Thực hiện chính sách đào tạo nghề cho lao động nông thôn ở vùng đồng bằng sông cửu long tt tiếng anh
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
TRAN THI VANH KHUYEN
IMPLEMENTATION OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING POLICIES FOR RURAL WORKERS IN THE MEKONG RIVER DELTA
Specialty: Public Management Code: 9 34 04 03
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS IN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
The project has been completed at NATIONAL ACADEMY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Scientific instructors: 1. Assoc.Prof.Dr Le Chi Mai 2. Dr. Ha Quang Thanh
Reviewer 3: The thesis is defended at the Academy-level thesis evaluation council. Location: Doctoral thesis defense hall – Hall at Building , National Academy of Public Administration. No: 77 – Nguyen Chi Thanh Street – Dong Da District – Hanoi Time: At:
The thesis can be found out at National Library of Vietnam or the library of National Academy of Public Administration.
LIST OF THE AUTHOR’S STUDY PROJECTS 1. Participation of THE people in the implementation of the national target program on new rural construction, International Proceedings "Grassroots democracy initiatives and people's participation in the public policy making process in the Central Region ”, 2017. 2. Participation of people in implementation of
vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta Region, State Management Magazine No. 258, 2017. 3. Vocational training for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta , Special Education Journal in the third issue dated 3/8/2017. 4. Factors affecting the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta region, Magazine of research and development, No. 21, 2017. 5. Vocational training for rural workers in the Southwestern provinces - Real situation and solutions, Youth Magazine, No. 25, 2018.
INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the topic Vietnam is still a developing country with a largely agricultural-based economy. However, the quality of labor in general and rural labor in particular is very low. In order to meet the demand of human resources of an industrialized country in the modernization direction, it is necessary to improve the labor quality and strongly shift the labor structure in rural areas. Therefore, vocational training is a great mission. Recognizing this, our Party and State have long paid deep attention
to not only human resource development but also
vocational training for rural workers. In the Mekong River Delta region, which is considered a "depression region" of human resources quality compared to the whole country, the vocational training policies for rural workers is more necessary than anywhere else. Many positive results have been recently achieved during the process of policies implementation in the localities in the Region. However, there have been many limitations and obstacles arise in the process of policies implementation due to many different reasons, which makes the policy implementation still not as successful as expected. Therefore, the thesis "Implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta " is implemented to clarify theoretical and practical issues about the implementation of such policies in the provinces in the Mekong River Delta and then propose solutions to improve the results and efficiency of policy implementation in the coming time. 2. Purposes and tasks of the Study
2.1. Purposes of the Study To propose scientific solutions to improve the implementation of vocational training policies for rural laborers in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), contributing to improving the quality of rural laborers to meet public requirements of agricultural and rural industrialization and modernization in Vietnam today. 2.2. Tasks of the Study Firstly, to give an overview of the study situation of domestic and foreign authors on issues related to the thesis; Secondly, to study the scientific basis for implementation of vocational training policies for rural laborers; Thirdly, to analyze the real situation of policies implementation organization in the Mekong River Delta and then to evaluate the advantages and limitations and identify the causes of limitations; Fourthly, to develop scientific solutions to improve the results and efficiency of implementation of vocational training policies for rural laborers in the Mekong River Delta in the coming time. 3. Objects and scope of the Study 3.1. Objects of the Study The study objects of the thesis is the implementation of the vocational training policy for rural laborers in the Mekong River Delta localities. 3.2. Scope of the Study Space scope: 13 provinces and cities in the Mekong River Delta . Time scope: From 2009 up to now (Decision No.:1956/QDTTg with validity of enforcement).
