CÁC CẤU TRÚC LẬP LUẬN WRITING TASK 1 ORIGINAL SENTENCE
OPENING (1 sentence)
The graph below gives information about car ownership in Britain from 1971 to 2007.
The graph below shows the unemployment figures amongst women of different age groups.
(1) The line graph (2) illustrates (3) the proportion of (4) households using cars in the UK (5) during 1971
(1)The line graph (2) demonstrates (3) percentages of (4) unemployed women in (5) 8 age groups.
1. The graph = the line/bar/pie graph 2. Gives = illustrates/ demonstrates/ indicates 3. Information = the proportion of (%, numbers)/ the number of (countable nouns)/ the amount of (uncountable nouns)/ the percentage of (%) 4. Car ownership = household using cars/ people who used cars/ people using cars 5. 1971 and 2007 = during 1971 and 2007/ over a period of 36 years/ over a 36-year period 1. As explained 2. As explained 3. As explained 4. Unemployment figures = unemployed women 5. Different age groups = 8 age groups *age group = 20-year-old (group) = (the) group of age 20 = the age group of 20
OVERVIEW (1-2 sentences) Overall, car ownership in the UK increased during the given period. While the percentage of households with two cars increased, there was a decrease in the proportion of families without any cars. https://www.facebook.com/groups/betterenglisheveryday/
1. Overall/ it can be clearly seen that … từ nối vào overview 2. While/whereas cấu trúc câu so sánh 3. Cấu trúc There was an increase/decline in ….
It can be clearly seen that age groups of 18 and of 45 have the highest unemployment rate.
So sánh hơn nhất the highest unemployment rate
Overall, from 2015, oil consumption in Western Europe/Japan and also in the US is predicted to decline, in contrast to the expected increase in China and the Middle East. The US will remain the major consumer throughout the period.
1. Overall từ nối 2. Is predicted to/ is anticipated to/ is expected to để chỉ số liệu sẽ có trong tương lai 3. In contrast to + Noun (thay cho cấu trúc while/whereas) = compared to/with + noun (there was a 20% reduction in oil consumption in China compared with/to 2010) 4. The major consumer = the customer consumed the most
BODY (4 SENTENCES/ PARA) BASIC From 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in oil production in Saudi Arabia.
There was a significant/dramatic/slight/sharp increase/ decline/ decrease in…
The other countries saw a slight rise in oil production over the period. Over the period, the consumer price index rose steadily from around 60 in 1979 to over 200 in 2009
1999/China saw/witnessed/experienced a dramatic rise in… The number/proportion/amount of… increased/declined…
ADVANCED In 1971, the proportion of households without a car stood at nearly 50%, slightly higher than that of households having one car, at just over 42%. By contrast, only nearly 9% of British households owned 2 cars and a mere 1 % of households owned more than 3 cars, which was the lowest recorded figure. https://www.facebook.com/groups/betterenglisheveryday/
1. Cấu trúc the proportion/ number of… 2. Cấu trúc Adj clause rút gọn which was higher than… -> ,higher than… 3. That of = the proportion of household having one car. 1. By contrast/ Meanwhile so sánh 2. Cấu trúc only 9% of… verb (đưa số liệu lên đầu) 3. Dùng and để nối câu 4. Mệnh đề tính ngữ nối thêm , which was…
From 1971 onwards, while the percentage of families owning one car remained stable, that of households without any car dropped to approximately 25% in 2007.
