Tóm tắt luận án tiến sĩ quản lý di tích lịch sử văn hóa ở bắc ninh trong quá trình công nghiệp hóa, đô thị hóa (TT)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINISTRY OF CULTURE, SPORTS & TOURISM VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE AND ARTS STUDIES
Tran Duc Nguyen
MANAGEMENT OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELICS IN BAC NINH PROVINCE IN THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION
Major: Cultural Management Code: 62 31 06 42 SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION IN CULTURAL STUDIES
Ha Noi - 2015
The study has been completed at: VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE AND ARTS STUDIES
External Examiner 1:
Associate Professor. Dr. Dang Van Bai
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bui Hoai Son
Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies
External Examiner 2: Dr. Tran Dinh Luyen Bac Ninh Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism
External Examiner 3: Dr. Nguyen Van Tinh Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
The dissertation will be defended before the Institute - level Examining Committe, Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies 32 Hao Nam, O Cho Dua, Dong Da, Ha Noi At………………………………………………………..
The dessertation could be looked up at: - Vietnam National Library - Library of Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies
INTRODUCTION 1. Rationale of the study Bac Ninh Province is located in the Red River Delta with favorable natural, fertile soil and convenient river systems for trading with other localities in the region. Bac Ninh is steeped in local cultural and historical tradition. These elements of nature and social history as above has contributed to Bac Ninh’s treasure of diversified cultural heritage, unique, rich value that has been transmitted to the present day. One of the elements of such precious cultural heritage is is a system of historical - cultural monuments which is diverse both in forms and types. According to statistics, there remain approximately 2,000 historical - cultural relics distributed throughout the districts, towns and cities in Bac Ninh Province. Over the years, especially since the Cultural Heritage Law had
been enacted (2001), the management of cultural and historical relics in Bac Ninh Province has been much positively changed. The key relics of the Province has been managed, invested for restoration and renovation so as to effectively to meet the needs of cultural enjoyment of the community inside and outside the Province. However, there remain limitations to such management, caused by defects in anti-degradation, in the treatment of encroached land, in relic’s protection zoning, and in the propagation, dissemination and implementation of guidelines and policies of the Party and laws of the State on monument preservation. Currently, Bac Ninh has the rapid socio-economic growth and the strong process of industrialization and urbanization. This has positive impacts on conservation and promotion of heritage value as increased funding for restoration and renovation of relics, avoidance of degradation and destruction of relics. However, it also has negative effects such as state heritage overwhelmed, damaged, deformed or damaged ... This is the problem faced by management agencies, standing in front of a pressure force for the protection, exploitation and promotion
of traditional cultural values in a sustainable manner, while ensuring the service of socio-economic development, raising spirit and material living standards for residential community. 2. Aims of the study - Researching the situation of historical - cultural management with successes and limitations and determining the cause of such limitations. - Studying the impact of industrialization and urbanization to the ruins and relics management activities in Bac Ninh. - Proposing some solutions to achieve higher efficiency in the management, conservation and promotion of the values of the historicalcultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the current period. 3. Object and scope of the study 3.1. Object of the study The dissertation studies all issues relating to the management of historical-cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in recent years, which focuses on the study of the policies of the Party, State and Local authorities on conservation of monuments and policies for community, participation in conservation of monuments, organizational structure and operations management in the field of historical-cultural relics, the role of the community in the management; the impact on the process of industrialization and urbanization to historical-cultural management. 3.2. Scope of the study - Scope of space: the historical and cultural monuments in Bac Ninh Province. - Scope of time: from the Cultural Heritage Law was enacted in 2001 to the present. 4. Method of the study - Method of interdisciplinary research: Culture studies, Cultural management, History, Preservation of historical cultural relics... - Method of survey and field;