Content scope: The thesis focuses on studying the policies implementation process based on the following basic steps: Developing documents and plans for policies implementation; Popularizing and propagating policies; Organizing the apparatus and assigning, coordinating for the policies implementation; Mobilizing and using resources for policies implementation; Inspecting, supervising and making preliminary sum-up , summary of policies implementation. 4. Methodology and study methods 4.1. Methodology 4.2. Research Methods Methods of analysis of secondary documents Method of investigation by questionnaires The writer conducted surveys for two groups of officials, civil servants and rural workers in 4 provinces: Tien Giang, Ben Tre, Soc Trang and Ca Mau. Total number of issued questionnaire forms: Forms for civil servants: 400; Forms for rural workers: 760. Total forms: Civil servants: 374; Rural workers: 714. Sampling method: random sampling. Survey results are processed by SPSS data processing software. Other methods In the thesis, some other methods such as comparison and modelling methods are used. 5. Study questions and hypotheses 5.1. Questions
implementation of the vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta ? What should be done to improve the results and efficiency of implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta in the coming time? 5.2. Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: The implementation of the vocational training policies for rural workers in the Mekong River Delta has not achieved the expected results. Hypothesis 2: Good implementation of steps in the implementation of vocational training polices for rural workers will contribute to improving the results and efficiency of the policies in the Mekong River Delta . 6. New contributions of the thesis Firstly, the thesis clarifies the rationale for policies implementation, including the focus on the process of implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in the localities where there are many jobs and many different activities. Secondly, the thesis developed criteria for assessment of inputs, implementation process and outputs of implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. Thirdly, the thesis identifies the factors affecting the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. Fourthly, on the basis of understanding international experiences and localities where the vocational training policies for
rural laborers have been successfully implemented, some lessons are given to be applied for the Mekong River Delta provinces in this thesis. Fifthly, the thesis shows the limitations of the implementation of vocational training policies for rural rivers in the Mekong River Delta localities and identifies the causes of such restrictions. Sixthly, based on the rationale, the reality of policies implementation as well as the Party's views and orientations for the policy implementation process, the thesis proposes scientific solutions to improve this task. 7. Scientific and practical meanings of the topic 7.1. Scientific meaning The study contributes to summarizing and developing the theory of implementing the vocational training policies for rural workers. 7.2. Practical meaning The thesis evaluates the real situation of organizing the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in a objective and comprehensive way; analyzes the advantages and limitations based on scientific bases and then propose solutions to strengthen policy implementation in line with the characteristics of the Mekong River Delta region. The study results of the thesis may become one of the reference sources for teachers, researcher on public policy, decision makers, management agencies, and civil servants. The thesis can also be applied in practice to implement the vocational training policy for rural workers not only in the Mekong River Delta but also other localities across the country.
8. Structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, conclusion, list of references, appendices, the thesis is structured into 4 chapters. CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: STUDY OVERVIEW 1.1. The study projects related to implementation of public policy 1.1.1. International projects 1.1.2. Domestic projects 1.2. The projects related to the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers 1.2.1. International projects 1.2.2. Domestic projects 1.3. Comments 1.3.1. Findings The study projects on public policy implementation have been approached in many different aspects, however, generally, it has formed a fundamental reasoning system to create favorable conditions for the writer to develop a theoretical framework for the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. In the domestic study projects, the issue of vocational training for rural workers is presented by the authors in a relatively adequate way, including basic concepts, orientations and solutions. The overseas study projects have provided the important scientific premises as a basis for developing solutions for vocational training Vietnamese rural workers. 1.3.2. Unclarified contents
The theory of policy implementation is a general theory in which no author has studied in depth on the theoretical basis for implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. The vocational training for rural workers is studied by many authors in many different approaches, however, this issue is mainly viewed from an economic perspective and but rarely analyzed in terms of public policy. The study projects in the world on the implementation of the vocational training for rural workers account for a limited number, which affects the study of experiences of other countries for application in our country. 1.3.3. Issues to be further studied Firstly, It is necessary to develop a theoretical framework for implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. Secondly, the thesis evaluates the real situation of organizing the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in a objective and comprehensive way; analyzes the advantages, limitations and causes of limitations based on the scientific bases and then proposes solutions to implement this policy in accordance with the characteristics of the Mekong River Delta . CHAPTER
POLICIES FOR RURAL WORKERS 2.1. Rural workers and vocational training policies for rural workers 2.1.1. Rural worker 18.104.22.168. Concept of rural worker
The term "rural worker" is approached in different ways. In this thesis, the author thinks that: Rural workers are a part of the population living and working in rural areas at the working age according to the provisions of law and having capability of working. 22.214.171.124. Characteristics of rural workers 2.1.2. Vocational training In this study, the author approaches the term "vocational training" as follows: The vocational training is the process of equipping certain knowledge about professional qualifications for employees so that they can undertake a certain job. 2.1.3. Vocational training for rural workers 126.96.36.199. Concept of vocational training for rural workers Vocational training for rural workers is understood as the process of equipping certain knowledge about professional qualifications so that rural workers get a certain vocational qualification, skill and proficiency meeting the requirements of rural socio-economic development. 188.8.131.52. Characteristics of vocational training for rural workers Trained subject Trainer Training characteristic Targets of vocational training for rural workers 184.108.40.206. The role of vocational training for rural workers Firstly, to improve the quality of qualification and professional skills for rural workers
Secondly, to improve income and household economic development Thirdly, to create jobs for rural workers and social stability Fourthly, to contribute to rural economic restructuring Fifthly, to meet the development trend 2.1.4. Vocational training policy for rural workers 220.127.116.11. Concept The vocational training policy for rural workers is a collection of decisions of competent state agencies for improvement of the quality of rural workers to meet the agricultural and rural industrialization and modernization. 18.104.22.168. Component policies The vocational training policies for rural workers include many component policies. In the thesis, the author focuses on studying 3 component policies including: Policies for rural workers to participate in vocational training; Policies for vocational education institutions; Policies for teachers and professional education managers. 2.2. Implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers 2.2.1. The concept of implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers Implementation of the vocational training policies for rural workers is the whole process of the training subjects in different ways to realize the contents of vocational training policies for rural workers based on the established objectives.