1. So sanh while/whereas 2. That of = the figure for = the level of = the percentage of
1. 35% of energy – số liệu lên đầu 2. And this proportion = energy came from coal in Sweden Có thể thay bằng cấu trúc but this then fell/declined to… 3. To finish at… dùng để nói số liệu nằm ở đâu, thường là những năm cuối biểu đồ 4. Cấu trúc rút gọn the highest of the four countries 5. Cấu trúc while và that of 1. To follow a similar pattern khi nói về số liệu nào có xu hướng giống nhau Energy production from coal in Germany followed a 2. Beginning – rút ngọn adj clause = which began similar pattern, beginning the period at just under 3. Falling – cấu trúc đồng dạng với beginning 60% and falling significantly, though unlike Denmark it 4. Though unlike + Noun = while/whereas fell to a low of only 5% in 2007 and then increased 5. It = the proportion of Denmark = energy production of again to approximately 18%. Denmark 6. And then từ nối 7. Fell – increased cấu trúc đồng dạng 1. At 25.7% đưa số liệu lên đầu làm trạng ngữ At 25.7%, nursing was the second most popular 2. Noun was the most popular subject … so sánh nhất subject to study, but this fell significantly to only 14% 3. But nối câu two years later. 4. This thay cho nursing 1. In terms of = Regarding = with regard to = about In terms of food, the figures for both countries were 2. Cấu trúc the figures for …. similar, at 27% and 24% for Malaysia and Japan 3. 24% for Malaysia – số liệu của Malaysia đưa lên đầu và respectively. chú ý FOR k phải OF 4. Respectively = theo thứ tự lần lượt là… 35% of energy came from coal in Sweden in 1995, and this proportion gradually declined over the period to finish at approximately 28% in 2010, the highest of the four countries, while the percentage produced in France remained just under that of Sweden over the 15-year period.
In Japan, this accounted for 6% of the total, while 20% of household spending went on transport.
1. To account for = to make up = to constitute 2. While cấu trúc so sánh
White, which constituted 26%, is about four times as popular as blue, which made up 8%.
1. Which constitutes 26%, which made up 8% - mệnh đề quan hệ 2. So sánh bằng ‘is four times as adj as’ *So sánh bằng: - Company A has nearly (twice/half/a quarter) as many employees as company B - The number of employees doubled/ increased twofold from March to May.
Theft, of which there were 94 cases per 10,000 people, is just under four times more common than other crimes, 25 cases.
1. Of which cấu trúc mệnh đề quan hệ theo sau là there were 2. So sánh hơn gấp 4 lần, four times more common than
Line graph 1. The graph below gives information about car ownership in Britain from 1971 to 2007. The graph illustrates the proportion of households using cars in the UK during 1971 and 2007. It is noticeable that car ownership in the UK increased during the given period. While the percentage of households with two cars increased, there was a decrease in the proportion of families without any cars. In 1971, the proportion of households without a car stood at nearly 50%, slightly higher than that of households having one car, at just over 42%. By contrast, only nearly 9% of British households owned 2 cars and a mere 1 % of households owned more than 3 cars, which was the lowest recorded figure. From 1971 onwards, while the percentage of families owning one car remained stable, that of households without any car dropped to approximately 25% in 2007. By contrast, the proportion of families in the UK who owned two cars increased slightly to nearly 26% and the figure for families with more than two cars rose by almost 5%.
2. The graph shows the amounts spent on apparel on the internet in USA and Japan between 1999 and 2003. The graph compares amounts of money spent online on apparel in USA and Japan starting from 1999 and 2003. It is clear that although at first Japanese buyers were spending much more money than Americans did; as the years went by the spending habits of 2 countries became almost identical. In 1999 Japan was spending on apparel almost twice as much as USA (10 versus 5 Millions of dollars). In the following year apparel expenses of both Japan and USA grew even bigger to 12 and 10 million respectively. The only year when expenses plunged in both countries was 2001, when USA spent only 8 and Japan reached the bottom of 7 million. Two following year, 2002 and 2003 showed rapid increase in apparel sales in both countries. In 2002 USA spent about 10 million and Japan’s numbers were very close (18 millions). Online apparel sales became even more popular in 2003, pushing the figures to the peak of 20 million in both Japan and USA.
Bar graph 1. The bar chart shows figures of annual coffee and meat consumption. The bar chart compares the amounts of coffee and meat consumed every year in Norway, France, Germany, USA, Russia, China and Japan. Overall, Asian group of countries has similar consumption numbers of both coffee and meat. The lowest rates of coffee consumption are recorded in China and Japan (2 and 3 kg per person respectively). The next three countries have higher rates, consumption of coffee in USA totals in 4 kg per person, while France and Russia have equal consumption rates of 5 kg per person. The highest numbers belonged to Germany and Norway, 7 and 9 kg per person respectively. Meat consumption numbers were much higher in all countries; the highest numbers were recorded in USA (122 kg per person) and the lowest in Japan. Meat consumption in Russia (45) and China (47) is similar to that of Japan (42). Three other countries have much higher numbers, starting with Norway (60) and progressing through France (72) to Germany which consumes about twice as much as Japan (87 kg per person).
