Tài liệu TDP TRAINING FOR DIGITAL PROJECTION A REFERENCE GUIDE TO DIGITAL CINEMA pdf
B•K•S•T•S The Moving Image Society The leading specialist publication for cinema industry professionals Issue 3 • December 2006 A supplement to Cinema Technology TDP TRAINING FOR DIGITAL PROJECTION A REFERENCE GUIDE TO DIGITAL CINEMA Supported by the UK Film Council page 2 SPONSOR MEMBERS DIAMOND Odeon Cinemas GOLD Autodesk• Kodak Limited • Panavision Europe • ITN SILVER Avid Technology Europe • Carlton Television Deluxe London • Digital Theater Systems Dolby Laboratories • Film & Photo Ltd • IMP Electronics • Lee Filters • Numerica Pinewood-Shepperton Studios • Shooting Partners Ltd • Slater Electronic Services
Soho Images • Sony Broadcast & Professional • Technicolor BRONZE Aardman Animations • AGFA Gevaert Ltd • Arri (GB) Ltd • Barco plc • Cooke Optics Desisti Lighting UK Ltd • Digital Film at the Moving Picture Company • Electrosonic Ltd • Film Distributors Association • Film & Photo Ltd • Framestore CFC • Harkness Hall Ltd • The Joint Ltd • JVC Professional (UK) • Panasonic Broadcast Europe Polargraphics Ltd • Quantel Ltd • RTI (UK) Ltd • Snell & Wilcox • Textronix • UGC Cinemas • VMI Broadcast SOCIETY SUPPORTERS Association of Motion Picture Sound • Axis Films BAFTA BHP inc • British Film Institute • British Society of Cinematographers • British Universities Film & Video Council • Cinema Exhibitors Association • CST • Guild of Television Cameramen • Mel Worsfold Ltd • Philip Rigby & Sons Ltd SMPTE • Society of Television Lighting Directors • Women in Film & Television The Society gratefully acknowledges the support of the above Companies and Organisations. Enquiries regarding Sponsor Membership of the BKSTS should be addressed to: Wendy Laybourn, Director, BKSTS - Moving Image Society, G Block, Suite 104, Pinewood Studios, Iver Heath, Bucks SL0 0NH, UK T: +44 (0)1753 656656 F: +44 (0)1753 657016 e: firstname.lastname@example.org www.bksts.com BKSTS THE MOVING IMAGE SOCIETY The Society exists to encourage, sustain, educate, train and provide a focus for all those who are creatively or technologically involved in the business of providing moving images and associated sound in any form and through any media. The BKSTS works to maintain standards and to encourage the pursuit of excellence in all aspects of moving image and associated sound technology, in the UK and throughout the world. The Society is independent of all governments and commercial organisations. Issue 3 December 2006 Contents On the cover: The old (lm) and the new (digital) projection equipment in the new Sala Grande at the Venice Film Festival. Could the new boy be pushing out the old faithful servant as they struggle for space at the porthole? Photo by Dion Hanson - Cineman - see story page 11.
When the show is stopped or in Pause mode ready for the start of the show, the red LED above the large red stop key is ﬂashing. When the Play key is pressed, and once the unit is playing, the Green LED will illuminate. Remote Control can help in difficult locations I know that projectionists are often the most cynical of people, and it has worried me for some time that much that I write about Digital Cinema is suffused with that rosy glow that comes from reading too many manufacturers’ glossy booklets! Everything can’t work perfectly every time, as we know well, but getting sensible information about the faults that occur with digital projection systems has so far been quite difﬁcult. The chances of getting a manufacturer to tell you what the problems are with his kit are fairly slim, and so for some time I have been talking with digital projection people and asking ‘what goes wrong?’ Invariably I can get the gossip from the operator, but if I then try to get a management take on the story everything dries up - ‘don’t want the competition to know what is going on, do we?’ I think that the Digital Cinema business is now in a sufﬁcently strong state that we ‘techies’ can do as engineers have always done, and share our knowledge for the common good of the business. ‘A problem shared is a problem halved’, as the old ‘agony aunts’ used to say! During my visit to the Arts Alliance HQ I put my usual request for information about technical problems that occur to their Operations Manager, Ian Strang, but honestly didn’t really expect much of a response, based on past experience. I was therefore delighted when, just as I was completing this section about Arts Alliance, an email came in from Ian, containing just the sort of information that I had been looking for and that I know many of you will be interested to learn about. Everything isn’t always perfect first time Common problems with digital projection • Our most common fault is when the server is booted up before the RAID array is ready. This means that the server can’t always see all the ﬁlms available to play. If your QCP [Quvis Cinema Player] says it can’t ﬁnd an asset, reboot the QCP, but leave everything else on; this will make sure the QuVis can see the RAID properly. • Expired or missing keys are also a common problem. If your QCP tells you that a license is not found, check the content sheet that comes with each print for the dates when your keys should be valid. If the key should be valid, give us a call. If the key has expired, call your ﬁlm bookers and request they order a replacement. Always hang on to these content sheets as a reference. • If your picture looks green or