implementation for rural workers Firstly, policies implementation helps to gradually realize the targets of vocational training policies for rural workers. Secondly, policies implementation affirms the correctness of the vocational training policies for rural workers. Thirdly, implementation of the vocational training policies for rural workers makes this policy more and more complete. 2.2.3. Procedures of policy implementation Within the scope of the thesis's study, the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in localities including: developing documents and plans for policies implementation; organizing
implementation; disseminating and propagating policies; mobilizing and using resources and inspecting, monitoring and preliminary reviewing and summarizing the implementation. These steps are the tasks to be performed and they are intertwined, not necessarily in a constant fixed order. 2.2.4. Criteria for evaluation of policy implementation Policy review will focus on inputs, policy implementation and results of policy implementation or policy direct outcomes. The inputs and processes will be described and analyzed in the part "the real situation of vocational training policies for rural workers based on the steps of policies implementation. Criteria for assessment of the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers in vocational training, policies for establishments participating in vocational training for rural workers, policies for teachers and professional education managers.
2.3. Factors affecting policy implementation Firstly, it is the current policy; Secondly, the capacity of policy implementation team; Thirdly, the coordination of implementation agencies; Fourthly, the people's participation; Fifthly, material resources. 2.4.
implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers To get attention and participation of sectors and units from central to local levels in the process of policies implementation. To clearly define the responsibilities of participating agencies; Giving clear and consistent regulations on coordination mechanisms among agencies. To promote decentralization of management for local authorities and vocational training institutions. To strengthen policy propaganda, create the attraction for vocational training, combining vocational training and job introduction, ensuring stable jobs for vocational learners. Mobilizing the participation of the people and organizations, especially businesses in vocational training. CHAPTER IMPLEMENTATION
POLICIES FOR RURAL WORKERS IN MEKONG RIVER DELTA 3.1. Overview of the Mekong River Delta 3.1.1. Overview of natural, economic and social conditions
3.1.2. Overview of rural labor force in the Mekong River Delta The Mekong River Delta region has a high population, an abundant labor force, which has created advantages in labor resources and great pressures on labor and employment for the locality. 3.2. Organizing the implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers 3.3.1. Development of documents and implementation plans The Provincial People's Committees have issued many documents to guide localities to implement vocational training activities. The authorities at all levels plan to organize the implementation of vocational training for rural workers every year in the area. 3.3.2.
coordinating Organization of policy implementation apparatus Organization of the apparatus for policies implementation is performed based on the relatively unified organizational structure from central to local levels under the control of steering committees at all levels. Assignment and coordination for policy implementation The provinces in the Region follow regulations on the responsibilities of local agencies in implementation of vocational training policies for rural workers. The reality shows that there has been coordination among State agencies in implementation of policies.
