Dạy thuyết trình cho hướng dẫn viên du lịch tiếng pháp theo phương pháp tiếp cận bằng loại hình diễn ngôn và thông qua các tình huống – vấn đề tt tiếng anh
HANOI UNIVERSITY POST-GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT ----------***----------
Summary of doctoral thesis TEACHING PRESENTATION SKILLS TO FRENCH-SPEAKING TOUR GUIDES USING DISCOURSE GENRE APPROACH AND SITUATION-PROBLEM BASED METHOD DẠY THUYẾT TRÌNH CHO HƯỚNG DẪN VIÊN DU LỊCH TIẾNG PHÁP THEO PHƯƠNG PHÁP TIẾP CẬN BẰNG LOẠI HÌNH DIỄN NGÔN VÀ THÔNG QUA CÁC TÌNH HUỐNG – VẤN ĐỀ
Post Graduate: ĐỖ QUỲNH HƯƠNG Scientific Instructor: Dr. NGUYỄN THỊ CÚC PHƯƠNG Co-Instructor: Prof. SILVIA LUCCHINI & Prof. MARCEL LEBRUN (Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium) 1st reviewer : Prof. JEAN-FRANÇOIS BOURDET 2nd reviewer : Prof. THOMAS FRANÇOIS 3rd reviewer : Assoc.Prof : DUONG CONG MINH Major: French Language
PREFACE 1. Why is this topic chosen? Trained on French teaching and application of Information Technology in teaching at bachelor and master levels, initially we intended to design French-teaching modules in the situation-problem forms using information technology. Later, we changed our topic to teaching French for specific purposes (FOS), more specifically to teaching presentation for French-Speaking tour guides. The change based on the need of the training institution where we work. The French Language Department of Hanoi University plans to teach French language at bachelor level in combination with training tour guides. Therefore we decided to integrate the topic into developing programs and curriculums for the subject of « Tourism Communication with orientation toward tourist guide career ». The choice of teaching presentation for tour guides has brought us to a totally new field of discourse analysis. Research documents on development of French curriculums for specific purposes show that discourse analysis is a natural part of compiling programs and curriculums of specialized foreign language subjects. Since then, the composition of our thesis has become clearer.
2. Questions, théories and study objectives Our doctoral thesis was born out of personal, professional and academic demands. It started from a practical question: How to teach presentation for future FrenchSpeaking tour guides? Specialized materials and field studies suggested the following theories : -
The development of programs and design of teaching materials for the course should be based on the results of the discourse analysis of the target which is presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides; Using the situation-problem method can improve teaching quality of the course; On the basis, we identified main targets of the study, including: Conducting discourse analysis of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides
Proposing a training course on presentation using the situation-problem method to train French-speaking tour guides
3. Structure of the thesis The thesis contains three major parts: theoretical basis and context of the study, discourse analysis of presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese 1
tour guides and a proposed training course on presentation for Frenchspeaking tour guides. In the first part, chapter 1 introduces the situation of training French-speaking tour guides in Vietnam. We analyze the training demand and main features of training professional and language skills for future tour guides. The Chapter 2 introduces context of the study, for example, higher education in Vietnam is being renovated with more attention to training professional skills, Hanoi University expands training courses in foreign languages to new domains, and finally the University’s French Language Department plans to teach French language at bachelor level in combination with training tour guides. In the theoretical basis, first, we identify the domain of the study, and then clarify some key definitions of the topic centering around two key themes of discourse analysis and situation-problem method. The second part of the thesis reports the outcomes of the first part of the topic: discourse analysis of the presentation of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. In the first chapter of the part, we introduce the analysis method, chapter 7 and 8 are about discourse characteristics of the genre, how to prepare and present the presentations and common linguistic characteristics of presentations of Frenchspeaking Vietnamese tour guides. The third part of the thesis summarizes outcomes of the second part about training course on presentation for tour guides, including the design of a training course on presentation using the situation-problem method, experimental teaching and analyzing the results of the experiment to improve the quality of future curriculum. The designing methodologies and experiment of this curriculum will be presented in chapter 9. Finally, in the conclusion, we will summarize contributions to the thesis and directions of future studies.