pink, then you might be in the wrong preset. If the ﬁlm is a QPE (Quality Prior- ity Encoding) ﬁlm, you should be in a HD preset; if it’s a JPEG2000 ﬁlm, you should be in a DCI preset. • Sometimes wallboxes get switched off at the mains. If this happens, your projector will refuse to strike the lamp as it will see this as an open ﬁre alarm (auxiliary) interlock. • Always start and end your script with black header and footer. Just like 35mm, the QCP needs to be playing material to trigger pulses and automation events. • When building scripts on the QuVIS with both HD and JPEG2000 material, it is important to get the correct black leader at the start/end to match the content that it is joined to within the script. This stops the system having to re-sync to the new frame rate/resolution and saves you having to douse the projector to cover up these on-screen disturbances that would occur during a re-sync. Arts Alliance have made a useful start with this list of common problems. It is now up to the rest of you digital projection people out there - let other projectionists share your digital ‘hints and tips’, and we will all become much wiser. Should you have problems in getting them past the ‘management ﬁlter’ then we can always use the ‘anonymous projie’ label, but how much better if managements can be convinced that it is a sign of strength in an organisation when it can willingly open up its workings for the beneﬁts of the whole industry. See what you can do! page 16 aam progress and news Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 In the June issue of TDP Fiona Deans, Director of Digital Cinema for Arts Alliance Media gave a rundown of the osite training course for projectionists, which is one of the key links in ensuring the reliability of the DSN. So far more than 200 people have been on the courses, which cover all the skills required to operate the server and the projector, load and delete content, deal with security keys, and perform basic troubleshooting. Projectionist Training at AAM Topics covered include: Powering up/powering down Turning on Projector (1) Touch Panel Controller, Cine-IPM (2) The CP2000 Manual - Overview of equipment - Touch Panel Controller (TPC) Explanation of menus and settings, and details of how to change image settings and identify faults Lamp Step by step instructions on how to install and remove the lamp, as well as instruc- tions on cleaning the lamp, mirror and ﬁlters (3). Troubleshooting guide QuVis Manual (4) - Overview of Cinema Player - Basic Operation - How to play clips - Assembling and playing scripts: - Loading content onto the server from removable drives - How to play content from an alternative source using the Cine-IPM Maintenance Instructions on cleaning & maintaining equipment. Glossary of terms used in the manual. (1) (2) (3) (4) And purely by coincidence Just as the preceding Arts Alliance article had been put together, the Editor received the following very relevant letter from an experienced projection engineer. Comments from other readers are always welcome. Hi Jim You may remember me from the article that you featured in ‘Cinema Technology’ a few years ago, following my involvement in the Boeing Digital Cinema system installation at the Ritzy Cinema in Brixton, then part of the Oasis group. I’m now Head of Technical Operations at City Screen (Picturehouse Cinemas), who co- incidentally now operate the Ritzy! I was in there again a couple of weeks ago installing 2 Christie CP2000’s with Arts Alliance. How things go around! City Screen & Arts Alliance are in fact sister companies - much of the research carried out by Arts Alliance prior to the successful UKFC bid was carried out on City Screen sites. As such, I tend to ‘crossover’ between the 2 companies, seeing both sides of the coin as it were. I have just spent a month working solidly with Arts Alli- ance, including installations, service & upgrades and projectionist training. My point is that there doesn’t appear to be much publicity about the positive side of Arts Alliance. Yes, they decided to proceed (very successfully) with phase 2 of the rollout without the involvement of certain sub-contractors, but what is never mentioned is that during the ﬁrst 50 installations, Arts Alliance were developing their own team of dedicated Digital Cinema Engineers, which is now in place. This team in- cludes trained people based at their warehouse carrying out pre-builds, conﬁguration & testing, support line personnel, ﬁeld-based installation & service engineers. This is all backed up by a superb IT system that allows any engineer to access the live Cinema systems remotely, iden- tifying & addressing problems via an ADSL line, which all Cinema systems are connected to. At their Byﬂeet location, Arts Alliance have set up a dedicated training room, speciﬁcally to train projectionists in the new technology and giving them real ‘hands-on’ experience of us- ing the kit that they will have installed in their cinemas. The training room is fully equipped with a full-size screen, 5.1channel audio sys- tem, Christie CP2000 projector, Quvis player, Raid array, Cine IPM unit etc. The room is laid out with desks & chairs in a horseshoe forma- tion & includes a smaller pull-down screen for powerpoint presentations. The course lasts for 2 days - each attendee is given a copy of the very comprehensive training manual written by Arts Alliance, which they take away for reference. This