RELATIVE CLAUSES – MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ (PHẦN 2) Nguồn tham khảo: Sách ngữ pháp Mai Lan Hương – Nguyễn Thanh Loan (2012) IV. Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ (mđqh): - Trường hợp động từ của mđqh dùng whom, which có giới từ, ta có thể đem giới từ đặt ra trước mệnh đề quan hệ (trước whom, which). Ex 1: The man whom Mary is talking to is Mr John. = The man to whom Mary is talking is Mr John. Ex 2: The shop which I got my camera from is near your house. = The shop from which I got my camera is near your house. -
Trong mđqh xác định dùng whom, which, ta có thể bỏ whom, which và đặt giới từ ra sau động từ của mđqh. Ex 1: The man whom Mary is talking to is Mr John. = The man Mary is talking to is Mr John. Ex 2: The shop which I got my camera from is near your house. = The shop I got my camera from is near your house. - Khi dùng that hoặc who, ta không đưa giới từ ra trước. Ex: The man that/who Mary is talking to is Mr John. (NOT: The man to that/ who Mary is talking to is Mr John.)
Khi giới từ đứng cuối mđqh là thành phần của cụm động từ (phrasal verbs) thì ta không đem giới từ ra trước whom, which. Ex: This is the book which I’m looking for. That is the child whom you have to look after. V. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ: 1. Dùng cụm phân từ: - Thể chủ động: V-ING Ex: The man who is sitting next to you is my teacher. The man sitting next to you is my teacher. - Thể bị động: V3 Ex: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting. The books written by To Hoai are interesting. 1
2. Dùng to-inf ( hoặc for+O+to-inf) - Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước (antecedent) có các từ sau đây bổ nghĩa: only, last, first, second... This is the only student who can do the problem. This is the only student to do the problem. I was the last person who came to the party. I was the last person to come to the party. -
Động từ là have/ has I don’t like him playing in the streets; I wish we had a garden that he could play in. I don’t like him playing in the streets; I wish we had a garden for him to play in.
Đầu câu có: here (be), there (be) There’s a lot of work which has to be done. There’s a lot of work to be done. Here is a form that you must fill in. Here is a form for you to fill in.
3. Dùng cụm danh từ:
- Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health. Football, a popular sport, is very good for health. - Do you like the book which is on the table? Do you like the book on the table? EXERCISE I. Reduce relative clauses to phrases: 1. The man who is standing there is a clown. 2. The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it. 3. Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives. 4. My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.
5. The student don't know how to do exercise which were given by the teacher yesterday. 6. The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812. 7. The gentleman who lives next door to me is a well-known orator. 8. All the astronauts who are orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless. 9. All students don't hand in their papers will fail in the exam. 10. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm. 11. The street which leads to the school is very wide. 12. The system which is used here is very successful. 13. John, who teaches my son, is my neighbor. 14. Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London. 15. The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam. 16. We are driving on the road which was built in 1980. 17. Customers who complain about the service should see the manager. 18. The city which was destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt. 19. My brother, who met you yesterday, works for a big firm. 20. The vegetable which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals. 21. We had a river in which we could swim. 3
22. The child would be happier if he had someone that he could play with. 23. I have some letters that I must write. 24. If she had a family that she had to cook for, she would be more interested. 25. We had to eat standing up because we don’t have anything that we could sit on. 26. There is a bench that your children can sit on. 27. Here is the novel that she should read. 28. Here are some accounts that you must check. 29. The last student that was interviewed was Tom. 30. We visited Hanoi, which is the capital of Vietnam. 31. My father, who is a pilot, often goes abroad. 32. I was the only one who realized him. 33. I have some homework which I must do tonight. 34. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. 35. I was awakened by the sound of a laughter which came from the room which was next to mine at the motel. 36. There are six reports which have to be typed today. II. Choose the correct answer (some might have more than one correct answer): 1. Tom,……….is a monitor of the class, is also the captain of the football. a. who b. which c. whom d. whose 2. The street…………leads to my school is very narrow. a. who b. which c. whom d. whose 4
3. Bring me the clock………………..is over there. a. whom b. which c. whose d. who 4. My friend, …………aunt is a nurse, would like to be a doctor one day. a. who b. whom c. which d. whose 5. The dog, ………..tail I stepped on, bit me. a. who b. whose c. which d. whom 6. Please give this to the beggar…………….is at the door. a. who b. which c. whom d. whose 7. My father gave me the doll…………..I had been hoping for. a. who b. which c. whom d. which 8. Yesterday I met my friend…………….gave me a dog on my birthday. a. who b. whose c. whom d. which 9. Any boy………….disobeys the rules will be punished. a. that b. which c. whom d. who 10. Budapest……….is on the Danube is a beautiful city. a. where b whose c. when d. which 11. The river from………….we get our water supply is nearly empty. a. that b. which c. whom d. where 12. The boy…………father is in prison is my friend. a. whom b. who c. whose d. which 13. Do you know the driver………………took them to town last night? a. which b. whom c. where d. who 14. Anybody…………..is tired may leave. a. whom b. who c. where d. which 15. He talked about the books and the authors………….interested him. a. which b. who c. that d. when 16. The cat …………tail is long does not belong to me. a. whom b. that c. which d. whose 17. All the people…………I met are very friendly. a. who b. whom c. whose d. that 18. Karl Marx is the German philosopher…………..principles have changed world’s history. a. whose b which c. who d. that 19. We saw many soldiers and tanks…………..were moving to the front. a. which b. whose c. that d. who 5
20. We must find a time………………we can meet and a place…………..we can talk. a. when/ whom b. who/where c. whom/whose d. when/where 21. The decision was postponed, …………….was exactly what he wanted. a. which b . when c. that d. where 22. He reads all the books………….he can borrow. a. which b. that c. whom d. who 23. Who is the boy…………..you’re looking for? a. whom b. that c. whose d. who 24. Jim passed his driving test, ……………surprised everybody. a. that b. which c. who d. whom. 25. It rained all the time, ……………was a pity. a. which b. that c. whom d. whose. 26. The Titanic, ………….., was supposed to be unsinkable. a. sank in 1922 b. that sank in 1922 c. which sinking in 1922 d. which sank in 1922 27. Ann enjoys taking a walk at night, …………the streets are quiet. a. when b. which c. that c. where 28. I always remember the first day……………. I met her. a. when b. who c. where d. which 29. I wants to know……………he remains so thoughtful. a. why b. which c. what d. when 30. She didn’t tell me the reason…………she divorced her husband. a. when b. why c. what d. who. 31. He was the first man………………the burning house. a. left b. to leave c. leave d. to left. 32. She is the most beautiful girl………….. I have ever met. a. who b. that c. which d. whom.