PART ONE: CONTEXT AND THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE STUDY Chapter 1: Training French-speaking tour guides in Vietnam Since Vietnam opened to the world, the number of international tourists to Vietnam keeps increasing and reached 10 million in 2016 and 10.9 million in 2017. In this context, a market has been formed to welcome foreign tourists, providing services like business to consumer or business to business (B2B) This context also helps boost the use of French language in Vietnamese tourism. Every year, we welcome about 300,000 French-speaking tourists; however we only have 1330 certified French-speaking tour guides. But in fact, the number of certified tour guides who actually do the job is much lower. According to applicable regulations, only those who hold French language bachelor degrees or DELF at B2 level are eligible to apply for a tourist guide certificate. In fact, most of the tour guides graduate French language Departments of various universities, so they have good French language background. In recent years, French for Tourism has been integrated into training programs, however the programs only provide future tour guides with basic concepts of tourism industry, but fall short of going further to typical communication contexts which French-speaking tour guides can encounter. In order to be able to work as French-speaking tour guides, graduates of French language Departments have to take an additional training course to obtain a tourist guide certificate in Vietnamese. The training course provides them with basic knowledge (history, geography…) and specialized knowledge (tourism economics, consumer psychology, guide professional skills…). They are also trained on presentation which makes up a small proportion of the training course. In summary, the demand for French-speaking tour guides is real, however the existing training programs see many shortcomings, and no specialized training program is available for them. Newly recruited French-speaking tour guides are capable of performing basic communication in French with customers, but they face difficulties presenting in French because they haven’t been trained on the skill in the university.
Chapter 2: Situation in the training institution where the study is carried out Established in 1967, the French Language Department of Hanoi University has trained French language for a long time, preparing students for interpretation/translation positions. Like any other foreign language departments in the university, in recent years, the Department has tried to diversify their training, by expanding its training to new specialties, including corporate communication in 3
French or training French language at bachelor level preparing students for translation/interpretation and tourism positions. Tourism is chosen because this field offers more job opportunities for graduates in recent years. To prepare for the tourism-oriented training, in 2012, the Department carried out a survey with experts in French-speaking tourism service to list professions with high recruitment demand. Basing on the survey, we identified two professions for the Tourism-oriented training of French language bachelors, including tourist office staff and tour guides. Our topic has a special practical significance to the training program: the training of specialized subjects starts in the 5th semester, awarding 39 credits to the students, including 3 credits for the subject of « Tourism Communication with orientation toward tourist guide career ». The module of teaching presentation for French-speaking tour guides will be the key content of the subject.
Chapter 3. Identifying domains of the study In order to teach presentation using discourse and situation-problem method, our study is in between two major fields of teaching French language as a foreign language and education science. In teaching French language as a foreign language, our study is one among the works on teaching French for specific purposes (FOS), mainly featured by the designing of training courses totally basing on the learner’s demands: collecting target communication cases and typical discourse types of written or spoken communication in those cases, collecting, selecting, processing actual linguistic materials and using them as training materials. The training course which we design is about French language for tourism, all steps of its development reflect clear orientation toward training French-speaking tour guides and focus on one specific discourse type of presentation in typical communication contexts of the profession. We also implement a new trend in teaching French as a foreign language that is the approach through action. In our training course, the learners – future tour guides – are considered as social hosts who use French in their professional activities, in communicating with native French-speaking tourists. They use French language to perform specific professional tasks, each of which requires tour guides to have not only linguistic skills, but also general and professional skills. Each action takes place in a specific environment and belongs to a specific action field in receiving international tourists. This context puts forward some specific requirements for tour guides which we mention in situation-problems designed in the curriculum. The linguistic activities of tour guides are perception and expression, more often they are listening, understanding and spoken expression. To perform their tasks, tour guides 4