manual isn’t just copies from manufactur- er’s originals – it is an original, created in-house, with loads of pictures, diagrams & helpful tips. Attendees have to sit a written test at the end of the course and those that pass are issued with a certiﬁcate. I am one of the instructors that regularly takes this course and feel that it is superb. In my opinion this is the best ‘Training for Digital Projection’ that there is. We have had many positive comments from attendees, who are delighted to be shown just what they need to use their new technology and be given as much technical information as they need. Incidentally, the course does cover the operation of the Cine- IPM unit!!! (although not over 2 days). Unlike other training venues, which are often simply a Cinema auditorium and projection room with cancelled shows, this is a training room that is used for no other purpose. I would highly recommend that you come along & take a look - even sit in on a course. [This is currently being arranged with AAM -Ed.] Best regards, Rob Younger Head of Technical Operations City Screen Limited page 17 digital cinema difference Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 The Digital Cinema Difference Patrick Zucchetta of Doremi Labs, famous for their range of video servers and disk recorders and for their growing expertise in Digital Cinema mastering, discusses the advantages that a move to Digital Cinema can bring The signiﬁcance of change As with many technical developments coming under the banner of ‘digitalization’ the full sig- niﬁcance of the change only starts to become apparent as the industry reaches the point of large-scale installation. The ﬁrst objective is always to gain acceptance by at least equalling the performance of the existing technology. The next phase then, hopefully, introduces a raft of new features and possibilities that go far beyond those of the traditional. Digital Cinema is now at that stage. Digital Cinema is here The discussions about digital ‘film’ quality against celluloid were largely laid to rest by the Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) setting industry standards. Among the many parameters this deﬁnes are image sizes of 2K and 4K as well as colour space (XYZ), bit depth and compression coding using JPEG 2000. It is widely accepted that the quality of 2K digital cinema images matches that expected from the photochemical release prints – especially when using a Digital Intermediate path, as increasingly is the case. Sound has been less of an issue as high quality digital audio has already been used in cinemas for some time. Release print cost Installing a DCI-compliant digital projector and player is not the leap of faith it was two years ago. By the end of 2006 Doremi Cinema alone will have installed nearly 2000 cinema players that follow DCI 1.0 recommendations. The whole workﬂow of Digital Cinema is different and offers huge cost savings. It means that the movie arrives at cinemas as data rather than celluloid. This movie data is easily duplicated in large numbers and distributed on disks. The process is far cheaper than the $1500 (USA) to $2000 (Europe) or more cost of making a movie release print and, in many cases the cinemas are paid virtual release print fees to help fund their digital equipment. Of course the customers beneﬁt too. Whereas ﬁlm will have degraded signiﬁcantly after 100 replays and may need replacing, the digital movie is still pristine – no scratches, weave, dirt or ‘re-join’ edits. For the ﬁrst time every Digital Cinema goer will see pictures at the same quality as the makers saw it – ‘ﬁlm’ as never before seen by the public. Security It is this ease of copying that has also alarmed the content owners, the studios, causing them to insist on stringent security measures to be enshrined in the DCI standard. There are a number of safeguard levels. The digital movie received by the cinema is encrypted as a part of the mastering process. The exhibiting cinema has to be given a digital key to enable their movie to be decrypted. As the key is time- dependent the studios can deﬁne when the replays can occur – an even greater level of control than they had with celluloid. In addi- tion the cinema images are always encrypted when outside the equipment so another strong AES-128 encryption, such as CineLink II, is used on the line between the player and the projector. And to achieve maximum security, the cinema player box is tightly secured with FIPS 140 Level 3 compliance to guarantee that no content or key can be accessed at any time in “clear” in the box. This still leaves the content as open as ever to the bootlegger’s camcorder pointed at the screen. The inclusion of Philips forensic water- marking or Thomson’s NexGuard watermarking means that any recording can be traced to the cinema and the time – even though the quality of the bootlegged footage is way down on that of the original. The upshot of these measures is that the studios are likely to refuse to supply cinemas who do not have these security meas- ures that give them more control and tighter security than ever before. Further Advantages There are more beneﬁts. As the movies are cheap to copy and so well protected they can be delivered without the secure and expensive methods necessary for ﬁlm. The inclusion of digital subtitling in DCI cinema players allows subtitles to be added into the pictures as they are run at the theatre. Fast, low cost