phrase: it II'asn't someone 's fault -+ someone's not to blame • identifying dependent preposition + gerund following it: to blame for + gerund 37 • changing active modal verb to passive verb: must not (enter) -+ (entry) is forbidden • identifying dependent preposition: forbidden to 38 • identifying emphatic construction: it was (my father) who • identifying synonymous phrase: persuade -+ talk someone into • identifying use of gerund after talk into 39 • identifying synonymous phrase: had just got dressed -+ had finished dressing (hersell) • changing word connecting clauses: when -+ than
32 33 34 3S 36 37 38 39
matter how often she warns sooner had she graduated than she went 1055 of his job brought Phil down to for her father's assistance, she wouldn't have not to blame for the dog chewing is strictly forbidden to anyone my father who talked me into learning had she finished dressing (herselO than
Part 5: SumllJ_ar task Detailed look at the task: Questions 40 to 43 Task
Text 1 . There is no reason to assume that the success rate Eorhumans would be any better and the disappointment and pain caused by miscarriages, abnormalities and early deaths would undoubtedly be much ~reater. Cogent though these arguments against human reproductive cloning are, the prospect of success is even more alarming. Imagine this scenario: a young boy grows up in the shadow oEa giEted brother killed in a car accident. At each stage in his liEe, the achievements oEhis deceased sibling are held up to him and his own failings are constantly ridiculed. Normally such a child would protest that .be should not have to live up to unreal expectations. But this boy cannot, for he is a clone, created Eroma cell taken from his brother's body. Or consider the situation in which a person creates a clone of himself or herself to overcome infertility. A child created this way would be the identical genetic copy oEhis Eather (or mother). So how would he react iEhis parent succumbed prematurely to an illness oEgenetic origin? Such worries may once have seemed fanciful and remote, but, according to Ian Wilmut, creator of the world's first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, the issue is so pressing as to demand a national debate among psychologists and biologists. Text 2 ... and thus would ask for those genes to be eliminated from the donor cell. But where should the client, or the law, draw the line? What iEthe parent knew he or she was likely to pass on a genetic predisposition Eor depression or dyslexia, or even for a body shape they happen to dislike? Such questions must be resolved before we start playing God with our genes. Furthermore, if customised cloning became widely accepted and practised, how would people regard children who weren't cloned and customised to design specifications? What about children born with disabilities, or even those who did not fit the accepted norms oEcloned beauty, health or intelligence? Would society view such children with tolerance or come to see them as errors in the genetic code - in short as defective products? If that were to happen, we might lose the most precious gift of all, the human capacity to empathise with each other.
D They are both about cloning human beings/reproducing humans by cloning.
2,3,4 and 5 (points 1 and 8 are summarised by point 2, points 6 and 7 are irrelevant)
D 3,2,4,5 (3 and 2 relate to cloning in general; 4 and 5 related to customised cloning)
Grammar point 3 1b;2d;3a;4c B
Is the summary the right length?
Yes No - too long No - too shon
Are all four content points included?
Have the ideas from the texts been rephrased in the writer's own words?
Yes,mainly Hardly at all
Are the ideas linked together coherently into a short paragraph?
Yes No - just a list of points
Practice B .I
1 doubt whether Carol will pass; 2 is sure to come; 3 about to leave for; 4 (I ordered) is due to; 5 guests are to leave
1 will look; 2 will be glancing; 3 will already be; 4 will have; 5 will feel; 6 fall; 7 pick; 8 phones; 9 see; 10 are bringing; 11 will have spent; 12 agree; 13 appreciate; 14 don't treat; 15 play; 16 are visiting/are going to visit; 17 are travelling; 18 are looking forward; 19 will never be; 20 admire
.I .I 1 take to - c; 2 fall out with - f; 3 fall for - h; 4 look down on - k; 5 come between - a; 6 make up - j; 7 get along with - e; 8 lash out at - b; 9 put someone down - d; 10 put up with - g; 11 get someone down - i; 12 turn to - m; 13 let someone down - I
1 Advanced _rammar
look up to t= look down on take against t= take to
Grammar point 1 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Are you cooking ... (refers to an activity in progress at
the present time.) I expect ... (stative verb - not usually used in continuous form.) correct correct correct If tastes ... (verb used statively to refer to the taste rather than the activity of trying to see how the food tastes.)
