Beginning READING Building Skills for the TOEFL ® iBT TRANSCRIPTS Listening Section / Speaking Section / Writing Section Listening 638 Transcripts C hapter 1 Skill A 01 Campus Life M: I’m worried about my girlfriend. W: Why is that? M: She thinks she’s too fat. W: Is she? M: No, but she keeps skipping meals. Then, she only eats chips and drinks cola. W: I used to do that. It’s called binging. It was no fun!
M: Why did you stop doing it? W: Well, my doctor told me to eat when I’m hungry. She said, “Eat till you’re full or you’ll eat too much later.” She said a lot of girls ruin their health this way. M: Did she say what to eat? W: She said, “Eat fruit, vegetables, meats, and grains. Have regular meals and snacks. Get exercise, too.” 02Music History M: We know that Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770 in Bonn, Germany, but we are uncertain of the month. Beethoven wrote hundreds of songs. One of his most famous is his Fifth Symphony. The first four notes go like this: dah dah dah da! Almost everyone recognizes them. He was the first to use trombones in a symphony. At age 28, he began to go deaf. Yet, he kept on writing and conducting. He never got married. But after he died, friends found some love letters. We don’t know who he wrote them to. Beethoven died in 1827. 03 Biology W: OK let’s talk about animals we don’t see in the winter. Many animals hibernate during the cold months of the year. Basically, they go to sleep. Some animals hibernate in holes in the ground. Others sleep in caves, under bushes, or at the base of trees. Bears hibernate. So do cold-blooded animals, like frogs and snakes. When animals are hibernating, it seems like they’re dead. They have slow heartbeats, and they almost stop breathing. They have stored extra energy and fat to keep them alive. By the end of winter, they are very weak. They must eat soon after waking up. 04 Campus Life M: Hey Julie, what’s up? W: Hi, Brian. Taking a break from studying. I’m surfing the Internet for an MP3 player. M: Do you like the iPod? W: Yes, but I need a really small one. M: Oh, it’s small! W: Really? Someone told me it holds 5,000 songs! M: It’s 3.6 inches tall and two inches wide. I have one. W: What’s that in centimeters?
M: The math textbook says one inch is 2.54 centimeters. W: OK, so first I need to multiply 3.6 by 2.54. M: Here! Use my calculator. W: Thanks! OK it’s 9.1 centimeters tall and 5 centimeters wide. Just what I need! 05 Anthropology W: Track and Field events happened long before they became a sport. The San people in Africa are one example. They still hold what’s called a “Persistence” hunt. The men find the tracks of an antelope herd. They find the antelope and follow them for several days and nights. During this time, they study the animals and choose one. Then, the hunt begins. Only the fastest runner will go after the chosen animal. He and the animal may run for as long as eight hours. If the hunter “persists,” the deer will finally get tired and fall. Then, he’ll slaughter it. 06Business Writing W: When you’re writing a business letter, it’s important to be specific. That is, tell the reader exactly what he or she needs to know. If something is wrong, list what the problem is and what should be done to fix it. If you need information, state clearly what you want to know. Next, um, be positive. Say “no” in a good way. M: How can we do that? W: Use polite language. For example, “we regret to inform you that ” or “we’re sorry, but ” Always keep in mind this golden rule: write the kind of business letter that YOU would like to receive. 07 Campus Life M: Come on Holly, we’re going to be late. W: For what? M: Today’s the day of the parking-space lottery. I want to see if I get a parking space for next year. W: What?! You mean if they choose your number, you get a place to park your car? M: Yes. Parking is very limited. Only a few students can bring their cars. And freshmen are never allowed to park on campus. W: If your number is chosen, do you get to park for free? M: No. It costs $120 a year. W: So, you’re hoping to win the privilege of paying money? M: Yes. Now, come on! 08 English W: Professor Smith, I forget many English words. What’s a good technique to remember them? M: Try using index cards. Uh, small pieces of heavy paper. W: What do I do? M: On the front of the card, write the new word. On the back, write a definition of the word at the top in English. W: In English? M: Yes. No native language! Then, divide the bottom part of the back into two halves. On the left, write a correct English sentence using the word. On the right, draw some kind of picture anything that helps you remember the word. W: Then what? M: Review the cards every day. Note: Highlighting indicates a repeated listening sample. Transcripts 639 Skill B 01 Geography W: Another name for the South Pole is Antarctica. This is a continent, but no people live there. There’s a good reason for this. It’s the coldest, windiest place on Earth. The lowest temperature ever measured was in Antarctica. Minus 88 degrees celsius! Ninety-eight percent of the ground is permanently frozen, and the continent contains 87 percent of the world’s ice. Antarctica’s only human occupants are scientists. They go there to learn how Antarctica used to be millions of years ago, when it was located at the equator. Antarctica used to be connected to Australia, before all the continents on the planet shifted. 