copying and live subtitling mean that it is quite possible to have a worldwide release rather than open- ing country-by-country – and so effectively un- dermining a major part of the piracy market. JPEG 2000 and MPEG Two forms of digital coding are used for the pictures. Most movies are encoded using JPEG 2000 that is recommended by DCI. Unlike the widely used JPEG (.jpg) encoding generally used in digital cameras and computer applications that works on 8 x 8 pixel blocks, JPEG 2000 uses page 18 digital cinema difference Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 Training for Digital projection is published four times a year alongside Cinema Technology, the Leading Specialist Publication for Cinema Industry Professionals. It is distributed to all UK cinema multiples and independents and many throughout Europe and the rest of the world - some 55 Countries worldwide. TDP is designed as a reference guide to digital cinema, intended to be ﬁled and kept, and so is an ideal, precisely-targetted advertising medium for companies involved with all aspects of Digital Cinema. We also welcome editorial contributions on technical and training aspects of Digital Cinema.
Contact Bob Cavanagh e-mail: email@example.com Tel+44 (0) 1380 724357 TDP - Ideal for the Digital Cinema Advertiser ‘wavelets’ analysing image information radially from pixels. JPEG 2000 can provide ‘visually lossless’ quality replays at higher bit rates and can be replayed directly at a different image size, for example playout at 2K from a 4K ﬁle. MPEG2 coding is also used more generally for pre-show material such as advertisements, local input, trailers, etc., as well as for some movies. This is usually supplied as MXF-Interop MPEG2. Historically MXF-Interop and JPEG 2000 have required separate players but a recent addition to the Doremi Cinema DCP-2000 player allows replaying both. One player can run playlists containing both types and present continuous footage to the projector. As the MPEG2 mate- rial can include television-sourced content, this can be a stepping stone to opening new market areas for digital cinemas. 3D To date the use of 3D has been limited to high budget areas such as theme parks, showing short features only a few minutes long, or spe- cial scenes within a movie (put your glasses on now). One of the reasons for this has been the complexity of using traditional ﬁlm to run left and right-eye footage sufﬁciently accurately. For this, two projectors must run in sync and be accurately registered throughout the replay. Any emergency cut made in one reel has to be made in the same spot on the other reel. Also on the wish list are perfect colour matching and a complete lack of scratches, ﬁlm weave, dust and dirt. All such artefacts and inaccura- cies make it harder for the audience to work out the 3D. Digital cinema (D and E) can overcome all these difﬁculties while reducing costs and making a 3D replay as straightforward as it is for 2D. The Doremi DCP-2000 can replay left and right eyes sequentially and in real time. Projectors using TI’s Digital Micromirror Devices (DMD) for image display are able to show up to about 144 images per second, so running both left and right images sequentially each at 24 frames per second is well within their capability. Thus one player and one projector supplies both channels with the ﬁdelity of the digital im- ages and all the line-up and synchronisation requirements involved with using two of each are gone. With 3D cinema exhibition largely solved we can look forward to more 3D shows and, in time hopefully, more accurate and lower cost shooting to make 3D easier to watch and more plentiful. Running the show Complex and capable as a server that conforms with the DCI technical speciﬁcations, such as the DCP-2000, has to be, it should be easy to live with. Straightforward operation, consist- ency and reliability, as well as playlist assembly and running of JPEG2000 and MPEG2 mate- rial together, help to make digital operation as least as easy as working with ﬁlm itself. There is scope also for wider automation that is useful in multi-screen locations. It has taken a monumental effort for digital technology to better the experience of 100 years of ﬁlm in the cinema. Now it has done so, and the technology is continuing to evolve to enable a wider, more engaging cinema experience. The DCP-2000 from Doremi Cinema is a tech- nologically advanced digital cinema server, which was ﬁrst to market and is by far the most installed cinema server capable of playing JPEG2000 digital movies. Doremi continues to add advanced features to keep the DCP-2000 ahead of the competition. Some of these fea- tures include 3D playback, CineLink II strong link encryption, and Thomson’s NexGuard and Philips’ CineFence forensic watermarking, making the DCP-2000 the most secure server on the market. Each DCP-2000 server includes the CineLister software utility that provides ef- fortless scheduling and playlist Patrick Zucchetta is Manager, EMEA Digital Cinema Business Development for Doremi. B•K•S•T•S The Moving Image Society The leadi ng specialist publ ication for cinema industry profe ssionals Issue 3 • December 2006 A supplem ent to Cinema Technolo gy TDP TRAINING FOR DIGITAL PROJECTION A REFERENCE GUIDE TO DIGITAL CINEMA Supported by the UK Film Council page 19 of delivery sites are relatively small. All nice and easy so far: a simple and ef- ﬁcient workﬂow. Not quite… Diversity is our