- Methods of cultural - sociological research: Qualitative and quantitative methods research - Methods of synthesis, analysis, statistics, classification and comparison 5. Scientific and practical significance of the study The Dissertation contributes to systematize theories on cultural heritage, cultural heritage management; perspectives, theoretical basis for relic management. It provides information and data on the system of cultural and historical monuments in Bac Ninh Province; Clarifies the situation
management, the impact of the development of industrialization and urbanization for relics; then proposes the solutions for improving the effectiveness of the management of historical cultural relics, creating resources
industrialization and urbanization. 6. Design of the study Besides the Introduction, Conclusion, References and Appendices, the dissertation is structured into 3 chapters: Chapter 1: Theoretical fundamentals of heritage management, the overview of historical and cultural relic system in Bac Ninh Province Chapter 2: Current situation of the management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province Chapter 3: Orientation and solution for improving the effective management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the process of industrialization and urbanization
CHAPTER 1 THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF HERITAGE MANAGEMENT, OVERVIEW OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELIC SYSTEM IN BAC NINH PROVINCE 1.1. Overview of the Study 1.1.1. The study on the management of tangible cultural heritage 1.1.2 The study of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province 1.1.3. The study on the management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province Up to now, the studies on the relic management of heritage has not yet focused deeply on issues such as managerial object and tools, management of natural landscape environment and architectural space, strategic issues of conservation and promotion of heritage value, the systematical planning, master planning and conservation projects have not been discussed and deeply studied. For Bac Ninh in particular, in addition to the limitations above, there is no specific and systematical study on managerial issues of historical and cultural relics, especially in the condition of socio-economic development, the process of industrialization and urbanization with positive and negative impacts to the ruins. This has been a big challenge for local managers. Therefore, the issues which have not yet been accessible shall be a certain gap that will be mentioned and researched in this Study. 1.2. Theoretical fundamental of the Study 1.2.1. Theoretical fundamental There are many different views on conservation of cultural heritage with three outstanding viewpoints: the viewpoint of preservation of original values, conservation on the basis of inheritance and the viewpoint of conservation and development. In the study, the objects of the management and conservation are the historical and
cultural relics in specific locality with the characteristics of type and building materials. The conservation should respect the original, accuracy, integrity and sustainability of the relics of the allowable conditions. The relic preservation should be followed to the goal and associated to socio-economic development, specially linked to the community, respected and uphold the role of the community as the cultural creators, heritage owners, beneficiaries of such heritage value, but also played an active role in protecting and promoting the values of cultural heritage. The monuments should be exploited and promoted the value for propaganda and education on tradition, cultural identity, promotion of the local image, practically contributing to the socioeconomic development, especially bringing material and spiritual benefits to communities surrounding monument and heritage. This is the theoretical viewpoint applied in the Dissertation. 1.2.2. Some basic concepts * Cultural heritage * Historical and cultural relics * Management and management of historic and cultural relics * Cultural Management * Community * Sustainable development * Industrialization and urbanization 1.2.3. Legal fundamentals for the management of historical cultural relics The most legal fundamental for management of historical cultural relics is Cultural Heritage Law in 2001 and Law amending and modifying some articles of Cultural Heritage Law in 2001. 1.3. Overview of the system of historical cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province 1.3.1. Some features of Bac Ninh Province 220.127.116.11. Geographical location and natural features
