# Lecture 13,14,15 object recognition

Object Recognition

Digital Image Processing
Lecture 13,14,15 – Object
Regconition
Lecturer: Ha Dai Duong
Faculty of Information Technology

I. Introduction
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The scope covered by out treatment of digital image
processing to include recognition of individual image
regions, which we called objects or patterns.
The approaches to pattern recognition are divided
into two principal areas:
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Decision-theoretic: This catogory deals with patterns
described using quantitative descriptors, such as length,
area, texture …
Structural: Deals with patterns best described by qualitative
descriptors, such as the relational descriptors.

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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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A pattern is an arrangement of descriptors. The
name feature is used often in pattern recognition to
denote a descriptor.
A pattern class is a family of patterns that share
some common properties.
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w1, w2, .., wK denotes pattern classes, Where K is the
number of classes
Pattern recognition by machine involves techniques for
assining patterns to their respective classes automatically
(and with as little human intervention as possible)

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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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Three common pattern arrangements used in
practice are:
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Vectors: for quantitative descriptions
Strings and trees: for qualitative descriptions

Pattern vectors are represented by bold
lowercase letters, such as z, y and z, and
take a form
or

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II. Patterns and pattern classes

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Example:

In
a classic paper to
recognize
three
types of iris flowers
(Setosa, virginica,
and versicolor) by
measuring
the
widths and lengths
of their petals

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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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Another Example: We can form pattern vectors by
letting x1=r(θ1),…xn=r(θn). The vectors became
points in n-dimensions space.

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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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In some applications pattern characteristics are best
described by structural relationships.
For example: fingerprint recognition is based on the
interrelationships of print features. Together with
their relatives sizes and locations, these features are
primitive components that describe fingerprint ridge
properties, such as abrupt ending, branching, and
disconnected segments.
Recognition problems of this type, in which not only
quantitative mearsures about each feature but also
the spatial relationships between the features
determine class menbership, generally are best
solved by structural approachs.
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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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Example

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Object Recognition

II. Patterns and pattern classes
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Example

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II. Patterns and pattern classes
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Example

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Object Recognition

III. Recognition Based on DecisionTheoretic Methods
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Decision-theoretic appoaches to recognition
are based on the use of decision functions.
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Let x=(x1, x2,.., xn)T represent an n-dimensional
pattern vector
ω1, ω2,.., ωW denote W pattern classes
The basic problem in decision-theoretic pattern
recognition is to find decision functions d1(x),
d2(x), .., dw(x) with property that, if pattern x
belongs to class ωi then:

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III. Recognition Based on DecisionTheoretic Methods
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The decision boundary separating class ωi
from ωj is given by values of x for which
di(x)=dj(x), or equivalently, by value of x for
which:
Common practice is to identify the decision
boundary between two classes by the single
function dij(x)=di(x)-dj(x)=0
Thus dij(x)>0 for pattern of class ωi and
dij(x)<0 for pattern of class ωj
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III.1 Matching by minimun distance
classifier
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Suppose that we define the prototype of each
pattern class to be the mean vector of the pattern of
that class

where Nj is the number of pattern vector from class ωj
Using the Euclidean distance to determine closeness reduces
the problem to computing the distance measures:

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III.1 Matching by minimun distance
classifier
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Assign x to class ωj if Di(x) is smallest distance
It is not difficult to show that selecting the
smallest distance is equivalent to evaluating the
functions
And assign x to class ωj if Di(x) is largest numerical
value. This formalation agrees with the concept of a
decision function as define in Eq (12.2-1)

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Object Recognition

III.1 Matching by minimun distance
classifier

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III. Recognition Based on DecisionTheoretic Methods
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Matching by minimun distance classifier

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Object Recognition

III.1 Matching by minimun distance
classifier

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III.1 Matching by minimun distance
classifier

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Object Recognition

III.2 Matching by Correlation
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Problem is finding matches of
subimage w(s,t) of size JxK
within a image f(x,y) of size
MxN, assume that J<=M,
K<=N
In its simplest form, the
correlation between f(x,y) and
w(x,y) is