friend at the creative stage of making a movie, and gives many differ- ent ways of working and getting the desired result. However that same diversity can quickly become an enemy at the content preparation stage. The formats available for each element of a movie include: And so on – the DSM can consist of any of these formats and a myriad of others not mentioned. So these elements need to be conformed into the DCDM. The ancillary data, which is already in the right format requires no conversion. The Subtitles may need a ﬁle format conversion, but timing information should not change. Audio needs to be converted to Broadcast Wave ﬁles and may require some sample rate and bit depth conversion to meet the DCDM speciﬁca- tion. Picture presents the biggest challenge, and the DSM potentially requires a number of colour, size, and bit depth conversions to create the 16bit X’Y’Z’ TIFF ﬁles speciﬁed. These processes differ signiﬁcantly between formats and projects, and colour manage- ment in particular is one of the most dif- ﬁcult challenges faced, particularly as most projects are simultaneously working towards a 35mm and D-Cinema release. Transporting the Data Once a conformed DCDM is made, there is still the small matter of transporting it. The DCDM for a 4k movie could easily be seven terabytes of data, and this obviously represents a large amount of data to move, even in today’s high bandwidth world. If the content preparation facility is geographically separated from the post production facility digital mastering Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 Digital Mastering in the DCI Environment Richard Welsh, Digital Cinema Mastering Manager at Dolby UK, provides some practical information about a complex topic, to help those working in the Digital Cinema world to understand some of the reasons why Looking back to the EDCF workshop on “mastering and delivery of movies in the DCI speciﬁcation environment” held at the recent IBC conference, there was a com- mon theme amongst all the speakers about the difﬁculties faced in preparing content for digital cinema. The DCI speciﬁcation is a well deﬁned document; however, stand- ard workﬂows for creation digital releases are yet to evolve. Those coming fresh to digital cinema delivery often are unaware of subtle problems in content creation that lead to much bigger problems in content preparation. The following is based on a presentation at the EDCF workshop which addressed some of the challenges seen in two years of digital cinema mastering at Dolby UK, how those challenges were faced and how workﬂow is much improved when content source formats are close to the DCI speciﬁcation. Content Flow In the DCI speciﬁcation, movie content is delivered to cinemas as a Digital Cinema Package (DCP). The content preparation facility creates the DCP from the Digital Cinema Distribution Master (DCDM). The DCDM is provided by the content creation facility, who conform the Digital Source Master (DSM) to the DCDM standard. These three elements form the fundamental basis of the workﬂow model for digital cinema content distribution. The DSM consists of the audio, image, subtitle and ancillary elements of the movie. These can be in any of the diverse formats available for handling these elements in digital form. However, the DCDM is strictly deﬁned, and this deﬁnition acts to distil the DSM down to a single delivery for the DCDM. This is invaluable to the content prep facility, since the process of producing the distribution master from the source is fraught with technical pitfalls and a job that also requires creative sign off. The DCP is created from the DCDM and the major difference here is that the image will be compressed in the DCP using JPEG2000. The audio remains uncompressed, while subtitle/caption and ancillary data ﬁles are small and have little effect on the size of the DCP. Any of these assets can be encrypted in the DCP to protect the content from piracy, making them playable only by those given the appropriate decryption key. The DCP can now be distributed to cinemas via satel- lite, ﬁbre or physically on hard disks. Hard disk remains the most popular method in the early stages of digital cinema while numbers page 20 digital mastering Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 storage system, a DVS SAN, [Storage Area Network] will sustain read- ing a 4K and two 2K uncompressed data streams simultaneously). It’s the Only Way to Go So working in the DCI speciﬁcation environment is a “no-brainer” from the workﬂow point of view. But the reality is that there is going to be a long transition from the current DSM delivery reality to the DCDM delivery future. Enabling ﬁlm makers new to digital cinema, and with the DSM to DCDM workﬂow yet to be standard working practice, inevitably means helping them get their content on screen by accepting DSM and dealing with it on their behalf. As much as anything, the answer lies in education, and making the tools available to simplify workﬂow. For instance, if DCDM and DCP creation are physically separated, then JPEG2000 encoding at the post production facility makes a lot of sense, but this still represents an expensive proposition, especially for smaller post houses. As digital cinema grows, we see a lot of combined effort across the industry to move towards a better deﬁned and understood workﬂow at the content creation and preparation stage, and despite the chal- lenges we all face, the