2. The bar chart compares consumer spending on six different items in Germany, Italy, France and Britain. The bar chart compares consumer spending on six different items in Germany, Italy, France and Britain. It is noticeable that people in Britain spent considerably more money than people living in the other three nations on all six products. Of the six items, photographic film was spent the most money on. People in Britain spent just over £170,000 on photographic film, which was the highest recorded figure on the chart. By contrast, the lowest overall spenders were German, with roughly the same figures (just under £150,000) for each of the six items. Levels of spending on toys were similar/equal in France and Italy, at nearly £160,000. However, the amount spent by French on photographic film and CDs was at £165,000 and nearly £158,000 respectively, slightly higher than that of Italians. By contrast, people in Italy paid out more for personal stereos, tennis racquets and perfumes. French people spent around £145,000 on tennis racquet, which was the lowest figure shown on the chart.
3. The graph shows the percentage of population in urban areas around the world from 1950 and 2030. The bar chart compares the rates of people living in cities around the world in the years 1950, 2007 and projections in 2030. It is noticeable that the proportions of city dwellers increase around the world between 1950 and 2030. North America is expected to see the most significant changes in its urban population. In 1950, the percentage of city dwellers in North America doubled the world average (at 64% and 29% respectively), followed by Europe (52%) and Latin America Caribbean (42%). By contrast, much lower proportions of Asians and Africans were living in the inner city, at around 16%. In the next 56 years, while there was a steady increase in the figures for North America and Europe, rising to 79% and 72% respectively, urban population in Latin America Caribean doubled to 76%. Similarly, Asia and Africa had a twofold increase in the percentage of city dwellers, at about 40%. Looking into the future, the percentage of population living in the city in North America is predicted to reach a peak of 87% in 2030, whereas that of the world will increase by 11% to 60%. Around half of Asian and African population is anticipated to live in urban areas.
Table 1. The table below shows the monthly expenditure of an average Australian family in 1991 and 2001. The table illustrates the amount of monthly spending of Australian households on six different types of goods for the years 1991 and 2001. It is noticeable that there was an overall increase in monthly spending of Australian households. These families spent more money on Food, Electricity and Water, Housing and Other goods and services. In 2001, expenditure on Non-essential goods and services was highest among six types of goods, with a rise of 20 Australian Dollars (AUD). Similarly, Australian household spending on Food, the second most popular item, rose from 155 AUD to 160 AUD. It was considerably higher than those for Electricity and Water and Housing, at 120 AUD and 100 AUD respectively. In stark contrast, the amount of money spent on the remaining two items declined. Monthly spending on Transport witnessed a dramatic fall from 70 AUD in 1991 to 45 AUD in 2001. Spending on Clothing was lowest, which declined from 30 AUD to 20 AUD.
2. The table below gives information about Favorite Pastimes in different countries. (unit: %) The table illustrates seven different types of activities that are preferred in pastimes with residents aged between 30 and 50 from different nations. It is noticeable that Reading, Hobbies and TV are three most popular recreational activities among all countries. By contrast, the least common recreations are Sport, Beach, Music and Sleep. Of the most common categories, the percentages of middle-aged people choosing reading are similar among Japanese, Koreans and Chinese people, at around 60%. While about 60% of Canadians, Australians and Americans spend freetime watching TV, the figure for China is considerably lower, at 15%. By contrast, China has the highest level of people enjoying hobbies, at 50%, compared to only 20% of France and England. With regard to the less common categories, there are around 21% -30% of people in 30-50 age group being involved in sports in each country, except for France, England and Japan as there are no figures recorded. The percentages of people interested in listening to music, going to the beach or sleeping in all countries are relatively insignificant.