Pattern Pattern Pattern Pattern
I fall for, come between, turn to 2 get me down, let me down
3 look down on, put up with 4 fall out with, get along with, lash out at
1 putting his wife down; 2 looked down on; 3 lashed out at; 4 looked LIpto; 5 came between LIS;6 got along with; 7 fell out, made up; 8 took against; 9 let me down; 10 usually falls for; 11 put up with
Grammar point 2 Sentence 2
Practice A 1 is thinking; 2 is forever complaining; 3 suspect, are having; 4 are having, presume, don't want, abhor; 5 recall; 6 wears, is entertaining, wants, annoys, is always coming out of, is continually tucking; 7 are you doing, smelling, don't think, smells; 8 are always interrupting, am talking, doesn't matter, seems; 9 Do you see, are not seeing, are looking, appear
3c (cut someone off without a penny) 4b (there is little love lost between) 5a (take good care of) 3a (cut someone dead) Ib (get on someone's nerves) la (get your own back on someone) 2b (bring someone down a peg or two) 5b (in care) 4a (love at first sight) lc (get on like a house on fire) 2a (bring out the best in someone) 4c (puppy love)
Question 1 1 'view' (line 11); 2 'hopelessly rosy' (line 11); 3 'hopelessly rosy view' (line 11) Question 2 1 'an attractive feature'; 2 'eyes like saucers' (line 2) Question 3 1 ... 'a third of children waiting to be adopted remain in care for more than three years.' (negative comment); 2 'languishing' (line 7) Question 4 1 'children awaiting adoption'; 2 'those being looked after by local authorities' (lines 8 - 9); 3 'come with considerable baggage' (line 9)
1 'bouncing babies and tottering toddlers' (line 12) 2 'obstructive' (line 9) 3 'a strapping adolescent' (line 15)
2 ... I've lived.
1 moved, has improved; 2 has become, has lived; 3 have existed, has done; 4 have known, has always used; 5 have always worn, fell, sprained; 6 have been; has never even offered; 7 has never cleaned, has owned; 8 have become, have been married; 9 has only learnt, got married; 10 have been here; have never stopped
Practice C 1 have learnt; 2 monopolise; 3 was; 4 had existed; 5 had led; 6 epitomised; 7 involved; 8 remain; 9 was; 10 swelled; 11 were joininglhad joined; 12 were fashioninglhad fashioned; 13 played; 14 was; 15 fuelled; 16 had already defeated; 17 multiplied; 18 peaked; 19 had begun; 20 sought; 21 grew; 22 has become; 23 remains; 24 will become; 25 will prove
).Locab ula y,--:-~~
1 blow up - d; 2 break in - c; 3 break out from - p; 4 bring in a verdict on - j; 5 be brought up on charges of - i; 6 come before - h; 7 be done out of - e; 8 get away with - 0; 9 hold up - b; 10 be let off -I; 11 make off with - a; 12 on the run - n; 13 be pulled in - g; 14 be sent down - k; 15 be taken in - f; 16 turn oneself in - m give oneself up = turn oneself in get/make away with = make off with
1 blow; 2 up; 3 off/away;4 broken; 5 before; 6 up; 7 in; 8 off; 9 sent; 10 on; 11 in immigrate (verb) to come into a country in order to live there permanently no preposition
apologise, arrest, blame, forgive, punish, feellbe held responsible
acquit, convict, repent, suspect, be found innocent / guilty
admit, confess, plead guilty charge