02 Campus Life W: Hey Joe, where are you going? Are you on your way to class? M: No. I’m on my way to the recreation center to play basketball. Want to come? W: I can’t. I’m not a member. M: If you’re a full-time student, membership is included in your tuition. Do you have your student ID card? W: Yeah. Does that mean I can use any part of the rec center? M: Yes. You can use the swimming pool, the gym, the weight room anything you want. All you need to do is show your ID card at the door. W: Hey, cool. I’ll come with you. 03 Literature M: If a play makes you laugh, it’s a comedy. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado About Nothing. Another popular style is called tragedy. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life, falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. One example is the play Ghosts, by Henrik Ibsen. Um, modern years have produced a third style, called tragicomedy. In tragicomedies, the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending. An example is Saint Joan, by George Bernard Shaw. 04 Physics W: It’s a beautiful blue sky today. Ever wonder why it’s blue? It’s because the sun’s rays scatter, or spread out, as they enter the Earth’s atmosphere. Blue rays are scattered most; they seem to be all over the sky. Yellow rays are scattered less. This is why the sun looks yellow most of the time. But, after sunrise and just before sunset, the sun looks red. Why? Because then the rays must travel a longer path into the atmosphere. More of the blue and yellow rays are scattered. The red rays are scattered the least. So, they come through in the largest numbers. 05 Campus Life M: Hi, Ms. Jansen. Can we keep Romeo and Juliet in our dorm room? W: What on Earth ! M: They’re our pet hermit crabs! W: Oh, poor crabs! Don’t you think they’d be happier on the beach? M: Well, at the store they were squished into a little box. We thought they’d be happier with us. We let them out when we’re home. We give them baths too! W: I see. Do you know what to feed them? M: There’s free Internet information The Hermit Crab Association. They help crabs in captivity. And we will take them back to a beach someday. 06 University 101 M: As we study in university, we find we have a lot of reading. It’s very productive to learn how to read faster. To do this, you need to know how fast you read now. I’ll show you a quick test to find out. But before I do, let me say this. In this test, it’s important to understand what you have read. Rushing to beat the clock is pointless. You won’t enjoy the reading or understand it well. You’ll also get a false measure of your reading speed. When you finish, you should try to see what you remember. 07 Health W: We all know that we can get Vitamin D from sunshine. Long winters make it hard to get enough. People who don’t get outside often don’t get enough either. Without Vitamin D, we may develop weak bones and teeth. We can get certain kinds of cancer more easily, too. Few foods other than fish naturally have much Vitamin D, so it’s important to get some sunshine every day. But be careful. Too much can cause skin cancer. Notice what most animals that live outside all the time do. They are most active during the hours before sunrise and after sunset. 08 Campus Life W: Ha ha! Hey Trevor, check this out! M: I’m trying to study here! W: Oh, sorry. But this is really funny. M: What is? W: This article about strange inventions. M: Like what? W: Well, one guy invented a ladder for spiders. It’s a rubber strip you can put on the side of your bathtub. M: Ha! Yeah? What else? W: A portable seat. You carry it around your waist like a big cushion. M: Ha! That’s really stupid. W: Here’s the best one: A car license plate that tells if the driver’s a man or a woman. M: I like that one. Then I could stay away from women drivers. W: Yeah Hey! Skill C 01 Campus Life M: I’m interested in your course on Indian culture. Can you tell me about it, please? W: Certainly. The course is eight weeks long. There will be a mid-term examination, a final exam, and two essays. M: How do you determine the grades? W: The final will account for 30 percent of your mark. The mid-term is 15 percent, the first essay is 10 percent, and the second essay is 30 percent. M: Let’s see. 30, 15, 10, 30 that’s only 85 percent. W: The other 15 percent is based on your attendance and participation in the class. M: It sounds interesting. I think I’ll take it. 640 Transcripts 02 English W: One of the most effective ways to increase your vocabulary is through newspapers. They are cheap, and they have a wide variety of words. When you read an English newspaper, make a list of eight to ten words you don’t know. Look them up in a dictionary. Then add them to your vocabulary notebook. If you learn eight new words each day, you will be learning new words faster than the average American. M: Professor? W: Yes? M: How can we remember the words after we write them? W: Spend 15 minutes each day reviewing words from the previous day. You’ll be surprised how fast you learn. 