18.104.22.168. Resident 22.214.171.124. Economic - social features 126.96.36.199. Historical and cultural characteristics 1.3.2. Overview of the system of historical cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province 188.8.131.52. Quantity and type of relics - Quantity of relics: Currently, there are a total of 1.545 monuments of all kinds, including 498 rated monuments (194 nationally rated monuments and 304 provincially rated monuments in overall Province). Distribution: the relics were distributed in the Province; the average density of 18 monuments/1km2. - The type of relic in Bac Ninh Province: the relics can be divided into three types of relics: 1/ Type of archeology; 2/ Type of historical monuments; 3/ Type of architectural monuments. 184.108.40.206. The situation and technical status of the relics The historical-cultural relics are divided into the following categories: 1/Relics are ruins, accounting for approximately 3% of total relics; 2/Relics are in the condition of serious degradation, accounting for approximately 20% of total relics; 3/Relics are expressly degraded, accounting for approximately 65% of total relics; 4/Relics are in good condition, accounting for approximately 12%. 220.127.116.11. Ownership form of relics There are two ownership forms: 1/Relics are under collective ownership; 2/Relics are under private ownership. 18.104.22.168. Historical cultural relics with festival There are about 547 festivals in Bac Ninh Province, the majority of which are organized at relics which have been accredited and certified as historical and cultural relics by the State. Sub-conclusion The researches on relics and management of historical-cultural relics in Bac Ninh in particularly have provided a relatively
comprehensive look on issues that have been paid attention by the Dissertation. However, there is no study accessing in terms of full, systematical and comprehensive management of historical cultural relics in Bac Ninh and studying management situation of historical cultural relics in the process of industrialization and urbanization. The dissertation applies the theoretical framework of cultural heritage management
acknowledgement as monuments as the managerial object that should have the appropriate measures for conservation and preservation and promotion of their values for socio-economic development of the Province, to meet the enjoyment needs of the community. With the relic system is composed of three types of historical relics, architecture - arts and archeology - with different characteristics, the appropriate management methods for promoting effectively the value of such monuments that contribute to the overall development of the locality should be necessarily applied. CHAPTER 2 CURRENT SITUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELICS IN BAC NINH PROVINCE 2.1. The organizational structure of the monument management 2.1.1. People's Committees at all levels As a rule, the Province People’s Committee bears the highest responsibility for the state management of cultural heritage in local as assigned by the Government. People's Committees of districts, towns, wards and communes bears responsibility for managing, building and implementing conservation and promotion of the value of monuments, relics, antiques and national treasures in their localities. 2.1.2. Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism is a professionally specialized agency, advising and assisting the Province People’s
Committee in performing “the state management in the Province of cultural heritage”. The responsibilities of the Department of Culture in the management of historical-cultural relics are clearly specified in The Regulations on the management of monuments, relics, antiques and national treasures in Bac Ninh Province. The Relic Management Committee of Bac Ninh Province is the agency principally responsible for the management of relics. In communes, wards and towns where there are ranked relics, Heritage Management Unit is established for the purpose of directly managing, protecting and promoting the values of such relics. *In coordination mechanisms of management agencies at all levels: Heritage management is under administrative level, vertically from the Province to the district/town, commune/ward and village/neighborhood. * On the management model - Management model of self-governing community: Local management unit consist of representatives of communes and villages, mainly in charge of supervisory role, and the heritage management is mainly for the community with participants of the Elderly Association, the Woman Association and the Youth Union of wards and villages. - Management model fully undertaken by the State: Historic relics of revolution and famous persons shall be fully managed by the State. All activities such as repair, restoration, display... are planned and deployed by the State. - Model operated by private: applied for relics such as ancient folk houses, family worship, temples and shrines... 2.2. Managerial human resources of historical cultural relics - The staff of the Province management unit: Staff specialized in museology basically assume and well perform managerial works such as survey, fieldwork, research, collection, inventory, heritage documentation, consultancy and verification of projects of heritage restoration and renovation...