1 regretted having wasted / regretted that he had wasted 2 denied being / having been romantically OR denied that she was / had been romantically 3 was acquitted of murdering / having murdered 4 was found innocent of murdering / having murdered 5 pled/pleaded guilty to (Note: plead has two possible past tense forms) 6 confessed to having 7 (who are) suspected of being 8 have been arrested for (suspected) / have been arrested on suspicion of 9 has been accused of stealing / having stolen 10 has been brought up on charges of 11 were done out of 12 were taken in by
to strongly fix an idea, feeling, or way of behaving in someone' s mind or to put something into someone's body by doing a medical operation
something that has been implanted in someone's body in a medical operation
to put something in danger
to bring something into a country from abroad in order to sell it
something that is brought into one country from another in order to be sold or the process or business of bringing goods into one country from another
to put someone in prison or to keep them somewhere and prevent them from leaving
1c;2b;3a Note: the prefix anti is sometimes used with a hyphen, and
sometimes not. There are no set rules for when a hyphen is used or not, but, in general, one is not used in words like antiseptic or anticlimax, where the combination of prefix + noun/adjective is quite commonly used. Hyphens are frequently used in combinations like anti-terrorist, antifascist, anti-nuclear. In some words, both spellings may be used, depending on individual preference e.g. anticlockwise or anti-clockwise, antisocial or anti-social.
Question 3 2 'depression'; 3 '25-year oIds'; 4 the depression suffered by 25-year oIds/young people/people mid-twenties
Practice D 1 wealthy westerners / people who live in developed countries 2 looking for / the search for happiness 3 times when people are so involved in what they are doing that they don't think about themselves. Information box t Page 42, Text 2, lines 1 - 2 'even those of us who have not lain on the couch' = those of us who have not undergone therapy. The phrase refers to the practice, particularly in psychoanalysis, of inviting the patient to lie on a couch while undergoing therapy.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
dull a film was it / dull was the film prefer working at home to spending older helTom gets, the more tight-fisted Tomlhe is too proud to ask anyone to lend in an extremely shocking way/manner had such a peculiar taste faster Sandra drives, the more frightened her would sooner travel by ship than go on think their daughter is mature enough 10 great a hypocrite is he that
Practice E 1 fairly/quite; 2 enough; 3 best; 4 the; 5 welVfully; 6 whole/entire; 7 too; 8 to; 9 more; 10 than
1 meek and mild; 2 back and forth; 3 off and on; 4 hard and fast; 5 well and truly; 6 over and above; 7 cut and dried; 8 fair and square; 9 high and dry; 10 fast and furious; 11 tried and tested; 12 safe and sound
D 1 • first and foremost - used to introduce the main reason or purpose for something • hale and hearty - very healthy and active • to and fro - back and forth 2 depends on dictionary used 3 hale and fro 4 foremost scientist/expert/writer/authority etc. a hearty laugh/meal
Grammar point 2 1 and 3
Practice C 1 The longer he played, the more tired he got. 2 The sooner you finish typing that report, the earlier you may go home. 3 The more chocolate biscuits I eat, the more I want. 4 The more tired he gets, the clumsier he becomes. 5 The more often I see Sam, the less I like him.