3.3.3. Dissemination and propagation of the policies The information, propaganda and consultancy on vocational training for people are also regularly paid attention. Localities have actively built and implemented the plans of propaganda, vocational training advice, employment and directed the development of programs, specialized pages, column on radio, television, local media. 3.3.4. Mobilization and usage of resources Management of funding sources: Department of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (LISA) manages the non-agricultural funds; Department of Agriculture and Rural Development manages the source of agricultural vocational training funds. Such funding sources are directly allocated to the vocational training institutions to organize vocational training for rural workers in localities based on the decision for approving the annual implementation plan of the provincial People's Committee. The allocation and use of funds Central budget: In 5 years (2011-2015), the central budget for investment support for vocational training in the Mekong River Delta is VND 1,175,367 billion, accounting for 17% of the total funding of projects allocated to localities all over the country. Local budgets: In the past 5 years, the provinces have allocated 307 billion dong from local budgets to invest in building facilities, vocational training equipment, training vocational teachers and supporting rural workers during vocational learning process. In 2016, the vocational training budget for rural workers is arranged in the National Program for New Rural Construction. Currently, the provinces in the Region have allocated VND 92,735
million to support the vocational training for 75,522 rural workers, equal to 69.7% of the funds for vocational training for rural workers in 2015. Many other policies, programs, projects and projects in which the State budget are used for vocational training for rural workers are directly managed and steered by ministries, sectors, therefore, there is a dispersion of resources, overlap in beneficiaries and difficulties in monitoring, making statistics and summarizing results. Mobilization of resources The policy of socialization of vocational training activities of localities has initially been effective, mobilizing resources from investment organizations and individuals to establish the vocational training institutions. The ODA projects over the last 5 years have supported investments for vocational training institutions in the Mekong River Delta at 3,470,000 EURO and 13,153,144 USD. However, the proportion of investment capital to establish vocational institutions of non-public sector is still low compared to the potential and requirements. Socialization of vocational training is mainly concentrated in urban areas, while this rate is only 7% in Soc Trang and Bac Lieu provinces. 3.3.5.
performance The localities have actively developed plans to inspect and supervise the implementation of policies in the province. The inspection and supervision of the Steering Committee is regularly implemented. In addition, the localities held a annual preliminary meeting to implement and extend the plan for the next year;
Preliminary meeting of 2 years and 3 years on the implementation of Decision 1956/QD-TTg. 3.3. Results of implementation of component policies 3.3.1. Results of policy implementation for rural workers participating in vocational training The vocational training policy for rural workers has been implemented for nearly 10 years and has achieved many positive results. Vocational training in the region has developed, contributing to a positive change in economic structure, labor structure, job creation and poverty reduction in the region. The number of participants in vocational training has significantly increased over the years. In particular, the quantity of rural workers who has new jobs or continue to do the old jobs but with higher quality productivity after vocational training accounts for about 80%. The results and efficiency of vocational training for rural workers are uneven among localities in the Region. 3.3.2. Results of policies implementation for vocational education institutions The network of vocational training institutions is quite diverse, however, this quantity is quite limited in comparison with the population and total administrative units of the Region. Most vocational training institutions are supported to invest in facilities and vocational training equipment to participate in vocational training for rural workers. However, the facilities are invested from the first year of implementation of the project, it is difficult to avoid confusion and spreading in investment in facilities and procurement of equipment for vocational training.
3.3.3. Results of policy implementation for teachers and professional education managers The quality of vocational teachers for rural workers has been gradually improved in terms of professional qualifications and pedagogical capacity, better meeting the training requirements. However, these teachers have not yet met new tasks. The number of full-time teachers, especially teachers of agricultural techniques is not much, so vocational training institutions are very passive when opening classes. 3.4. Evaluation 3.4.1. Achieved results In the Mekong Delta provinces, the committees, authorities, officials and party members have made positive changes in awareness of the importance of vocational training policies for rural workers with the local socio-economic development. The apparatus for implementing vocational training policies for rural workers has been increasingly consolidated and completed in the direction of lightness and few clues. The clearly assigned functions and tasks have created favorable conditions for coordination among agencies in implementing policies. The contingent of cadres and civil servants in general, cadres and civil servants implementing vocational training policies in particular are increasingly enhanced in quantity and improved in quality. The dissemination and propagation of policies has been carried out relatively synchronously, social and political organizations have had quite good entry.
Although 2016 is the first year that the funds for vocational training support for rural workers is arranged in the National Target Program for new rural construction, however many localities in the region have actively developed plans, allocated funds from the central support and local funds to support vocational training for workers. The inspection and monitoring of the policy implementation process is conducted regularly with the participation of many agencies, in which the role of the Steering Committee is clearly reflected. 3.4.2. Shortcomings, restrictions The work of planning is only strictly implemented at the central and provincial levels, the closer to the base, the work has not been done well. In fact, there is very little participation between state agencies and socio-political organizations. For a long time, the focal point of management of vocational training facilities is scattered, specialized vocational training institutions are managed by the General Department of Vocational Education and the Department of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs, meanwhile, the system of facilities participating in vocational training is scattered according to the organizations of the state management system. The organizational structure is still incomplete, and there are many scattered clues. Up to now, the whole region still has 34/131 districts which have not been able to arrange full-time staff for vocational training at the District Department of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs.