future looks bright! Richard Welsh, Digital Cinema Mastering Manger, Dolby UK www.dolby.com providing the DCDM, which is often the case, this becomes even more of a problem. Even though there are portable drives of 2TB or more capacity available, the load speed to and from the drives is limited to the interface (FireWire or USB). This is the case at Dolby’s UK mastering facility, 2 hours west from Soho along the M4. Our solution has been to use multiple small hard disks, rather than a few very large disks. By receiving the DCDM split into reels, or even sub reels, it is possible to simultaneously ingest a large number of drives into our central storage system through the render farm, and this currently gives 4Gb/s aggregate ingest speed across the drives. However, in the real world it’s extremely unusual to receive a full conformed DCDM, prepared according to the DCI speciﬁcations and ready for assembly into the content package. In fact, usually at least one element is still at the DSM stage and needs conversion into the appropriate format for the DCDM. For example, here is the process to produce a JPEG2000 DCP from an HD-D5 image source (which does not comply with the DCDM speciﬁcations): Conversely, when a full DCDM is supplied with all elements in the appropriate format, creating the DCP is a much simpliﬁed process: There is the small issue of JPEG2000 encoding, (which was men- tioned more than once in the EDCF workshop) and this again can be very time consuming. However, utilising a render farm approach to JPEG encoding can give much faster results. Using the new Dolby SCC2000 Secure Content Creator in conjunction with a render farm, Dolby can currently encode full container 2K movies into JPEG2000 faster than real time, and 4K movies in 2 x real time. To go even faster, it’s simply a question of adding to the render farm (the central JPEG2000 render farm and SAN at Dolby UK headquarters page 21 nft digital snapshots Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 Exploring D-CINEMA 2 Joost Hunningher, Chair of CILECT - Centre International de Liaison des Ecoles de Cinéma et de Télévision - the association of the world’s major lm and television schools, provides a few digital snapshots from the exhi- bition-related part of a major Digital Conference held at the NFT. Digital Snap Shot – Setting New Bounda- ries and New Ways of Working Paul Trijbits from the New Cinema Fund talked about ‘Setting New Boundaries’. The digital world gives you more opportunities to show your work than if you were on 35mm ﬁlm. One ﬁlm that he had produced, This is Not a Love Song, was placed on the internet and had ‘175 thousand requests for a download in one hour!’ He introduced ﬁlm- makers Carol Morley and Richard Jobson. Both showed digital ﬁlms they had made in one day. Richard Jobson took the position that he liked the aesthetic of HD and wasn’t interested in making it look like ﬁlm. He felt traditional ﬁlm-making was ﬁnished. He con- cluded with, ‘I defy anyone to say that ﬁlm will be around in the ﬁlm industry in two years. It is over. It’s completely over.’ Carol Morley took the opposite view: ‘I think ﬁlm is just gorgeous’. Her main criticism of the digital ﬁlm making process was that it was always associated with speed. She concluded by saying, ‘My main interest as a ﬁlm-maker has more to do with the thought process and the ideas than with the medium itself.’ Paul summed up the session: ‘If your work isn’t getting into cinemas – either as 35mm or as a Digital Release – and you want an audience, there are plenty of new opportu- nities for new ﬁlm-makers to think about.’ The ﬁlm-maker Olaf Wendt showed us some examples of a new and very effective form of digital back projection in a train carriage that he designed for the ﬁlm Derailed (Mi- kael Håfström). It illustrated possibilities for digital techniques during production which allowed for control over lighting which, if us- ing blue or green screen techniques, would have been very difﬁcult to achieve. He also showed his own ﬁlm Running Man which creatively merged ﬁlm, digital and back projection techniques. Digital Snap Shot – Digital Projectors and 3D We put on glasses and saw a 3D demonstra- tion of Stars Wars and Chicken Little. Joel Schiffman from QuVis and David Monk gave a primer on 3D and explained that a big extra on digital projectors is that 3D presentations are possible. They explained that it isn’t really 3D (otherwise you could touch it) but a stereoscopic effect. It is a trick of the brain where, by wearing glasses that can turn each lens off and on separately, the projected, nearly-identical-images give the illusion of depth. The rate for such projec- tion is 96 frames per second, so for 3D movies you are essentially shooting twice at much as for a normal movie. Apparently all page 22 nft digital snapshots Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 the Hollywood Studios are working on 3D presentations. Will audiences ﬂock to see 3D movies? Could one big 3D hit be a killer blow to conventional 35mm projection? Digital Snap Shot – Digital Screen Network Steve Perrin of the UK Film Council, Rob Kenny of Curzon Cinemas and Richard Boyd of the NFT talked about the success of UK Digital Screen Network and reported that it had been reliable and had given most theatres more variety and a better standard of projection. They felt that audiences were interested in the ﬁlms and not how they were projected. Richard