Pie chart 1. The pie charts show the amount of revenue and expenditures over a year of a children’s charity in the USA. The pie charts illustrate the distribution of revenue sources and expenditures during a year of a charity for children in the US. Overall, the charity relied on Donated Food as its principal revenue source, while it spent the most money on Program Services. It is also noticeable that the total amount of incomes just exceeded expenditures. This children’s charity received Donated food as its main source of revenue, accounting for 86.6% of the total revenue. The second significant source was generated from Community Contributions, constituting 10.4%. Income from Program Revenue contributed much less, at 2.2%. The remaining sources from Investment income, Government Grants and Other incomes represented a disproportionately small shares, occupying 0.8% collectively.
Concerning expenditures, Program services constituted the largest cost to the charity, at 95.8%. Its expense on Fundraising and Management and General were significantly lower, representing only 2.6% and 1.6% respectively.
2. The charts below give information on the ages of the populations of Yemen and Italy in 2000 and projections for 2050 The pie charts compares Yemen and Italy in terms of its population in the year 2000 and projected population in 2050. Overall, aged population in both countries will increase during the given period. Italy had older population than Yemen in 2000 and the same is anticipated in next five decades. Half of Yemeni population were under 14 years old in 2000, compared to just over 14% of Italians. While the lowest share in Yemeni population (nearly 4%) was 60 years old or above, that of Italy was much higher, at 24%. Similarly, the 15-59 age group in Yemen accounted for just over 46%, much lower than that of Italy, representing 62%. It is envisaged that the percentage of the youngest bracket in Yemen will drop to 37% in 2050 and that of Italy to 11.5%. While the proportion of 15-59 age group in Yemen will increase to 57.3%, that of Italy will decrease by 15%. The oldest bracket in both countries will show an upward trend, with a much higher rise in Italy, growing to 5.7% and 42.3% respectively.
Process The diagram presents the manufacturing process of two types of tea, pu-erh raw tea and pu-erh ripe tea. Although the first three stages are the same for both teas, it can be seen that the methods of production differ in the final stages, which accounts for the resulting variations in the two teas. First, the tea leaves that have been picked are pan fried in order to inactivate the enzymes. Following this, the tea is rolled and afterwards spread out on a round mat so that it can dry under the sun. Once it has been dried, the loose raw tea is ready to be turned into either ripe tea or raw tea. This is where the process diverges. To make pu-erh ripe tea, the loose tea is fermented by being left to mold. Having completed the fermentation stage, the resulting loose ripe tea is then compressed, after which the tea is ready for sale. Regarding the alternative process, before being ready for sale as vintage raw tea, the loose tea is first compressed, and then left to age by storage.
The flow chart shows how waste paper is recycled. It is clear that there are six distinct stages in this process, from the initial collection of waste paper to the eventual production of usable paper. At the first stage in the paper recycling process, waste paper is collected either from paper banks, where members of the public leave their used paper, or directly from businesses. This paper is then sorted by hand and separated according to its grade, with any paper that is not suitable for recycling being removed. Next, the graded paper is transported to a paper mill. Stages four and five of the process both involve cleaning. The paper is cleaned and pulped, and foreign objects such as staples are taken out. Following this, all remnants of ink and glue are removed from the paper at the de-inking stage. Finally, the pulp can be processed in a paper making machine, which makes the end product: usable paper.
Maps The map illustrates the changes that have occurred in Templeton, a seaside resort, over a 10 year period beginning in 1990 and ending in 2005. The most noticeable change is the replacement of many green areas with several major infrastructure projects. To begin, there were several major changes to transport in the town. An airport has been built beside the river on the outskirts of the town. In addition to this, a ferry port was constructed on the far east coastline, with a new railway extension line passing by the ferry port, continuing along the coast and crossing over a new bridge so it connects to the west side of town. There have also been changes to the business sector in Templeton. A factory can be seen in the south east of the town behind the new railway line, and a supermarket has been built over the river in the west of Templeton, running alongside a new road. The residential landscape has also altered, particularly on the west side of town, where large apartment blocks now stand in place of the houses.