Grammar point 3 So convincing a liar was he
Grammar point 4 1c; 2b; 1c
1d (as different as chalk and cheese); 2f (as dull as ditchwater); 3i (drink like a fish); 4c (as old as the hills); Sh (sing like a lark); 6b (as hard as nails); 7a (as tough as old boots); 8e (as similar as two peas in a pod); 9g (as pretty as a picture)
as pretty as a picture, took to it like a duck to water
as dull as ditchwater, drinks like a fish, mutton dressed as lamb, like a bull in a china shop, looks like butter wouldn't melt in her mouth
Neutral/ it depends
as different as chalk and cheese, as hard as nails, as similar as two peas in a pod, like a red rag to a bull
dreadful- dread (noun and verb) about something that may happen
Question 2 1 an unhappy situation 2 No 3 It emphasises the negative aspect of the situation and the fact that nothing can be done to alter it. Question 3 1 negative aspects 2 positive 3 however, there are also drawbacks/disadvantages Question 4 1 health problems 2 to fire / set off the gun 3 Yes, cause and effect .4 number 5 set off/cause/lead to a number of/several health problems
a feeling of / feel anxiety 1 people who like staying up late/who feel the function better at night 2 is severely affected in a negative way 3 the people who were studied 4 to emphasise that working at night is not natural for people
Part 3 26 dead; 27 face; 28 charged; 29 given; 30 last; 31 line
They are both about the twenty-four
hour society and its
Question 1 1 'after six 0 'clock', 'evening', 'late-night', 'at all hours of the day or night', 'all-night'. Most of these refer to night -time.
32 should have been repaired a long 33 no question of the team giving up 34 that he should accompany her 35 gap appears/seems to be narrowing these 36 expressed a preference for goinglbeing taken 37 letting/having let his friend talk him into robbing 38 found her novel so absorbing (that) she forgot 39 found the test plain sailing except
Part 5 40 not working very well / operating only with difficulty 41 a depressing / financially uncertain one (for older people) 42 One in which all unemployed people are paid by the state. 43 'the growing burden on the healthcare system posed by the ageing population' (lines 15 -16) 44 Content points The social budget has been depleted by high medical costs due to greater life expectancy (Texts 1 and 2). This budget also pays out a lot of money to support the unemployed (Text 2). Fewer people are now working and contributing to the budget (Text 1). By 2010 more than a third of the British population will have reached or be approaching retirement age (Text 1).
1 put in for - i; 2 take up - d; 3 change over to - h; 4 be snowed under - k; 5 toil away - e; 6 keep on top of - f; 7 take on - a; 8 be laid off - 1; 9 turn your hand/s to - g; 10 bring in - b; 11 bring up - c; 12 take up - j
bring in - regulations, a salary put in for - a pay rise, the post of take on - a project, new staff take up - grievances, the post of
1 brought in, taken up; 2 take on; 3 am snowed under, taken on; 4 layoff, turn their hands to; 5 bring up, toiling away/slaving away; 6 put in for, changed over to; 7 bringing in, took up, keep on top of
Grammar point 1 1 and 3
Practice A 1 2 3 4 5
may not be easy to work with, but may not be much of a cook, but may be expensive, but it is more durable may be the boss, but that doesn't may work in adjoining offices, but
1 , 3 and 4 (but 4 is only used when giving a definition)
1 2 3 4
Grammar point 3 They are all adjectives used as nouns. 1 The good = good people; the great = great people 2 the good = the benefit (abstract noun)
a bunch of grapes, bananas, amateurs a group of people, buildings, children a pack of cards, dogs, rogues a series of accidents, coincidences, tests Note: series relates to things arranged in or events happening in a sequence.
1 A tapeworm is a parasite which lives in the stomach and intestines of mammals. 2 Pets/a pet often provide/provides comfort and company for the elderly. 3 A telescope is an instrument which allows you to see long distances. 4 Orang-utans/The orang-utan are/is native to the forests of Sumatra and Borneo. 5 I always give money to charities which help the homeless. 6 A hospice is a place where the terminally ill are looked after. 7 Teenagers often go through a phase of being fascinated by the supernatural. 8 The unknown can be frightening but often turns out to be more enjoyable than the familiar.