have to mobilize their wisdom, instruments and supporting force together with various strategies. That’s the main content of the training course which we design. Teaching through discourse types fully catches up with the new trend of teaching French as a foreign language under the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) which evaluates communication in French by measuring the learner’s level of mastering discourse types. In education science, our study is about vocational training method, as we teach a discourse type (presentation) of a profession (French-speaking tourist guide in Vietnam) and analyze the common way they prepare and present their presentation as well as linguistic characteristics to develop the presentation skill as part of a professional capacity framework for French speaking tour guides. The process is based on theories of general teaching methods in pedagogy. Methods in the field of education technology used to design the training course and the application of situations and problems follow the socio-constructive and interactive perspectives of educational science. Exploring studies on the same domain, we found that studies on discourse types in tourism mainly analyze written communication, only one doctoral thesis studied presentations of tour guides in African countries by comparing them with sections of the same theme in tourism guidebooks In designing training courses on French for Tourism for Vietnamese people, there are some studies at master’s level, but they mainly use written documents and don’t try teaching in most cases. The situation-problem method originates from the method actually used to teach sciences in schools and French language as a mother tongue in France which later was developed to teach undergraduate students in universities. In French teaching methodology, the assignment-based or project-based and simulated game-based approaches are often used, but not the situation-problem method. In summary, even though out study belongs to the domain of teaching French for specific purposes (FOS), but when applying the situation-problem method, we make use of the studies in the domain of education technology and our approach totally matches the direction which is the current trend of French teaching methodology. We also use concepts of general teaching methodology and our study is very close to the studies on vocational training specialized in discourse analysis in professional activities. Among studies to develop training courses on French language for tourism basing on discourse analysis, our study is one of very few discourse analyses of spoken communication and inclusive for experimental teaching. 5
Chapter 4: Discourse analysis in teaching foreign language There are many definition of discourse, but we choose the definition by Mainguenau (Mainguenau & Charaudeau, 2002) : discourse is an organization of inter-connected oriented, interactive sentences in compliance with standards, is a kind of action in specific context which is a host is responsible for and belongs to a field of discourse. Using the definition, we study the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides, target of the study, in the second part of the study under various perspectives of discourse. Like discourse, there are many definitions of discourse type, but we choose the definition by Charaudeau (Mainguenau & Charaudeau, 2002), saying that discourse type is defined by the context of its birth, that is the « socio-psychological element in combination with the factors of situation and communication » (Charaudeau, 1995b). In this study, we chose Charaudeau’s theory of communication contract, taking into account social status and discourse characteristics of the speaker, factors related to the communicative contents and context, discourse strategies to identify characteristics of presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. The analysis is supplemented with the list of the common ways to prepare and present the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. The analysis also mentions characteristics of spoken discourses. Teaching by types is popular in teaching French as a foreign language, from communication direction in teaching foreign language in the 1970s to the post- CEFR period in recent years. In teaching French as a mother tongue, the method is also popular, especially in the reform of teaching program since 2000. When developing the training course on presentation for future tour guides, we follow new trend in teaching French for specific purposes, in which the main objective of learning a foreign language is to master various types of discourses, and to be able to understand and express typical discourses in each communicative context, as a basic skill to integrate into the society and work. The process of designing, testing and evaluating the training course on presentation for tour guides follows basic steps, set out by Bronckart & Dolz (1999) in teaching foreign language by types. The analysis of the discourse of the target type bases on Charaudeau’s theory of communication contract and has many similarities with the mediated discourse analysis (Scollon, 2005). We distinguished expected discourse and realized discourse, pay attention to action of the speaker in preparing and implementing discourse, and consider personal characteristics of the speaker when analyzing discourses of the same type. 6
Chapter 5: Situation-problem method and its position in vocational training programs The situation-problem is not only a concept, a pedagogical context, a teaching method and a direction in educational science. It contains a philosophy, philosophy of surprise and release, in which the learner is placed in front of obstacles, complicated situations and close to reality, he is forced to mobilize many thinking tactics to fulfill specific tasks, overcome obstacles and achieve the target of learning and learn the skills which the program wants them to learn. On the way of exploring, the learner is guided along a tight roadmap which crisscrossed by conflits sociocognitifs, breakthroughs in recognition method and guidance of the teacher. Under the teacher’s perspective, the designing of the context must follow a tight procedure, requiring the program designer or/and teacher to have not only strong professional knowledge, but also deep understanding of the learner’s perception of the training content, steer the perception to achieving the set target. The understanding decides the contexts to be selected, difficulty and complexity levels, the way how the issue is raised and learning activities are organized. It is very important to evaluate problem-solving as a whole process. The