- The staff of the local management unit: management unit of entire ranked relics by the State are established. The qualification and capacity of these staff is inconsistent and uneven, should be trained for knowledge of protection and promotion of cultural heritage. - Staff at the district cultural office in charge of heritage management has graduate and postgraduate education accounting for 100%. However, their training field is not consistent with the requirements of the management of cultural heritage. 2.3. Management activities of historical - cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province 2.3.1. Building the planning, the plan and heritage conservation project 22.214.171.124. Building the heritage conservation plan Many relics of Bac Ninh Province have been included in the overall plan and some key monuments restored and renovated... Viewpoint that renovations and restoration for some key relics is associated with tourism development. The goal of the planning is to ensure maximum preservation of the original elements of the monument, and promotion of the heritage value for socio-economic and cultural development, satisfying the needs of cultural enjoyment of the people. 126.96.36.199. Building relic conservation plan The restoration and renovation for preservation of the historical and cultural relics has been now done with the annual short-term specific plan plans and long/medium-term plans. The plans such as Management, preservation and promotion of revolutionary historic relics in Bac Ninh Province in the period of 2007-2010 in 2007 and Restoration plan for historic cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the period of 2010-2015, in 2010 were approved. 2.3.2. Issuing legal documents on historical and cultural relics On the basis of characteristics and local situation, Bac Ninh Province has issued a number of documents concerning the management of cultural heritage in general, historical and cultural monuments in
particular. In 2008, the Regulation on management and use of historical – cultural relics in Bac Ninh was promulgated, and in 2014 the Regulation on management of monuments, relics, antiques and national treasures in Bac Ninh Province was issued. 2.3.3. Propaganda, popularization and legal education of relics The Province management unit guides the propagation on the legal documents on cultural heritage for cultural staff and its members at each locality. Conference to announce the list of anti-degraded monuments by State with the capital originated from the national target programs, guidelines, documentation procedures of religious monuments. The propagation of cultural heritage protection and preservation at each locality has been carried out mainly through the radio system or some other forms. 2.3.3. Organization of professional operations for preservation and promotion of the values of historical-cultural relics 188.8.131.52. Heritage conservation Listing and preparing heritage scientific document is conducted annually, in districts, towns and communes, towns, villages, and each monument. Studying and preparing rank document for the monument: so far, Bac Ninh has 498 ranked monuments, which 194 nationally ranked monuments, 304 provincially ranked monuments; Dau pagoda and Thap pagoda were recognized as a special national monument. Heritage restoration and renovation: Heritage restoration and renovation projects ensure ensure the principle, science and compliance with prescribed procedures. Many relics have been funded for renovations, anti-degradation typically such as Phu Luu building; Do temple and Dau pagoda... 184.108.40.206. Antique management at relics: Bac Ninh Province management unit counted and listed artifacts, antiques and relics at some locations. Special valuable antiques have been researched and documented scientifically and submitted to the Government to be recognized as national treasures.
Currently, major relics, artifacts and antiques are assigned to elder association or pagoda chairman for management. Artifacts and antiques have not yet listed and verified statistics their dating. Protection measures are mainly such as maintaining, cleaning the artifacts and antiques. In general, the management has not been yet paid attention. Many antiques and artifacts were stolen in many relics. 220.127.116.11. Promotion of heritage values The promotion of heritage value is done in many different forms such as: visiting the relics; organizing activities and events to promote the value of the monument; exploiting value of relics for the development of tourism, of which potentialities such mental culture and tourism, heritage culture have been focused; associated relics with the teaching and learning activities of the schools, the study competition on local history and tradition ... Firstly, introducing and promoting relics in the mass media. 2.3.5. Organizing and management of scientific research activities on the monument Scientific research activities are carried out in some forms such as: seminars on cultural and historical sites; research, writing, publication of the value of the monument; survey, research, assessment of the value of the monument ... 2.3.6. Mobilization, management and use of resources for preservation, promotion of the value of historical and cultural monuments The renovations, heritage restoration is done primarily by two sources: In the first source - through the support of the state, for this funding, management must comply with the principles of finance. Investment for heritage renovation must go through the process of verification and approval of status documents of the monument to the budget allocation decisions. The budget must be properly used for effective purpose.