uncountable nouns an act of courage a bit of cheese, land, news, sand, truth a grain of sand, truth clothing, news an item of a piece of cheese, land, news
1 loads of 2 a handful of 3 a sack of 4 a packet of 5 a box of 6 a roomful of 7 a pile of
1 adder is the only venomous snake native 2 to help the illiterate are being introduced 3 join the ranks of the 4 a thesis on the social behaviour of the 5 critic of the extravagance/extravagant habits of the
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. (Someone' s opinion of who or what is beautiful is subjective.) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. (What you have now is more important than risking it to try to get something else you do not have.) An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (Eating an apple every day will keep you healthy.) Pride comes before a fall. (If you are too proud of your achievements, you will suffer bad luck) A stitch in time is worth nine. (It is better to deal with a problem immediately, or it may get worse later.) The meek shall inherit the earth. (A saying ofJesus Christ = Humble people will be happier in the end than powerful and proud people.) Youcan't teach an old dog new tricks. (Old people don't want or like to learn anything new.) The proof of the pudding is in the eating. (Youdon't know how good or bad anything will be until you try it.)
Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (Foolish people do things in a hurry, without considering the consequences first) 10 Neither a borrower nor a lender be. (Don't borrow or lend money.)
Learners can study at their own pace and follow different pathways with varying academic content. (Points 2 and 3) Students can move to a more academic pathway / to a higher level after completing a less academic one / a diploma. (Points 3 and 4) (Succeeding in) vocational training builds their confidence and leads to better academic results. (Point 8) They may repeat classes/years until they reach the minimum standards. (Point 9)
Adjective outdated, outdoor, outlying, outspoken
outburst (burst out) = an explosion / sudden occurrence of something, e.g. noise, anger, protest outlook (look out) = the prospects for something, e.g. the economic outlook; the outlook for tomorrow's weather or your attitude to life, e.g. an optimistic outlook outset (set out) = the beginning outspoken (speak out) = unafraid to voice an opinion openly
Grammar point 2 1b;2c;3a come upon = come across (4) get on = get ahead (5) make up = think up (1) put across = get across (4) work out = think out (1)
Practice A 1c (no difference): 2b; 3c (should have become = advice; could have become = unfulfilled possibility); 4c (no difference); Sb; 6b; 7c (would have taken = decision made in the past, but abandoned; could have taken =unfulfilled possibility)
Practice B They are both about the ways in which the Dutch education system helps pupils who are not academically gifted.
D 1d; 6a; 7b; 10c
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
couldn't have chosen a better present could have gone to lecture/work as a lecturer could/might have given me that should have been handed in illness I would have finished might as well not have gone couldn't have been Auntie Maude who
Practice C 1 must have struck; 2 would/must have found; 3 should have been preserved; 4 had to; 5 was able to; 6 would/must have been worn; 7 could not have been; 8 would have been crushing; 9 must have dazzled; 10 must/would have been; 11 had to
)LQcabu lary 1 plough through - d; 2 delve into - f; 3 hunt down - b; 4 piece together - j; 5 dig up - c; 6 pore over - g; 7 look up - e; 8 carry out - i; 9 trace back - h; 10 turn up - a
happen on = turn up wade through = plough through
carry out delve into dig up
a dig/excavation an archive an ancient manuscript, fragments of pottery an ancient manuscript fragments of pottery an ancient manuscript
classic = a very typical example of something classical = based on or belonging to a traditional style or set of ideas, especially in art or science or connected with the language, literature etc of Ancient Greece and Rome comic = amusing, making you want to laugh comical = funny in a strange or unexpected way economic = connected with trade, industry, and the management of money economical = using money, time, goods etc. carefully and without wasting any historic = important because it is, or will be, remembered as part of history historical = connected with the study of history politic = sensible and likely to bring advantage; prudent political = connected with the government or public affairs of a country or with the ideas, activities, or advantage of a particular party or group in politics
Eland 1 no (irrelevant to the subject ofthe summary) 2 no (irrelevant to the subject of the summary) 3 yes 4 possibly 5 possibly 6 no (no space to include this in a 50 to 70 word summary)
Many anthropologiststake the latter view. They believe that homo sapiens strangled the opposition, slowly but effectively,by monopolising resources. Neanderthals liked to move around but returned to favourite caves when times got hard. Slowly groups would find that when they went back to those caves they had been taken over by spreading tribes of homo sapiens . .. it is hard to avoid the notion that our meetings with Neanderthals were often violent and fatal. Backed by improved linguistic abilities and a capacity to use mental symbols when working out problems, homo sapiens would have been a deadly foe.