answer is not the only thing that matters; instead, the whole problem-solving and perception changing process are the outcome of learning. In vocational training methodology, importance is attached to the situationproblem method in training programs of vocational training institutions, basing on the analysis of common professional behavior to train a certain professional activity. When placed in a certain professional context, the selected problem may be more theoretical or practical. However, a context-based curriculum must have the four following characteristics: the interaction between the learner’s action and the “answer” of the curriculum, the originality of the common professional behavior selected for training, the repetition of problems and contexts with increasing difficulty level along the training process. In universities, the training on problem-solving is both teacher’s tactic and target to pursuit, as the problem-solving process triggers many important thinking tactics. Among many methods, the most well-known are case study and problem method which have been applied since the beginning of the 20th century in the US and European universities. Emerging for the several recent decades, the situation-problem method focuses on the development of skills which makes it different from other earlier methods. Recent research on teaching and learning in real situations show characteristics of the situation – problems in profession-oriented higher education.
PART TWO: DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF PRESENTATIONS OF TOUR GUIDES Chapter 6: Method of analyzing presentations of tour guides When analyzing presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides, we chose to apply the description method, including two steps: sorting tourist guide’s behaviors when making the presentations, analyzing and explain the behaviors under the perspective of tour guides and their common ways to prepare and make the presentations. We chose to systematically observe some sample presentations which we think are typical examples of this type. For analyzing, we make a table to write the observed behaviors of tour guides in presentations corresponding with characteristics of the presentations under the Charaudeau’s theory on communication contract. We also carried out semi-structured interviews with tour guides who helped us record presentations in reality and two group interviews with tourists who are customers of two among the mentioned tourists. The interview conditions, as well as the neutral behaviors of the interviewers helped minimize the factors that may influence the survey outcomes. In the next part, the final outcomes of the discourse analysis of this type are a combination of the analysis of presentations and the answers in the interviews with tour guides. The answers of the interviewed tourists gave a different view, helping us have a comprehensive view of the analyzed type.
Chapter 7: Discourse analysis of presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides Presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides are a distinguished type of discourse, characteristics of which is defined by the social status of tour guides. Tourist guide’s profession is recognized by the society and institutions, requires them to have certain knowledge and skills and also allows them to speak. But in reality, sometimes, tour guides share the rights with their customers. Tour guides use various tactics to attract customers and convince the customers of what they say: they improve their French every day, try to express their ideas in a clear, accurate and coherent way, and at the same time make lively presentations matching each audience. Tour guides also try to promote a positive image of their country, chose to have a neutral behavior, because their main role is to communicate information, so tour guides’ presentations aim at promoting beautiful images of their country to convince tourists to come back. Whether the presentations are delivered on the coaches or at the tourist destinations depends on many contextual factors, like the number of tourists, visit plan, landscape and what tourists see on the way, weather conditions, mood and attention of 8
tourists, communication supporting tools at the location, entrance to the location and so on. With their experience, tour guides are likely to adjust their presentations depending on the factors and decide the locations to deliver the presentation depending on the context. If sorting the presentation according to their contents, we have three types: presentations designed to communicate actual information, comments at the tourist destination and presentations with flexible themes. The first type is designed to provide tourists with information about the trip plan, so it is informative and demanding, even though the tourist guide keeps explaining and arguing their choices. The second type aims to guide the visit, describe the destination and exhibits on display, so it is descriptive and informative (for architectural buildings) and explanatory (for cycles). The third type may require the most preparation, because before meeting the customers, basing on the visit plan and other contextual factors, the tourist guide has made a list of flexible themes which he understand very well and prepared presentations for the customers. Therefore the presentations of this type should be prepared well, requiring the tourist guide to research documents and take note of important information and follow a plan. The tourist guide often delivers the presentation on the car to the destination or at the destination, adds more information or makes the visit livelier. However, the presentation of this type is likely to change or be delivered in a different location depending on the situation of the journey. The above knowledge of the characteristics of the presentations of Frenchspeaking Vietnamese tour guides helps us to better understand this type of discourse, so that later we draw practical professional activities in preparing, delivering and adjusting the tour guides’ presentations.