Boyd had used questionnaires to discover that 94% of the audience ‘liked the digital presentation and enjoyed the ﬁlm’. Throughout the conference Richard organ- ised for us to see digitally re-mastered clips of ﬁlm classics including Casablanca, Robin Hood, The Searchers, Singing in the Rain and Black Narcissus. Seeing is believing and these carefully prepared clips illustrated that ‘cinema quality Digital Projectors’ can make a massive contribution to our discovery and appreciation of ﬁlm history. Digital Snap Shot – The Challenge and Take-up of D-Cinema Thomas Höegh, ﬁlmmaker and Chief Execu- tive of Arts Alliance Media, gave the keynote address. His company is preparing the UK Digital Screen Network and have already had 10,000 screenings at their 50 digital screens and in 2007 will install a further 150 digital screens in the UK. Thomas said that he saw local digital cinemas developing into social centres offering a variety of ﬁlms or, on some occasions, international sporting events. He concluded that cinemas should be ‘temples of moving culture imagery that reﬂect the community.’ Summing up – D-Cinema is coming David Monk summed up a panel discus- sion about the future of D-Cinema with Peter Swinton, Jon Thompson, Jonathan Smiles, Patrick Von Sychowski and others by saying, ‘Going to a cinema where the image is always focused and always has the right colours and contrast would be a great improvement.’ The effect of electronic projection has to be similar to the best ﬁlm projection: digital projectors need to show ﬁlm natively at a speed of 24 frames per second and have colours and details as good as you would get in the best ﬁlm print. The quality of the ﬁlm has to be the same in every cinema wherever you show it. These were David’s ‘guiding goals’ to developing D-Cinema. He said things were moving very quickly. One morning soon we’ll wake up and the ﬁlm reel will be gone. Exploring D-cinema 2 concluded with a reception in ‘The Great Hall’, 309 Regent Street, London. Here, 110 years ago, the ﬁrst UK public screening of ﬁlm was held. Fifty- four people paid one shilling each to attend the Lumière ﬁlm programme shown on a cinématographe. A review in the Polytech- nic Magazine said, ‘The effect is really most wonderful.’ D-Cinema is coming. We, ﬁlm lovers in industry, education and life, must prepare ourselves and the next generations for the future and past of cinema. We must make sure it continues to be an effect that is ‘re- ally most wonderful’. Joost Hunningher Chair CILECT Exploring D-Cinema 2 (Note: DIGITAL SNAPSHOTS, a DVD by Julie Lambden and Ronald Gow about Ex- ploring D-Cinema 2, is now available. Check www.dcinema.org.uk for availability.) Rob Kenny Thomas Hoegh Steve Perrin Dave Monk Richard Boyd page 23 digital 3D projection Training for Digital Projection - December 2006 3D Cinema has had a long history of coming into fashion and then disappearing again, fol- lowing the whims of the marketplace. Provid- ing 3D images from ﬁlm requires a lot of skill in the projection box, normally requiring two ﬁlm projectors which must be precisely aligned and adjusted, usually ‘by eye’, in order to ensure that the two images on screen ﬁt precisely on top of each other. The slightest mis-alignment, especially vertically, can cause considerable discomfort for the audience, and many people can’t bear to watch 3D images for long periods of time. Nevertheless, 3D has always had its devotees, and audiences are still enthralled by the magniﬁcent images from the one system that has continued through the years to offer 3D on a regular basis - IMAX®. The coming of digital cinema has brought with it new technologies that make the creation of 3D programming achievable without the tradi- tional expensive and difﬁcult process of shoot- ing with two cameras, increasing widely the range of potential 3D programme material. At the same time the introduction of 3D Digital Cinema projectors means that a single digital projector can be rapidly switched to show left- eye and right-eye images in sequence, elimi- nating projector alignment problems, at least mechanically. Various systems are used, and one example uses the so-called ‘triple-ﬂash’ mode, where the frame rate is an incredible 144Hz using the complex sequence LRRLLR to feed the correct images to each eye. Other systems use 96Hz, but it goes without saying that the digital server carrying the movie needs to be able to provide data to the projector at a much faster rate than normal. One system uses ‘active eyewear’, fairly complex glasses with built-in switchable LCD shutters that are synchronised by infra-red signals from the projection room to ensure that the appropriate images reach each eye. The system works extremely well, providing good images on normal cinema screens, but such glasses are fairly expensive, and commit the cinema to having to collect and clean the glasses between perform- ances. Another popular system passes the light beam from the projector, which con- tains the rapidly switched left and right images, through a ‘polarisation modu- lator’ mounted on a bracket in front of the projector. This is a liquid crystal shutter that phase shifts the light from the projector, which has ﬁrst been lin- early polarised. The output from the polarisation modulator is effectively a beam that switches between left and right-hand cir- cularly polarised light at the frame rate, and the inexpensive passive polarised glasses (cheap enough to give away after the performance) ensure that the viewer sees the appropriate im- ages in each eye. The only real problem with this system is that, as 3D people have known for years, the reﬂected light from a standard white cinema screen cannot maintain the phase of the polarised signals, so the only way for such a polarisation-based system to work is for the cinema to install a ‘silver screen’, which does maintain the polarisation discrimination. Installing a new screen for 3D performances is expensive and inconvenient for theatre man- agements, of course, especially as silver screens have different gain characteristics than the nor- mal Perlux types, and can mean that 2D imag- es from the silver screen can be less than ideal in some parts of the auditorium. So what has really been needed for some time is a method of showing 3D movies that doesn’t require a silver screen and doesn’t need active glasses. Those of us who keep an eye on new technologies have known that there were vari- ous laboratory techniques that might be able to achieve this holy grail, but the ﬁrst hint that something practical might be possible came in a Dolby press release, which TDP reported its last issue, saying that they are going to offer a 3D digital projection system that will work with existing screens and inexpensive glasses. The company is, understandably, reluctant to reveal much about its plans before it is ready to bring the system to market next year, but we do know that they have been working closely with German research company INFITEC (acronym for interferenz ﬁlter technik) which has devel- oped a new technique to display stereoscopic images. To try to understand the basics of what the sys- tem does, we need to go back to one of the earliest stereoscopic techniques, commonly known as Anaglyph, in which the 3D effect comes from a pair of stereoscopic images that are printed in two different colours, usually red for the left image and blue-green (cyan) for the right. When viewed with special glasses hav- ing the corresponding lens colours, the 2D anaglyph image appears in 3D. This occurs because the red lens, through which the left eye views, allows only colour and detail from the red image to pass through into the left eye; anything blueish just appears black. The same thing happens on the right side, where the eye sees only bluish-green colours and nothing from the red end of the spectrum. A properly balanced anaglyph system can give ‘perfect’ results with black and white ﬁlm, and although the 3D effect does also work with colour ﬁlm, the very nature of anaglyph 3D system means that it can’t possibly reproduce many colours accurately, and there are real problems with reds and the various shades of red. It is proba- bly not unfair to describe the standard red and blue-green ﬁlters as ‘cheap and cheerful’ in that they can only ‘roughly’ ﬁlter out the ranges of colours (wavelengths of light). Inﬁtec, however, have developed a far more precise system of colour ﬁltering, where the image information for each eye is transmitted in different wavelength triplets of the vis- ible spectrum of light. The spectra of the left and right eye images in the INFITEC system are carefully tailored and pre- cisely complementary to each other. Pre- cise colour ﬁltering allows two different spectra, each containing a narrow band of Red, Green and Blue components, to be fed to each eye. Since the human visual system can build up good colour pictures from even fairly narrow band red, green and blue stimuli, the Inﬁtec system allows good 3D colour images to be seen when using passive glasses and a standard white cinema screen. Ref: http://www.dambratec.com/resources/ inﬁtec_english.pdf We expect to carry a detailed article from Dolby about how the techniques devel- oped by Inﬁtec will be used as part of the Dolby Digital Cinema System in a future issue of Cinema Technology. Digital 3D Projection Developments 3D without active glasses or a silver screen ViewPoint 200 Ashville Way Wokingham Berkshire, U.K. RG41 2PL PH: +44 (0) 118 977 8000 FX: +44 (0) 118 977 8100 firstname.lastname@example.org Visit the Chrisite Digital website for full Digital Cinema Projector details: www.christiedigital.co.uk/portfolios/cinema/index.asp CHRISTIE CP Series (CP2000-X illustrated) 2K DLP TM DIGITAL CINEMA PROJECTOR It’s About Choice If you are considering D-Cinema for your theatre and haven’t spoken to Christie yet , ask yourself this; • Does my provider hold its own DLP Cinema™ license and look to meet DCI compliancy? • Is my provider truly independent of OEM ties and in full control of the support they offer? • Does my provider develop its own systems for Film cinema, E-Cinema and D-Cinema? • Has my provider got real-world experience of a large-scale deployment of D-Cinema? • Has my provider got real-world experience of a large-scale deployment of D-Cinema? • Is my provider the digital projection supplier for the UK Film Council’s DSN? • Has my provider been responsible for more than 80% of UK Digital Cinema installs to date? • Does my provider have a proven NOC to deliver remote monitoring and on-site response? • Has my provider got more than 75 years experience designing systems for public cinema? Don’t make a rash decision. Please give Christie a call, we oer FREE consultation - without obligation. It’s About Choice - be condent you made the right one. Christie ~ 'It's About Choice' (1 1 23/8/06 1:05:16 pm