In the second source - mobilizing resources from the community Donations of money and human resources of the community to participate in the preservation and promotion of heritage value. The role of community in participation in conservation and promotion of heritage values are clearly expressed, most notably the case of recovery, restore the ruins of Ly Kings in Dinh Bang. However, funds have just been focused on the monuments associated with religion - beliefs as temples, pagodas, temples and shrines.... the ruins of the type of archaeology, history, memory and famous characters ... has been less attracted from public attention. The management of the funds raised from the community as to put the donation boxes and the revenues and expenditures in the ruins has been a problem. Beside effective management of such funds such as Do temple, Tieu Son (Tu Son) pagoda...., there is an untransparent management at some ruins... 2.3.7. Coordination and cooperation on the protection and promotion of the value of historical cultural relics Coordination and cooperation is carried out in two major forms including: coordination with other domestic agencies and organizations and with international organizations to implement conservation programs, promotion of heritage value or calling, rising the funding for this program. 2.3.8. Inspection and examination of the legal observance and settlement of complaints and denunciations about the historical and cultural monuments Heritage management agencies must arrange the inspection plan of the issues related to the observance of the law on the protection and promotion of the values of historical, cultural relics, such as renovation and protection of relics and antiques in ruins, occupied land, superstition in festivals...; Checking and receiving information from the people on the violations related to the management of the monument to timely measures or recommendations of the competent authorities to resolve and handled
according to law. Coordinating with relevant agencies to organize periodic inspection and handling of complaints of violations of the monument. 2.4. Assessment of the advantages and limitations of the management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province * About advantages - About organization management structure: decentralized management to the commune level. Developing a coordination mechanism between units in the management of cultural and historical monuments. - The role of state management is reflected in the following activities: + Many legal documents are issued for direction and orientation for conservation and preservation of cultural heritages. + Propaganda classes on laws and bylaws on cultural heritage, professional training for staff working in management at all levels are regularly organized. + The research, documentation, relic ranking is an important and effective measure. + State’s funds for the restoration, repair and renovation of the monuments are used for the right and efficient purposes. Mobilizing public resources for restoration and renovation of the monuments. + Studying and collecting intangible cultural values such as festivals, legends, gods related to relics to make the raised value of the monument in accordance with the needs of the community. + Advising and helping for localities to organize festival at the monument in accordance with tradition, civilization, history and security for tourists. + Inspecting, testing and handling violation of the monuments, resolving complaints and disputes of relics and artifacts at the local level. Giving the reward forms of the individual, collective achievements in the protection and promotion of cultural heritage value.
- The role of the community: the local heritage management unit with the participation of the community representatives. Monuments are created by the community, existed with the community; the community’s management is an appropriate method and effective management. Communities contribute funds for the renovation, restoration of monuments, restoration of festivals or ceremonies held at the monument. Expressing the supervisory role of the protection, preservation of cultural heritage. Distort behaviors and violation are detected and notified to local governments. * About limitations Objectively: degradation and damage of the monuments are resulted from climatic conditions, harsh nature and consequences of the war. Subjectively: - Management role of managerial agencies reveals many shortcomings: + Propaganda and guidance on Cultural Heritage Law has no specific and regular plans, mostly focuses on management unit without paying attention on the community. + It is late in listing monuments, benchmarking, documenting, archaeological planning, master planning... + The degradation of many relics still exists in many places. The poor management of restoration projects funded by socialization sources. + Many infringement cases on land disputes of relics and artifacts in ruins... are promptly untreated or irrationally treated. + There is no inventory plan, setting records for antiques for the monument. The phenomenon of stolen relics, artifacts also occur in ruins, the investigation. + The phenomenon of superstition, mediums, arbitrary burning of paper votive, the social evils persist in many monuments, many annual festivals. + There is ineffective and lack of oriented exploitation and promotion of the value of the monument. Tourism products are mainly based on available values.