m Possible answers bicentennial, burial, commercial, cordial, editorial, initial, material, memorial, perennial, potential, serial, testimonial
Part 4 ... modern humans had more complex and specialised tools and their superior language skills would have allowed them to plan and adapt their methods of hunting to the circumstances. As the Neanderthals had to compete with the shrewder homo sapiens [or their meals, they would have suffered bouts o[ starvation and a consequent decrease in the overall Neanderthal population, which could have been the cause o[ extinction. It is also possible that when homo sapiens first encountered Neanderthal man, he could have introduced devastating new diseases, much as the conquistadors did when they arrived in Latin America. Not having developed immunity to these illnesses, Neanderthals would have quickly perished. Another theory postulates that Neanderthals interbred to a greater or lesser extent with the incoming homo sapiens, whose genes eventually became dominant at the expense o[ the genes delivering Neanderthal characteristics.
Homo sapiens were more efficient and technologically advanced than Neanderthals and thus starved them of resources, such as shelter and food.
32 must submit your entry by 33 matter how often I remind her to take 34 is put at risk, you must adhere 35 but Paul can shed (some) light on 36 the merry-go-round span, the more piercingly 37 it not been for the heavy downpour 38 until five years had gone by did 39 their failure to learn anything on the fact
Part 5 40 They have little significance nowadays. / They are less important in people's lives than they used to be. 41 are the first adopt the idea of creating your own career 42 'has also pushed work up the agenda' (line 8) 43 'an increase in the levels of personal interaction at work' (line 15 - 16)
Work is now the main means by which we define our identity People shape their own careers, which makes work more interesting More women work than before, and do a greater variety of jobs Work has become more sociable and enjoyable
The Neanderthals could have become extinct as a result of being deliberately exterminated by modern humans. Homo sapiens may also have introduced deadly illnesses to which the Neanderthals were not immune. Another possibility is that homo sapiens and Neanderthals interbred and the former's genes dominated.
Practice A 1 could go home early since she wasn't feeling well. 2 would be here/there by six thirty. 3 (that) she didn't need to/didn't have to/wouldn't have to help him with his homework that day since he was able to/could manage it on his own. 4 we should have taken the second turning on the right, not the first. 5 must be Daphne's daughter since she looked just like Daphne had at the same age. 6 might join us for a drink after dinner but he had to go and visit his sister in hospital first. 7 were not to write on the question sheet.
Practice B Possible answers 1 (We promise/vow that) this will never happen again. 2 Viewers can vote people off the programme if they think they constitute temptations. 3 Please don't show this programme. 4 The producers of Temptation Island should be ashamed of themselves - they are trying to force the destruction of four relationships for the purposes of entertainment. 5 (I'm sure/confident that) our viewers will see that the show is not immoral, but that it is exploring the dynamics of serious relationships.
Grammar point 2 2
Practice C Possible answers a Before Columbus' historic voyage, the Earth was (widely) said/thought/believed to be flat. or Before Columbus' historic voyage, it was said/thought/ believed that the Earth was flat. b Sea levels are predicted to rise by 88cm by 2100. or It is estimatedlbelieved/predicted/claimed that sea levels may/could rise by 88cm by 2100. e He is rumoured/said to be very rich and to own a yacht. or It is rumoured that he is very rich and owns a yacht. d It is reputedlbelieved/claimed that her next album will be a solo one. e It is widely accepted that Internet charges are too high and should come down. or Internet charges are agreed to be too high and it is hoped that they will come down. f The film's production costs are estimated to be in the region of £5 million. or It is estimated that the film's production costs will be in the region of £5 million.