Chapter 8: Practical professional activities of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides in preparing and delivering presentations The analysis of practical professional activities is very important in vocation training and profession-oriented higher education. In our case, practical professional activities are the practices which we observe in many tour guides or in one tourist guide which we think is typical. The way they prepare and deliver the presentations in term of discourses which we put in the list will serve the training of future tour guides. They give details of the preparation, delivery and adjustments of the presentations, showing the daily work of tourist guide with each group of tourists which they guide, the information which the tourist guide should collect before receiving the group to adjust the planned presentations, as well as the way they add and adjust the presentation after each tour. We also developed plans of about 20 9
typical presentations, to provide future tour guides with a tool to prepare their own presentation when they start their careers. We allocated a large part of this chapter to analyzing linguistic characteristics of the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. As we were unable to list all the linguistic characteristics of this type, we only focus on typical characteristics, on the one hand to understand the linguistic characteristics of this type, on the other hand to prepare training material for future tour guides. We found that the presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides have specialized tools and methods to develop ideas inside a presentation and it also depends on the theme of the presentation. We analyzed tactics used to structure a presentation, as well as connecting worlds frequently used by Vietnamese tour guides. Without digging deep into analyzing syntactic structures and frequent errors, our analysis only aims at providing a basic linguistic tool for future tour guides and helping them to prepare a coherent presentation. As of grammatical structures, we didn’t list frequently used grammatical structures as writers of French for tourism curriculums often do, instead, we selected typical structures, related to discourse characteristics of this type as mentioned in the previous chapter. The analysis the errors frequently made by tour guides, not only revealed the distance between an experienced tourist guide and a newbie, but also shows the way a tourist guide improves their French language skills at work, as well as how the errors affect his communication with tourists. Not all findings of the chapter can be applied immediately in training presentation for future tour guides, but the analyses provide an overall view of the training content as a basis to choose the most suitable content for the training course which we are designing.
PART THREE: EXPERIMENTAL COURSE Chapter 9: Designing a training course for tour guides The designing process of this training course follow the procedure set out by Lebrun, Smidts & Bricoult (2011), including analyzing demand for training, identifying objectives of training, selecting approaches, tools and resources, distributing contents to class hours, designing learner’s tasks, evaluating learning process and evaluating the training course. Our training course starts from the demand of a training institution to meet practical requirements of labor market and renovate training program in our workplace. Therefore the designing of the training course is part of a specific context and physically and pedagogically bound. In the context, we selected suitable discourses and practical professional activities when we constructed the above-mentioned presentations to develop training content. We also used some materials used in the previous part as training material for this training course. The course was designed in a mixed environment where lessons taught in classrooms are mixed with homework to be done a group and discussions on social media in which a Facebook group operates like a virtual classroom. Students learn new knowledge, skills and behaviors through situations and problems, including the problems to be solved immediately in a professional situation or a major task to be fulfilled as a tourist guide and to prepare and deliver a presentation. The task which we designed always requires students to work in groups or discuss in classrooms, so as to encourage conflits socio-cognitifs between them. The training course also mixes theory with practical activities, the teaching of teachers and instruction of experts who are professional French-speaking tour guides and available for training the students once the training course has been appraised and put into operation. Specifically, the training course is a module designed to teach presentation includes 33 hours of teaching and 5 hours of evaluating and testing through field trips where every student plays the role of a French-speaking tourist guide. In the experimental course, we have added a written test to the beginning and the end of the training course and a field trip for entrance test. The 33 hours of teaching is divided into 8 sessions under the themes of social status of tour guides, discourse characteristics of tour guides presentations, main targets of tourist guide’s presentations, identifying specific target of presentation paragraphs, contextual factors of the presentation (two types of presentation), content elements of presentation (3 types of presentation, connecting words used for organizing ideas in the presentation, indicative words and expressions and relative pronouns in French-speaking tourist 11
guide’s presentations. We have compiled a book for students, including the descriptions of topics and tasks to be fulfilled, training materials in written document and audio-visual format, recordings and virtual classroom in the Facebook group used for learning activities.