- Limited public awareness of the community in the management and protection of monuments, self-decision of restoration and renovation of relics without permission of professional bodies, even breaking the old relics to build new monuments, cause deviation of the original nature of the monument. In some cases, community agitation should have expressed a lack of confidence in the specialized agencies, agency management. The influence of the abbot is greater than management unit, even conflict with the community, with local authorities. * Reason for limitations - Propagation and dissemination of guidelines and policies of the Party and State on cultural heritage has not been appropriately paid attention. Some local leaders are not fully aware of the importance of heritage and scientific requirements in the renovation of the monument led to the arbitrary behavior of ruins. - Incomplete and asynchronous collaboration between the Province management units. Inspection, detection and treatment are delayed. - Lack of expertise and professional knowledge of management staff. - The inter-sectoral coordination among agencies in the management, conservation and promotion of the value of historical cultural heritage is not close and effective. - Lack of orientation, policies, specific sanctions to encourage, call the contributions of organizations and individuals to engage in protecting and promoting the value of cultural and historical monuments. - The loose management of monuments and antiques loose, in a "sum-lump" way. Sub-conclusion Decentralization of historical cultural heritage in Bac Ninh so far to commune/ward level expresses the consistency, focus and facilitation for implementation of the plans, tasks of management, preservation and promotion of heritage value. The management model to be applied in practice will vary depending on the characteristics of each type of
monument. However, the state still plays a major role in regulating and orienting the other components involved in management. Heritage management activities are conducted under the provisions of the Law on Cultural Heritage. The dissertation approaches the management activities on specific aspects such as the promulgation and implementation of documents related to historical and cultural monuments in fact, building the planning and conservation plans of heritage system, promotion of relics in the present conditions ... The important role of the community for the protection of monuments is expressed through mobilizing resources for the restoration and renovation of the local heritage. In fact, the heritage management has positive effects to meet the needs of the community and cultural life. However, due to several different factors, the heritage preservation and conservation reveals limitations that need specific solutions to contribute to preservation and promotion of valuable cultural heritages. CHAPTER 3 ORIENTATION AND SOLUTION FOR IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELICS IN BAC NINH PROVINCE IN THE PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION 3.1. The impact of industrialization and urbanization for the management of historical cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province at the present 3.1.1. The situation of industrialization, urbanization in Bac Ninh In recent years, the socio-economy of Bac Ninh Province has flourished and risen to the top of the Provinces in the northern key economic region. Previously, mainly agricultural production, Bac Ninh has shifted to development of industry - urban - services; positive changes in economic structure. Such developments are the result of the process of industrialization development. Currently, Bac Ninh has 15 industrial zones with a total area
of 6,847 hectares. Along with industrial parks, industrial clusters of trade villages formed and developed in all districts of the Province has been a key factor for industrialization. Many traditional villages have been restored, maintained and developed new occupations. At the present, there are 62 handicraft villages with over 200 different industries. Along with the industrialization process in Bac Ninh, there is a strong urbanization. The urbanization process is mostly concentrated in Bac Ninh city and Tu Son town. Average urbanization speed in the period 2006 - 2010 reached 15% / year. The strong urbanization process in densely populated areas, industrial zones, the areas along the highway 1A, 18, and 38 is the premise of urban expansion and the formation of centralized housing areas for the labor needs in the area, especially industrial workers. 3.1.2. The impact of industrialization and urbanization for managing the historic cultural relics * Positive impacts - Local investment budget for the restoration, repair is guaranteed. - Material lives of people increases significantly, with the conditions for support, support for conservation and promotion of the value of local monuments. - Changes in public benefits, so there are different behaviors for relics: sticking to the monument, interest and protection of local heritage. * Negative impacts - Breaking landscapes, sacred space of the monument; land encroachment, breach. - Occurring social evils, the phenomenon of stealing artifacts and antiques at the monument in many places. - Construction of infrastructure directly affects the monument: narrowed monument, flooding... - Polluted ambient and water affects the landscape, the space of the monuments, festivals.