For x=0,1, .., M-1, y=0,1,.., N-1 and the summation is taken
over the image region where w and f overlap
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III.2 Matching by Correlation
Move w around the image area, giving
the function c(x,y). The maximum
value(s) of c indicates the position(s)
where w best matches f
 The correlation function given in 12.2-7
has disadvantages of being sensitive to
changes in the amplitude of f and w. For
example, doubling all values of f doubles
the value of c(x,y).
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III.3 Matching by correlation coefficient
An other approach is to perform matching via the correlation
coefficient, which is defined as:

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where x=0,1,..,M-1, y=0,1,..,N-1,
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wN is average value of the pixels in w,
fN is average of f in the region coincident with the current location of
w, and
The summation are taken over the coordinates common to both f
and w.

The correlation coefficient γ(x,y) is scaled in the range -1 to 1,
independent of scale changes in amplitude of f and w

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III.3 Matching by correlation coefficient

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Object Recognition

III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
Foundation

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Denote:

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p(ωj/x) is probability that a particular pattern x comes from
class ωj
Lkj is coefficient of loss when pattern x actually comes from
class ωj but classifier decides that x came from class ωk.

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Then, the average loss incurred if assign x to class ωk,
rj(x):

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This equantion often is called conditional average risk or
loss in decision theory terminology.

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
Foundation

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We know that p(A/B)=[p(A)*p(B/A)]/p(B). Using this
expression, we write 12.2-9 in the form:

where p(x /ωk) is the probability density function of the
patterns from class ωk and p(ωk) is probability of
occurrence of class ωk.
Bacause 1/p(x) is positive and common to all rj(x), so it
can be dropped from 12.2-10 then rj(x) can be:

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
Foundation

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The classifier has W possible classes to choose from for
any given unknow pattern. If it computers r1(x),
r2(x),…,rW(x) for each pattern x and assigns the pattern to
class with the smallest loss, the total average loss with
respect to all decisions will be minimum.
The classifier that minimizes the total average loss is
called the Bayes classifier.
Thus Bayes classifier assigns an unknown pattern x to
class ωi if ri(x)i. In other words, x is
assigned to class ωi if

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Foundation
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The “loss” for correct decision is assigned value 0
and the loss for incorrect decision is assigned
value 1. Under these conditions, the loss function
becames:

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Object Recognition

III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Foundation

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Foundation
The decision functions given in 12.2-17 are
optimal in the sense that they minimize the
average loss in misclassification.
 However, we have to know:
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The probability density functions of the patterns in each
class, and
 The probability of occurrence of each class
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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Foundation
The second requirement is not problem. For instance, if all classes
are equally likely to occur then p(ωi) = 1/M. Even if this condition is
not true, these probabilities generally can be inferred from
knowledge of the problem.

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Estimation of the probability density functions p(x/ωi) is another
matter. If the pattern vectors, x, are n-dimensional, then p(x/ωi) is a
function of n variables, which, if its form is not know, requires
methods from multivariate probability theory for its estimation.
These methods are difficult to apply in practice.

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For these reasons, use for Bayes classifier generally is based on
the assumation of an analytic expression for the various density
functions and then an estimation of the necessary parameters from
samples patterns from each class. By far the most prevalent form
assumed for p(x/ωi) is Gaussian probability density function

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Bayes classifier
classes
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for

Gaussian

pattern

Let consider a 1-D problem (n=1) involving two
pattern classes (W=2) governed by Gaussian
densities, with means m1 and m2 and standard
deviations σ1 and σ2, respectively. From Eq 12.217 the Bayes decision functions have the form:

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
Bayes classifier for Gaussian pattern classes