Chapter 10: Experimentally teaching and reporting results of the training course on presentation We have experimentally taught the training course on presentation for tour guides, involving a sample group of 24 students in their second and third years in university. The training course took place for 2 months in the beginning of 2018. The training course is a half-experiment carried out in three periods, including: 1 - the written entrance test of 45 questions to be done on computer, a field trip where every student plays the role of a tourist guide and a personal interview with half of the students in the class, in which the students talked with the interviewer about how they have done the test. 2 – a module of teaching presentation for French-speaking tour guides comprising of 33 hours of teaching in classrooms, 3 – the outcome test comprising of 3 parts is similar to the entrance test and carried out in the same conditions, more group interviews are added to evaluate the training course, the class is divided into three groups. Results of the experiment aims at confirming two research theories: 1- The discourse approach helps future French-speaking Vietnamese students improve the quality of presentations 2- The situation-problem method helps tourist guide students prepare presentation suitable with contextual factors and solve problems related to their presentations. More specifically, our experiment aims at two targets: 1- Measuring student’s progress in preparing and delivering presentations as a French-speaking tourist guide 2- Measuring their ability to adapt the ready-made presentations to the changing situations along the journey, ability to solve problems related to the presentations in the journey. Following are variations which we hope can measure student’s improvement after the training course: 1 – Awareness of tourist guide when serving French-speaking tourists, or their rights to speaking and responsibility for what they speak; 2 – Awareness of discourse characteristics of tour guides or tactics to show their neutral behaviors and attract customers in their presentations; 12
– Selecting main purposes of each presentation (conveying information to tourists to persuading them), or selecting suitable information and tourist guide’s point of view when explaining the phenomenon which they encounter on the journey; 4 – The selecting of purposes of each section in the presentation depends on speech and makes the structure serve the purpose of the speech which the tourist guide has selected; 5 – The consistency between the presentation’s plan and its content; 6 – The ability to use linguistic tools to organize the presentation 7 - Ability to ensure the thematic consistency of the presentation 8 – Ability to use words to indicate spaces and introduce people and objects 9 – Ability to transform their presentations to fit contextual communication factors (time, place, customers, environment and unexpected issues…) This experiment also aims at testing the use of the situation-problem method in teaching French for specific purposes, so we have conducted a group interview for scientific evaluation. Specifically, we want to know: 1- How this method works in profession-oriented training (inductive reasoning and exploring issues in actual professional situations, social and cognitive conflicts between the learners and learners, between learners and professional tour guides who coach them in the training…) 2- How this method works in teaching foreign languages (teaching its discourses and teaching communication context) The tests conducted on the learners show improvements in all students participating in the experiment and in all above-mentioned variations. The students confirmed vast improvements in their French language, saying that they are able to deliver presentations in French in real situations which tourist guide encounter. The interview also show that students have better awareness of tour guides’ identity, the gap between what they learn and reality, what to do to prepare and deliver presentations in reality and learning activities … The hard working and active participation in lessons, their engagement in teamwork and playing the role of tourist guide are factors deciding outstanding achievements of some student participating in the experiment. However, gaps still exist between several variations, mainly because the questions are not suitable and conditions to carry out spoken and written tests are not perfect. Even though, limited time doesn’t allow us to produce a comprehensive evaluation of the designed training course, however feedbacks from the learners and 3
ourselves, teachers in the experimental training course are very positive in all aspects: teaching methodology, training material and tools used for the training course. Most students understand our pedagogical intentions in using situationproblem method and teamwork to organize activities, mixing theories and practical activities, evaluating and checking. All of those have helped the training course achieve set targets and produce useful and easy-to-use tools and training materials. However, to improve the training course’s quality and put in into operation, some improvements should be made in organizing situation-problem activities, balancing individual and group activities, involving professional tour guides in coaching students to do practical activities, regulations on communication between class members and on group’s activities, training IT and teamwork skills for the students before training course, the way to make questions in the written test, technical quality and use of some multimedia training materials and finally communication between students and professional tour guides who coach them in the training course. Regarding the improvements to be made, the students participating in the training course and we ourselves have made specific recommendations and analyzed feasibility of the recommendations in the coming courses. Therefore, we are able to formulate a complete training course and put it into operation on the earliest possible day.