- Socio-economic development, market economy also lead to the commercialization, market festivals of the relics. 3.2. Some viewpoints and fundamentals for solutions on improving management efficiency of historic cultural relics 3.2.1. In term of management 18.104.22.168. In term of unified management roles of monuments 22.214.171.124. In term of conservation and promotion of relic values to ensure the authenticity and the original nature of the monument 126.96.36.199. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of tangible cultural heritage associated with intangible cultural heritage 188.8.131.52. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of heritage associated with the community and for the community 184.108.40.206. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of heritage associated with the socio-economic development of the locality 3.2.2. Fundamentals for solution - Pursuant to on Cultural Development Strategy to 2020 has been approved by the Prime Minister by Decision No. 581/QD-TTg dated 06/05/2009. - Pursuant to the policies and guidance of Bac Ninh on conservation and promotion of cultural heritage value ... those are expressed through some plan of socio-economic and cultural development of the Province. 3.3. Some solutions 3.3.1. Strengthening the management apparatus - For the Province heritage management unit:
function and mission of protection and promotion of cultural heritage values in the Province. The Province heritage management unit should be improved to the Cultural Heritage Conservation Center. - For the local heritage management unit: enhancing the role of stakeholders, including attention to the self-management role of community. Setting up a hot line with phone numbers of the leader or charge-officer
irregularities in the relics. Developing a coordination plan in heritage protection between management unit and president of pagoda or temples and local communities. 3.3.2. Strengthening the propaganda and education
awareness about the historical - cultural relic for the community These
conservation, promoting the values of monuments mainly focus for staff management, and people do not pay attention. Therefore, the need to strengthen education and communication on the monument to the people, because the support and the role of the community is one of the important factors, the community to create the monument and also they used, now the community must be the manager, protected monuments. 3.3.3. Planning maintenance, repair, restoration of relics It is necessary to have a systematic planning for the entire ranked monument. The systematic planning is the legal and scientific basis to create
development of present sectors of Bac Ninh. 3.3.4. Mechanisms and policies - Increasing investment for the protection and promotion of the value of historical cultural relics. - Developing mechanisms and policies to encourage and monitor the investment resources from the community for preservation and promotion of the monument value. - There are subsidies to directly oversee and manage the monument; honoring those who have preferential protection, teaching and promoting the values of the monument. 3.3.5. Improving the quality of human resource for relic management Fostering the professional knowledge for management staff at all levels. Additional staffing is the architect or civil engineer. Planning to organize training courses for each specific geographical area, equipping
with the knowledge to those who are directly preservation and protection of monuments; appointing staff to learn and visit managerial experiences in the countries in the region. 3.3.6. Strengthening the inspection and examination at the relics Strengthening the inspection and examination to detect and handle violations of the monument, settle complaints and denunciations and handle violations of the law on monuments; Praising timely organizations and individuals to strictly abide by the law, timely handling of cases of violation of Cultural Heritage Law. 3.3.7. Effectively exploitation of the cultural and historical relis associated with the tourism development It should focus on some of the contents: Raising the attractiveness of the relics to tourists; accelerating the promotion of heritage; developing a unique tourism product; investing for upgrading and building new infrastructure for tourist attractions and improving the quality of human resources in tourism. 3.3.8. Strengthening inter-agency coordination Close linking between heritage management with management units of industrial development and urban management. Building rapid handling mechanisms in case of appearance of the adverse impacts of industrialization and urbanization to the ruins. Discussion and agreement between the parties in quick and reasonable manner to make the monuments to avoid the risk of occupy and directly affect the value of such monuments. Sub-conclusion Bac Ninh Province with rapid socio-economic growth, the process of industrialization and urbanization at provincial level causes both positive and negative way to the ruins. From the management status of historical cultural relics, the dissertation proposes some solutions to improve the efficiency of this work. These solutions focus on the role of state management, to enhance