03 Campus Life W: I really like art! Especially paintings. M: Really? Do you have a favorite one? W: Yes, Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci. M: What do you like about it? W: Her smile. If you look closely, it seems she’s not smiling at all. Look again, she’s smiling! So many artists try to copy that smile. M: It must be hard to paint something so beautiful. W: Did you ever notice that she doesn’t have any eyebrows? M: Really? No! I never noticed. I wonder why? W: Girls in that time shaved their eyebrows. I just read it in our art history textbook. M: Hey! That’s cool. Nowadays, she’d have an eyebrow ring! 04 Anthropology M: In North America, the best weavers are a group of people called the Pueblo that’s P-U-E-B-L-O. The Pueblo have been weaving clothes, baskets, and blankets since at least 1000 BC. At first, they used their fingers to weave together vegetable fibers and animal hair. In the first century AD, they began growing cotton. About this time, they also started using a loom a kind of, um, machine that helped them weave the cotton into cloth more quickly and easily. By the year 1600, the Pueblos had sheep, so they began weaving wool, using the same methods they had used for weaving cotton. 05 Campus Life M: Have you heard about Mexican turtles disappearing? W1: Yes. It’s because they lay their eggs on the beach, right? M: Yeah, and people eat the eggs. But my professor said there’s a plan to save them. W1: What is it? M: I don’t know, but he gave us a phone number. W1: Let’s call! M: OK, here goes W2: Hello, Environmental Protection Hotline. How may I help you? M: I’d like to find out about the program to save Mexican turtles. W2: Yes, of course. I can send you something to read or you can look at our website, www.enviro.com. M: Thanks! I’ll look at the website. W2: Thanks for calling! 06 Physics W: And now, the winner of this year’s science fair, Choi Min-Soo! Min-Soo, tell everyone about your work. M: Thank you! Let me tell you about my “white noise” machine. Does noise ever annoy you or keep you awake? Well, we can lessen noise by using “white noise.” Think of water. Think of sending one big wave toward another coming in. My machine does that with sound. It can tell how much noise is coming in, then send back “white noise.” You don’t hear it, but it shuts out the noise! I hope that my machine will help those who need quiet. Thank you! 07 Health M: Acupuncture is a way of treating sick people. The Chinese developed it over 2,500 years ago, and it is still used today. In acupuncture, small metal needles are inserted into spots on the human body. There are 787 of these spots. Each one is connected to a special body part or system. If, um, your ear hurts, for example, the doctor will put needles into all the spots connected with your ear. The needles don’t hurt because they don’t go in very far. Sometimes the doctor runs an electric current through the needles. We don’t understand exactly why this helps people. 08 Math W: Geometry is the study of points. Now, a point is a small dot, like a period at the end of a sentence. If we have two points, we know that there can be other points between them. There can also be a line. The line is continuous. It has no space between each point. Part of a line, with points at each end, is called a line segment. Two line segments can be the same length. We call these line segments congruent. That just means the line segments are equal in length. Chapter 1 S kill R eview A-C 01 Campus Life W: What should I do to prepare for my exams? I have some old exams from last year. Do you think it’s a good way to study? M: Yes, it can help. Being familiar with the way the test is made up is beneficial. You may be less anxious at exam time. First, quickly look over all the material you’ve studied. Then decide which things you need the most work on. Then use questions from the exams to practice. W: Great! I should just memorize all the answers! M: No, I don’t think that’s a good idea. Questions on the new exam will probably be different. You need a strong understanding of the material. Memorizing won’t replace a thorough knowledge of the subject. W: I guess that’s probably true. So, what else can I do? M: Make sure you go to all the review sessions. Go to your professor’s office hours too. W: I always do that. I really like my professor. M: Good! In the exam, be sure to read the directions carefully. They may be different from the practice exams. Also, make sure you get to the exam in plenty of time. Get comfortable before it begins. W: OK! Thanks for your help. Transcripts 641 02 Physical Science W: Some people once thought that only four things made up the Earth: earth, water, air, and fire. Earth, water, and air are all forms of matter, but fire is really different. It may seem the same in that you can see it, feel it, and smell it. You can even move it from place to place, but it really isn’t matter at all. It’s an activity. It is matter changing form. Of course, fire has to have something to