CONCLUSION Amid the trend of renovating programs for profession-oriented training in foreign language, starting from the wish to improve the quality of training French for specific purposes and contribute to the cause of training French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides, we have set the target of formulating a training course on presentations in profession-oriented training of French-speaking tour guides in our training institution, the French Department of Hanoi University. On overall, it can be said that we have achieved the target set out for our study, as the training course which we designed and tested helped students improve both knowledge and practice of the special discourses. What are special contributions of the thesis? First, in methodology of teaching French for specific purposes, we have referred to models of discourse analysis, especially the intermediary discourse analysis (Analyze du Discourse Médiée) and based on the Charaudeau’s theory of communication contract to analyze a special type of discourse: presentations of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. We conducted the analysis on a collection of data, including 14 hour long recording of their presentations, interviews with the tour guides who prepared and delivered the above-mentioned presentations with similar duration. Results of the analysis allow us to define characteristics of this type, including: -
Social status of the speaker (French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides who receive and guide tourists in organized tours): the characteristic is defined first by the requirement for tourist guide’s linguistic and cultural knowledge and skills. The social status also requires the tourist guide in the role of a manager of the tourist group, a representative of the country and the tourism company and a service provider to make official statement in front of tourists. In overall, tour guides often fully exercise their right to speech, using tactics to ensure the officiality of their speech, but sometimes, they have to protect the right to speech to confirm that they are the official speaker in the group. In some cases, the tour guides has to concede the right to tourists to encourage them to engage in the talk or draw their attention. Finally, the analysis of the conflict between social status of tour guides and their identities helps better solve the conflict. Identity of tour guides’ discourses: the feature decides tactics to be used by tour guides to make their presentations more credible and attractive to tourists. The tactics are reflected in the mood of the presentation, the way ideas are deployed and especially the way the tourist guide selects information to present to tourists. 15
Purpose of discourses: This part indicates main purposes of French-speaking who aims at both providing information for tourists and convincing them to come back. In this part, we touched the main purpose – main actions and words – of sections in the presentation. The actions and words are related to the task which a tourist guide has to fulfill in a day or a journey. Basing on the analysis, we distinguish the tasks reflected in the presentation and those which are not reflected in the presentation. Distinguishing them will help tour guides better manage contents of their presentations for a day or an entire journey. - Contextual factors: basing on the locations of the speech, we have identified two types of presentations: presentations at the destination and those on the car. Comparing the two types provides a better understanding of their characteristics and helps tour guides better adapt to surrounding elements influencing their presentations. - Thematic factors: Basing on the contents of the presentations, we divided them into three types: presentations provide actual information, stories about the destinations and presentations with flexible themes. The analysis not only indicates discourse characteristics of each type, but also the different document structures, linguistic characteristics and frequent themes. In the next part, we listed common methods used in French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. First we reconstruct the 4-step process of making a presentation, as follows: - Obtaining information about tourists to prepare suitable presentations ; - Researching tour program to make plan for activities in a day and entire journey; - Preparing contents and linguistic tools for the presentations; - Delivering and adjusting the presentations. Next, we analyze special linguistic phenomena in medium and minidiscourses of French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides. Specifically, we have studied : - The opening and closing of the presentation - Structures of metaphors - The way to expand the themes of three types: presentations to provide actual information, describe the destination or follow flexible themes - Tactics to arrange ideas: leading, repeating, presenting in a different way, buffering. - Connecting words reflect the following relations: contradiction, concession, cause, effect, purpose, adding, and listing. - Words indicating spaces: demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, introductory words 16