the role and participation of the communities where existing monuments. Coordination mechanisms between the participants are one of the factors to bring success in management. In addition, the solutions of mechanisms and policies, enhanced professional activities and exploitation of the value of relics in reasonable and effective way... are also mentioned. CONCLUSION 1. With the object as management of historical-cultural relics in a particular location, the theory of cultural heritage management is determined as a basis for the study of specific contents. The theory of cultural heritage management has been paid attention by many domestic and foreign scholars. The study focuses on two contents that are conservation and promotion of heritage values for overall social development. It also highlights the role of heritage management community. Conservation, preservation of cultural heritage is intended for the community and the community is considered as partner, an integral part of the heritage management. Conservation and preservation of relics respect to the intangible heritage value contained in it. Cultural heritage plays an important role: as the property of the community, as development resource, as the soul linking the community to preserve identity in the period of industrialization and urbanization to form new value system. In terms of strong industrialization and urbanization has impact on the monument as well as management activities in both positive and negative way. Socio-economic development is also associated with social relationships between conservation and development, priority in selecting problems. 2. Bac Ninh’s cultural heritage is very abundant and diversified. Historical cultural relics play an important role, including many different types. Such relics contain the value of history - culture - science and aesthetics. This is a great potentiality for socio-economic development,
particularly associated with the development of local tourism. Economic development resulted from the process of industrialization and urbanization has an impact on the field of culture, the village model changed in comparison with the past, the historical cultural relics are also resisted by this effect. The previous studies on the heritage management in Bac Ninh has not yet mentioned the management issues in the development process of industrialization and urbanization with implications for the historical cultural relics and community psychology, not yet put relics in the relation to the local development. The preserved relics will contribute to the conservation of national cultural identity, but in the context of the current development, such relics need to be exploited to bring benefits to the community and the society. Exploitation must be reasonable and harmonized with the development process and sure of sustainability. Solving this content with specific arguments will be orientation to provide solutions on preservation and promotion of historic-cultural heritage value at the present. 3. The key role of State in the management of cultural heritage is reflected in the management hierarchy: powers and particular obligations of preservation and promotion of heritage value are specified at each level. Managerial decentralization to the commune/ward level has shown consistency, synchronization and specification in management. At the local level, participants of heritage management unit are authorities and representatives of the community. In fact, through the surveys, there are now three management models including State management model, selfmanagement model of community and private management, of which self-management model of community is existed in most of the ranked relics. The role of the community is evident at mostly through this model, people are proactive in protecting the ruins of the village, mobilizing social resources to carry out the repair, restoration for monuments, and conduct activities to introduce and promote the value of local monuments. However, the autonomous model of the community,
not all the case of relics always achieve the desired effect, many shortcomings appear in the management process. For an effective management model, it needs different factors, including ethical issues, self-discipline, transparency of those who are selected to participate in the conduct of management, particularly issues related to finance. The implementation of responsibilities, the behavior of local governments for heritage management, with the local community as well as the factors also contributes to the success or failure in the management of cultural heritage. 4. The dissertation has focused research and analysis of the actual management of cultural heritage in Bac Ninh Province in recent years, especially two basic contents as heritage conservation for preserving and promoting the monuments. On the other hand, the monument should be exploited, and promoted the value to meet the needs of cultural enjoyment of the community. Thereby, the dissertation initially provides an assessment of the effectiveness of these activities. The assessment is not only based on the statistical figures of the managerial agency, but also based on the evaluation and feedback from the community. 5. In the context of the current development, the government and people of Bac Ninh Province are interested in investment for conservation, preservation and promotion of the values of cultural heritage by mechanisms, policies and more specific actions. Effective heritage management will be the basis for the implementation of local socio-economic development, put the monument to become a particular product to attract inbound and outbound tourists to Bac Ninh. Identifying such targets, the author's dissertation proposes some solutions to improve the management efficiency of local heritage as completing
management apparatus, developing policies of top
investment for preservation and promotion of the heritage value, investing for key human resources in management, mobilizing and enhancing the role of the community in a rational exploitation of