burn. We call this fuel. Fire also has to have air so that it can burn. Usually, when we build a fire, we first put down easily flammable material like newspaper or dry leaves. Then, we carefully place pieces of wood over it, leaving room for air. Since fire doesn’t start by itself, we need a spark or heat source to start it. Matches, lighters, even magnifying glasses can be used. That’s a glass piece, specially made for seeing small things. We can make sun shine through it to form a very hot spot of light. Wood has to reach about 150 degrees Celsius. Then, something in the wood changes. Part of the wood turns into gas. We see this gas as smoke. The parts of the wood that don’t burn change to ash. This is the soft, white powder left after a fire. A third part of the wood becomes carbon, or char. This char, or charcoal, burns slowly and hotly without smoke. This gives us enough time to cook food. Skill D 01 Campus Life M: Hey, Rita, what are you looking at? W: I’m looking at a Nova Scotia College of Art catalog. I’m going to transfer there. They have a great lithography program. M: Oh, yeah? So you’ll have to send them your transcript. W: I guess so. What exactly is on my transcript? M: Well, basically all your courses and grades. W: How do I get it? M: At the transcript office. It’s $8. It takes the secretary three or four days to do it for you. W: Great! I can do this soon. I really want to learn to do lithos! 02 Communications W: Do you say what you really mean? We learn from listening to others. It’s a good way to learn. But if we’re not careful, we learn other people’s mistakes, too. Here’s an example. You often hear, “We’ve reached a consensus of opinion.” “Consensus,” already means that all of the people have the same idea. Adding “of opinion” is not needed. A saying that’s used too often is called a cliche’. We have to be careful in using cliche’ s. For example, it’s easy to say something like, “I love chocolate.” What we really mean is, “I like it a lot.” 03 Sociology M: More and more US parents are choosing to homeschool their children. This means the parents teach them at home. They do this for several reasons. Some think public schools are too dangerous. Some think the education level is too low. And some want to teach their children about their religion. This is not allowed in public schools. At home, children can help choose which subjects to study. And since there are only one or two students, the teacher mom or dad can give them lots of attention. Of course, homeschoolers might get lonely. And parents are sometimes not the best teachers. 04 History W: Albert Einstein is considered the greatest scientist of the twentieth century. He was born in Germany in 1879, and was interested in science from an early age. He had trouble in school. In fact, he failed on his first try to enter university. In 1896, however, he did enter a university in Switzerland. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics. When Hitler came to power in Germany, Einstein moved to the United States. He told the US president that Hitler was making an atomic bomb. The US made one first. This new bomb helped end World War II. 05 Campus Life M: Yaaaahh W: Quit yawning! I’m trying to read. M: Sorry. I’m just tired today. W: Our biology professor said when you yawn, it’s because your lungs need more oxygen. It cleans your blood. M: Hmm my blood must be filthy, then. W: You’re probably not breathing as deeply as you should. Why don’t you go outside and take a few deep breaths? That’ll give you lots of oxygen. M: Yeah, but I’ll still be tired. W: Maybe a break and some fresh air will give you some energy. M: I need a break from this boring textbook. W: If you’re bored, go outside and try doing something interesting. M: Good idea. I think I’ll go for a bike ride. 06 Geography M: South America is a large continent, but it has only 12 countries. The largest country in South America is Brazil. It is almost as big as the United States! A lot of people don’t realize that from just looking at a map. Brazil takes up almost half the land in South America. The smallest country is Surinam. This is smaller than many US states. South America lies between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The equator crosses the northern part of the continent. At this point, South America is about 1,500 kilometers wide. The southern-most point in South America is a narrow tip called Tierra del Fuego. This is only about 300 kilometers north of Antarctica. 