Indicative words and expressions: demonstrative adjectives and pronouns, introductory words and expressions Grammar structures : common pronouns (subject personal pronouns, object personal pronouns, relative pronouns, common verb forms and tenses (present perfect tense is used to explain and describe what the tourists see, past progress is used to recall what happened in the past, the imperative mood and near future tense are used to give command when the tourist guide plays the role of manager of the tourist group) Common phonetic phenomena: some common pronunciation errors, connected speech and breaks. In general, it can be said that we have elaborately analyzed a type of communication in tourism: French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides’ presentations. The analysis method can be used to analyze other types of discourses in the same field, such as French-speaking Vietnamese tour guides’ presentations at tourist destinations or recorded presentations in automatic tourist guide systems in Vietnam. The tourist communication equipment used in tourist destinations or journey on the river is still new in our country. Results of the analyses can be used in teaching or producing presentations of the same type.
Basing on the results, demands of the training institution and level of the target, we have identified training contents, set out pedagogical objectives of the training course for future tour guides, we also split the training content into many sessions with specific tasks under a specific program. By designing the module of training presentations for tour guides, we have applied the research results in a specific training institution. It is the result of our study in the field of educational technology, another branch of the thesis. Also in this field of educational science, we have tested the situation-problem method in profession-oriented training, the situations and problems which we designed, including professional situations or major tasks, have been verified and certified by professional tour guides for their authenticity. These situations and problems have satisfied two objectives of the training course that is to help the students learn presentations in an active way and help them familiarize with the actual situations which they will encounter in the future jobs. Together with the above-mentioned situations and problems, the training course which we design is a complete product with multimedia training material, learning activities and evaluation tests, combining lessons in classrooms and homework to be done in Facebook groups as a virtual classroom. A little improvement is needed to include this training course into the subject “Tourism Communication with orientation toward tourist guide profession” of the Tourism-oriented French language Bachelor program of the French Department, Hanoi University. 17
In addition to the practical product, basing on our study, the situationproblem method in particular and the method of designing training course in general can be applied in designing specialized subjects for the French Department and other language departments of the University. However, for many reasons, the thesis has some shortcomings. First, the summaries of theories are only limited to the studies on the usage of French language, except for the theory of mediated discourse analysis (ADM). The limitations of time and language didn’t allow us to expand our reference to the documents in English and other languages, especially in English language for specific purposes. Also due to the limitation of time, we skipped some interesting points in the thesis: the causes of serious French mistakes which tour guides often make, explanation of pedagogical intentions and steps to conduct major tasks in situationproblem form in the training course (preparing for a virtual field trip) and many other recommended pedagogical activities. This can be a direction for our follow-up study, when we compile guidance book for the trainers of the training course on presentation for tour guides in the training program of our institution. As the thesis is relatively long, so we can’t link some chapters of part 2 and part 3 (discourse analysis and designing a training course) with theoretical bases for the analysis and designing, presented in the part 1 of the thesis. Finally, some critics may say that the number of students participating in the experiment is not representative enough (24 students). Moreover, the experimental training course encountered some difficulties: some students were absent, their French language competency level was lower than the expected level of the students to take part in this training course in the future, the students participating in the experiment didn’t have background professional knowledge and skills as needed in the program, some students were not willing to take part, and the training course was disrupted due to the New Year vocation and peak time of their internship. Hopefully, once put into operation, all these issues will be solved and the results will be much better. Anyway, the study is really useful, helping us to vastly improve our knowledge, professional skills and ourselves. Not limited to a study, the thesis has opened up new pages in our teaching career and new directions in our researching journey, helping us, new scientific researchers, to be more confident.
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