1 keep up with 2 play (someone) along 3 play up
D play up
1 ... recently he's taken to doing ... , ... he's playing on people's fear .. 2 so friendly that I sailed through it. 3 has taken up playing squash after work as he says it helps him to relax and takes his mind off office politics. 4 they've been playing her along for six weeks now. 5 prizes take off ... 6 want to play my grandmother's senility up/play up my grandmother's senility, but ... , ... could you just play along? 7 ... charity is teaming up with students from the drama college to put on an unusual fund-raising cabaret. The students who take part in the cabaret will be given a topic drawn at random from a hat, for example to send up a famous politician. As they won't know the topics in advance, the students will have to play it by ear.
(+ preposition) + (someone) + + that clause infinitive -ing
+ that + should
boast of/about, complain of/ about, insist on, suggest, talk about
Practice D 1 is understood to be out of hospital and 2 is rumoured not to be going to make 3 is believed (that) the chairman will offer/tender his or is believed the chairman will hand in his 4 is recommended (that) you (should) spend no 5 survivors of the fire are reported to have
Vocabu lar}! 1 take up - k; 2 keep up with -1; 3 take to - a; 4 take your mind off - m; 5 take part in - h; 6 play along - j; 7 team up with - n; 8 put on - i; 9 play on - g; 10 play up - f; 11 send up - c; 12 play it by ear - d; 13 sail through - e; 14 take off - b
--... Like many of the best-known characters are extraterrestrials.
1 'children of the current pre-teen generation' = young children
2 ' ... the story of a boy whose father has left him. Luke Skywalker has an absentee dad'
... modern cinema's two great money-spinners - Lucas and Spielberg- are both regressives, producing what in effect are big-budget children's movies with enough visual panache and sub-spiritual mumbo-jumbo that adults find them entertaining as well. (1) The plot of Star Wars draws heavily from fairytale and nods to Tolkien in the large quantities of furry creatures featured. In addition, examination of box-office history reveals that a high percentage of the most famous movies of all time share one element: their central characters are either wholly or partially removed from the soil on which the cinemas stand. (2) Text 2
... a novel published soon after the appearance of The Phantom Menace explored the possibility that the films are marital parables. In the novel, children of the current preteen generation obsessively watch Star Wars videos as they are sh unted between the separate homes of their mummies and daddies, clutching plasticjedi light-sabres and other tiein merchandise. Crucially, not only do they identify with Luke (3), but a love of these celluloid fantasies gives them a bond with their parents, who share this language with them. (4)
children whose fathers have left them = children from a broken home / children with divorced mothers 'identify with' = relate to 3 'celluloid fantasies' = films 5 'share this language' = they grew up watching the same films
Possible answers Young children relate to Luke, whose mother is divorced, as many of theirs are. Their love of the films gives them a bond with their parents, who also grew up watching them. (32 words) or The central character comes from a broken home, a fact which many young children can relate to. As their parents also watched Star Wars in their childhood. their shared love of the films forms a bond between them.. (38 words)
It is, perhaps, no surprise that the most successful cinematic franchise of all time originated in the Seventies. For there is increasing evidence in our current culture that the generation that grew up in that decade is becoming tyrannically nostalgic, engineering the return of their formative obsessions to stage, screen and record store, and imposing their infatuations on a new generation. This is not a content point, as the first line of the next paragraph says However, parental nostalgia alone cannot
explain the continuing popularity of films.
D a, b, e,f,g
of the Star Wars series
They are children's movies which adults enjoy as well. The films appeal to both adults and children.
a should be some, as it refers to a QTOUpof people, but not all street musicians. b should be some, as the question is an offer expects the answer 'yes'. e should be any, as it's a general question f should be any, as it refers to help in any shape or form, not a specific kind of help 9 should be anyone, as it is a conditional sentence