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Fig 12.10 show a plot of the probability density functions for the
two classes. The boundary between the two classes is a single
point, denoted x0 suchs that d1(x0)=d2(x0).
If the two classes are equally likely to occur, then p(ω1)= p(ω2)
=1/2, and the decision boundary is the value of x0 for which

p(x0/ω1)= p(x0/ω2)
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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Bayes classifier for Gaussian pattern classes
 In the n-demensional case, the Gaussian density
of the vectors in the jth pattern class has the form

 where, mj and Cj are approximated as

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III.4 Optimum Statistical Classifiers
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Bayes classifier for Gaussian pattern classes
 Because of the exponential form of Gaussian density,
working with the natural logarithm of decision function is
more convenient. In other words, we can use the form:

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And it infers

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IV.Neural Networks
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The approaches discussed in the preceding is based on the
use of sample patterns to estimate statistical parameters.
The patterns used to estimate these parameters usually are
called training patterns, and a set of such patterns from
each class is called a training set.

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The process by which a training set is used to obtain
decision functions is called learning or training.

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The statistical properties of the pattern classes in a problem
often are unknown or cannot be estimated.

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In practice, such decision-theoretic problems are best
handled by methods that yield the required decision
functions directly via training
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IV.Neural Networks
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An approach manage to organize some nonlinear computing
elements (called neurons) as a networks to classify a input
pattern.
The resulting models are referred to by various names:
neural networks, neurocomputers, parallel distributed
processing (PDP) modelsm neuromorphic systems, layered
self-adaptive networks, connectionist models.
Here we use the name neural networks or neural nets. We
use these networks as vehicles for adaptively developing the
coefficients of decision functions via successive
presentations of training sets of patterns.

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IV.1 Perceptron
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The most simple of neural networks is perceptron. In its most
basic form, the perceptron learns a linear decision function that
dichotomizes two linearly separable training sets.

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IV.1 Perceptron
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Fig 12.14 shows schematically the perceptron model for
two pattern classes.
The response of this basic device is based on weighted
sum of its inputs; that is

which is a linear decision function with respect to the
components of the pattern vectors.
The coefficients wi, i=1,2,…, n, n+1, called weights
The function that maps the output of the summing
junction into the final output of the device sometimes is
called the activation function.
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IV.1 Perceptron
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When d(x)>0 the activation function causes the output of perceptron to
be +1, it indecates the pattern x was recognized as belonging to class
ω1. The reverse is true when d(x)<0.
When d(x)=0, x lies on the decision surface separating the two pattern
classes. The decision boundary implemented by the perceptron is
obtained by set Eq 12.2-29 equal to zero:

which is the equation of a hyperplane in n-dimensional pattern space.
Geometrically, the first n coefficients establish the orientation of the
hyperplane, whereas the last coefficient, wn+1, is proportional to the
perdendicular distance from the orgin to the hyperplane.

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IV.1 Perceptron
Denote yi=xi, i=1,2, .., n, and yn+1=1, then 12.2-29
becomes:

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where
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y=(y1,y2,..,yn,1)T is now an augmented pattern vector and
w=(w1,w2,..,wn,wn+1) is called the weight vector.

The problem is how to establish the weight vector ?
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IV.1 Perceptron
Training algorithms

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Linearly separable classes: A simple, iterative algorithm for
obtaining a solution weight vector for two linearly separable training sets
follows. For two training sets of augmented pattern vectors belonging to
pattern classes ω1 and ω2, respectively.

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IV.1 Perceptron
Training algorithms

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The correction increment c is assumed to be positive and, for now, to be constant.
This algorithm sometimes is referred to as the fixed increment correction rule.

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IV.1 Perceptron
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Training algorithms

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IV.1 Perceptron
Training algorithms

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IV.1 Perceptron
Training algorithms

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Nonseparable classes: One of the early methods of training
perceptron is Widrow-Hoff, or Least-Mean-Square (LMS)
delta rule, the method minimizes the error between the
actual and desired response at any time training step.

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IV.1 Perceptron
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Training algorithms

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IV.1 Perceptron
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Training algorithms

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IV.1 Perceptron
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Training algorithms

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IV.2 Multilayer Neural Networks
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Training algorithms

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IV.2 Multilayer Neural Networks

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IV.2 Multilayer Neural Networks

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