The policy of merging and adding functions to public centers in the area into the Center for Vocational Education - Continuing Education is only implemented in some localities, other localities are slow to implement and wait for the guidance of their superiors. Propaganda and advocacy activities in the area still exist many problems: Form of propaganda in many localities is still simple and tedious, so many people, and even cadres and civil servants are not fully aware of vocational training policies; The quality of propaganda is not high; The propagandists have not convinced people when propagating and campaigning; Method of propaganda in some places are not suitable, so the propaganda effect is not high. The budget supported by the Central Government for vocational training in 5 years 2010 - 2014 is lower than the demand for vocational training registration of the people as well as the approved Scheme (equal to 29.3% of the demand). Financial resources have not met, have been fragmented, scattered and not focused priority for training advantage and key occupations. Checking and supervising the implementation of vocational training tasks for rural workers has not been conducted regularly, mainly combined with annual vocational training inspection. The monitoring and evaluation of the program have been concerned with quantity, not yet concerned with the results or policy’s impacts. 3.4.3. Causes Firstly, the vocational training policy for rural workers is not complete In fact, the vocational training policy for rural workers is still inadequate, causing difficulties for localities in implementing policies, resulting in low efficiency.
Secondly, the awareness of society, officials and civil servants is still not comprehensive The perception of vocational training by the majority of local officials is still in a narrow sense (developing skills to create jobs) not in a broad sense (vocational training is part of a sustainable livelihood development strategy). Thirdly, the capacity of policy implementation team is limited In the early days of implementing the policy, the personnel managing vocational training at the district level have not been assigned as a full-time job but assigned one officer of the Department of Labor - Invalids and Social Affairs to work multiple jobs, therefore, this work is sometimes loose. Qualifications and professional skills of cadres and civil servants in the main implementation are still limited, reducing the effectiveness of policy implementation. Most officials in charge of vocational training have not passed professional training courses. Fourth, the coordination is not tight There is no coordination in planning, checking, monitoring and evaluating the performance of the tasks and even there is overlapping in the management of training classes. The coordination between the agency in charge of the Program and the agency in charge of component content at all levels is still inadequate. Fifth, financial resources are not guaranteed Local resources for vocational training are very limited. The funds for vocational training approved for vocational training institutions is still low compared to market fluctuations, so it is not guaranteed to carry out training tasks. Sixth, people have not yet actively participated
Participation of the people has not been proactive. People are still not fully aware of their rights and benefits when participating in the process of implementing vocational training policies. The participation of enterprises in vocational training is still very limited. Many skilled craftsman are not really enthusiastic about the vocational training. CHAPTER 4: SOLUTIONS TO STRENGTHENING THE VOCATIONAL
WORKERS IN THE MEKONG DELTA REGION 4.1. Orientation of vocational training for rural workers 4.1.1. The Party's view on vocational training for rural workers Firstly, improving the quality of vocational training, developing the scale corresponding to the quality assurance conditions; building an open and flexible vocational training system to create favorable conditions for all learners. Secondly, renovating vocational training in the close direction associating with the labor and social markets, shifting strongly training associated with employment and sustainable job creation, labor export and social security. Thirdly, innovation must be synchronized, inheriting previous experiences
international integration and having a suitable roadmap in each period. Fourth, creating conditions to attract all social resources to innovate and improve the quality of vocational training, in which the
State plays a key role; strengthening autonomy of public vocational education institutions. 4.1.2. Requirements for policy implementation Firstly, ensure the objectives of the policy Secondly, associate with local and regional characteristics Thirdly, need the determination of the whole political system Fourth, ensure the participation of people and society Fifth, ensure efficiency Sixth, ensure transparency and accountability 4.2. Solutions 4.2.1. Completing vocational training policies for rural workers In the short term, it is necessary to amend the irrational, irrelevant points of the policy to support rural workers, policy for vocational training institutions and policy for vocational teachers. In the long term, the state needs to reconsider its role in policy intervention. 4.2.2. Renovating the plan of policy implementation Provinces must focus on developing plans or action programs on vocational training to 2020, in which vocational training must be associated with socio-economic development programs and plans and new rural construction planning, meeting the task of economic restructuring and sustainable poverty reduction. This work is not only carried out "internally" but also required mechanisms for other training subject to participate. Localities should not underestimate the investigation and survey of workers' needs.