07 Campus Life W: Hello, Chad. What’s happening? M: Not much. What are you doing with that camera? W: I’m taking pictures for our class photo exhibit next week. M: Where’s that going to be? W: In the student center. I need to get three or four good shots of nature on campus. M: Will all the photos be of nature? W: No. There are three other categories: students, professors, and buildings. M: And students are taking all the pictures? W: Yes. We have to take them, develop them, enlarge them, and frame them. M: Wow. You’re going to be busy. W: Yep. Well, I’m gonna go photograph the cherry tree blossoms. See ya. 642 Transcripts 08 Social Studies M: A population is all the people, animals, or plants living somewhere. Taking a census means getting information about every member of a population. Census information helps governments, especially democracies, run well. In a democratic government, people vote for the leader. Democracies need to know everyone who is old enough to vote. The two oldest known censuses were taken in China. One was taken in 2 AD and the other in 140 AD. The Bible also tells of three different censuses. Censuses were taken by the Roman Empire, too. The person counting Romans and getting the taxes was called the “Censor.” Skill E 01 Campus Life M: Hey, neat! You got a telescope for your birthday! W: Yes. Now, we can look at the moon! M: Can we see any planets with this telescope? W: Yes. We can most easily see Mars it’s closest to Earth and Venus. It’s the next closest. M: Is it true that Mars once had rivers and oceans? W: A lot of scientists think so. Did you know it has two moons? M: No! Amazing! How many moons does Venus have? W: None! M: Do you think people will ever visit Mars? W: Maybe someday, but not Venus. It’s too hot. M: Well, at least we can see them with your new telescope! 02 Phys. Ed. M: Soccer, or football, is one of the best liked sports around the world. It’s an easy game to understand, but it has many rules. Each player must follow the rules carefully. A player who doesn’t can be given a yellow card. This is a warning. A player who breaks the rules many times may get a red card. A player who gets a red card is forced out of the game. He or she will not be allowed to play anymore. There is one very basic soccer rule. It is one that everyone knows. A player cannot do anything that could hurt another player. 03 Literature W: There’s a famous story about Mark Twain. Once he got on a train in New York. I don’t know where he was going, but the train was full. A ticket-office worker said there was no room on the sleeping coach. But on the train, the conductor saw him and came right over. He showed him to a sleeping coach in first class. He made especially sure that Twain was comfortable. Then he said, “I’m so proud to have you on this train, sir!” Mark Twain asked, “Oh! Who am I?” and heard, “General McClellan.” You can imagine his surprise. 04 Psychology M: It’s important to choose a job that’s right for your personality. Are you a friendly person who enjoys meeting people and talking with them? Perhaps you should become a salesperson or a teacher. If you’re quiet and thoughtful, maybe you should be an accountant or scientist. Think about what your job requires. Will you be interacting with others or spending most of your time alone? There are many factors to consider in choosing a career. Money is certainly one of them. So is social status. But remember, whatever you decide, you have to do that job every day. Choose carefully! 05 Campus Life W: Hey, Tony. Want to go play basketball? M: I can’t. I’ve got to study for my mid-term exams. W: Man, you can’t study all the time. You’ve gotta exercise! M: How? I don’t have the time! W: You can do simple things. Like, instead of taking the elevator to class, walk up the stairs. And when you’re studying, take a rest every hour and go for a short walk. M: Hmm yeah, I could do that. W: You know, just squeezing a tennis ball makes your hands stronger and helps you relax. M: That’s easy. Anything else? W: Yeah. Walk backwards sometimes. It strengthens the back of your lower legs. M: Thanks. Have fun at basketball. 06 Astronomy W: OK, mmm we all know that the Earth spins as it rotates around the sun. Does anyone know how fast it spins? M: Two thousand kilometers an hour? W: Close. About 2,200 kilometers an hour. It turns completely around once each day. Now, what would happen if the Earth stopped spinning so fast? If it slowed down to one rotation every 365 days, every place on the planet would have either daylight or darkness all year long. This is similar to the situation on the moon. For two weeks, the sun shines on the front side. Then, for two weeks, it shines on the back side. How do you think a slower rotation would affect your lives? 07 Campus Life W: I finished writing my paper on the American Revolution. M: Wow! I’m still looking for information on George Washington. W: Well, I saw a TV show about it last week. I wrote down all the important people and then looked them up on the Internet. M: I wish I’d seen that show. W: You can still find information on the Internet. Just type the words you’re looking for and then click the “search” button. M: I tried. But it gave me so many websites! W: Maybe you can ask Professor Cohen if there’s a good video you could watch. That would help you know what to look for. 08 Psychology M: It’s easier to remember something if we make a picture, or image, of it in our minds. You can remember a common object by giving it three qualities: detail, color, and movement. Take something you often lose, like a key, for instance. Make the key special in your mind. Give it detail. Imagine it has very sharp teeth. Then, give it color. Make it shiny gold. Finally, give it movement. Imagine it is alive. If you don’t watch it, it could jump up and lock you out. If you think of it this way, you’re not likely to forget it again. Transcripts 643 Skill F 01History W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe, south of France and west of Italy. In the 16th Century, it was the most powerful nation in the world. After America was discovered in 1492, Spain sent many people there. They brought back lots of gold and silver. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. It established colonies in other parts of the world, such as Cuba and the Philippines. But in 1588, Spain lost a famous war against England. After that, its power began to decline. In 1898, Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish- American War. 02 Campus Life W: Dr. Shin, how long have you been a university professor? M: Eighteen years, Sandra. W: Could you please tell our campus radio listeners what made you want to become an educator? M: I guess it was my mother. She was a writer. At an early age, she taught me that “the pen is mightier than the sword.” So when I entered university, I started to study writing. W: And you became a writer like your mother? M: No, I actually never wrote any books. But I did discover that I love teaching. So I’ve been a writing teacher ever since. W: Well, we’re certainly glad you became one. Personally, I really enjoyed your class. Thank you for being on the show today, Dr. Shin. 03 Literature M: Batman has changed several times since he first appeared in a comic book in May 1939. The first Batman is now called the “Golden Age” Batman. He was famous for using his mind, not his strength, to catch criminals. In April 1940, Robin first appeared as Batman’s partner. In April 1943, Batman and Robin were joined by their butler, Alfred. He was the only one who knew Batman and Robin’s real names. In 1952, Batman teamed with Superman for the first time. In May 1964, the “new look” Batman appeared. His costume had a black bat in a yellow oval. The first Batman did not have the oval. 04 Ecology W: The kind of oil that usually spills into the sea is called crude oil. Sometimes it leaks naturally. Other times, humans accidentally spill it when digging for oil or carrying it on boats. When oil spills, three things happen: spreading, evaporation, and emulsification. In spreading, the oil forms long, narrow strips, called windrows. You can remember this word as “wind” plus “rows.” The wind pushes the oil into long rows across the water. In evaporation, the lighter parts of the oil disappear. Only the heavier parts remain. In emulsification, E-M-U-L-S-I-F-I-C-A-T-I-O-N, the waves mix water into the oil. This forms a heavy and sticky substance, which is sometimes called chocolate mousse. The oil also mixes with other things floating in the water. 05 Campus Life W: I don’t feel well. I think I’ll skip class today. M: What’s wrong? W: I feel hot then cold, and I ache all over. M: Ooh! That doesn’t sound very good! You’d better take your temperature. W: Do you have a thermometer? M: Yes, I do. Here you go. W: Thanks, Joe. M: Here, let me read the thermometer for you Uh-oh, your temperature is really high! You’d better go see the school nurse! W: You know, I could have malaria. These are malaria symptoms. I just came back from a trip to Africa with my parents. I wasn’t very good about taking my medicine. 06 Science M: Light travels at 297,600 kilometers per second. That’s pretty fast! Sound travels much more slowly at 1 kilometer per 3 seconds. Knowing this, we can judge the distance of a storm. When you see a lightning flash, begin counting seconds. When you hear the thunder, stop counting. How many seconds have passed? The lightning is one kilometer away for every 3 of those seconds. There’s another way to know how close a storm is. As rain falls, it cools the air. That cooler air may flow about 3 miles ahead of the storm. The air becoming suddenly cooler tells you about how close it is. 07 Campus Life M: Hi, Barb! How was your vacation? W: Great! We went to New Mexico. M: You went to Mexico? W: No, NEW Mexico. It’s a state in the southwestern US. The license plates there say USA, so people don’t get confused. M: That’s funny. What did you do there? W: Well, on our way there we stopped at the Grand Canyon, in Arizona. It was awesome! Then, we went to Albuquerque the biggest city in New Mexico. Then we visited Carlsbad Caverns. M: What are those? W: Caves sixty miles of them. In one cave, we had to wear hats with lights so we could see in the dark. 08History W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. He was also a scientist and inventor. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci, Italy. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works. Finally, he was an inventor. But his two most famous inventions the parachute and the war tank weren’t built until after he died. 644 Transcripts Chapter 1 S kill R eview A-F 01 Psychology W: Some people can remember things in a way that seems almost impossible. It’s as if their minds just take photos. They might be able to repeat a lecture word for word. They can even accomplish this feat many years later. Some very good chess players can play with their eyes covered. This is called “Blindfold Chess.” They can play against several other players at once and win! Someone tells them the other players’ moves. They can easily remember where the pieces are on all the boards. Scientists call this “eidetic memory,” though many people call it photographic memory. However, this may be misleading. Scientists believe the memories are not stored photographically, but in another way. A scientist named Dr. DeGroot did a test to show this. A chessboard was set up a certain way, and some chess players were given fifteen seconds to look at it. Then, they were asked to set the pieces up again in the same way. The more seasoned chess players easily set up the pieces again. The beginners had a more difficult time doing it. In the next test, Dr. DeGroot began in the same way. However, this time he set them up in a way that would never happen in a real game. Now, the really good players had difficulty remembering, too, remembering only as well as the beginning players. It seemed they needed to apply their knowledge of what was really possible in a game. That is, they needed to apply what they knew about chess to remember well. 02 General Studies M: Some people really go overboard using their yellow markers to underline everything. I’m going to suggest that this isn’t the best strategy for studying. The first time you read a passage, don’t highlight. You can end up with an all-yellow text. Just read the passage first. Then ponder it for a while. Then read it again, this time looking for the most important ideas. In the next reading, you can start highlighting. Only underline one or two key words or phrases per page. Even better compile a list of the words and phrases. Write the page number beside each one so you can look them up again. Now, when you review, you won’t have pages and pages to read. This makes it much easier to review for an exam. W: Excuse me, Professor Hill. M: Yes, Jacqueline? W: Can you give us some suggestions on how to choose the words and phrases? M: Yes, of course! Here are some steps to help you decide what to choose: 1. Look for the main idea. Follow the way it’s being told through the passage. 2. Look at the beginning and ending paragraphs. They often give the information in a simple form. 3. Pick out transitional words that give you important information. i.e., “the point is,” “in sum,” “most importantly,” and so on. 4. Try reading the ending first, so you know where the passage is going. 5. The next day, look over the passage again. Only read what you’ve underlined. Do it again a week later. Now, each night for several nights before a test, look at your list. Take an hour or two. You’ll remember some things from class. When you find something you can’t remember, look it up. You’ll learn what you don’t remember this way. You’ll have no problem getting a high score on the exam. Learning this does take time, though. So don’t get discouraged. Keep practicing. You’ll get it. C hapter 2 Skill A 01 Culture M: Let’s talk about sneezing. When someone sneezes Ah choo! the customary response is, “Bless you” or “God bless you.” Why do we say this? There are several theories. Some of these are superstitions that is, things that many people believe but that aren’t really true. One superstition is that saying “bless you” keeps the devil from flying down your throat. Another is that “bless you” keeps your soul from flying out of your body. Actually, there is a historical reason for this custom. There was a pope in Rome named Gregory the Great. When he was elected pope, the great plague was beginning all over Europe. Thousands of people were dying. In fact, the pope before Gregory had died of the plague. To get rid of the plague, Pope Gregory ordered people to march through the streets, asking for God’s help. If someone sneezed, others would immediately say “God bless you!” They hoped this would keep the person who sneezed from getting the plague. Today, of course, we know that when you sneeze, the devil isn’t trying to rush down your throat. Your soul won’t leave your body. And saying “bless you” to sneezers in the street is not going to cure disease. We do know, though, that each sneeze forces thousands of germs into the air. People keep germs out of public places by covering their mouths when they sneeze. And hearing an old-fashioned “bless you” from a stranger can make us feel better when the sneezes begin. 02 Campus Life W: Hey Alex. How’s it going? M: OK. I just finished math class. Man, I hate math! W: Why? It’s easy! M: Yeah, right. W: I’ve got a secret that helps me in math class. Wanna know what it is? M: OK. But it probably won’t help me. W: Listen and try it. Math is too abstract, right? Well, try to make it real for yourself. My secret is I think about numbers in math as if they were money. M: Huh? W: Yeah. I have a hard time picturing numbers. But if I see the numbers as dollars and cents, then I can see them clearly in my head. Transcripts 645 M: Really?! W: Yeah. For example, if the teacher says, “What is 853 minus 727,” I think of eight dollars and fifty-three cents minus seven dollars and twenty-seven cents. The answer is one dollar and 26 cents one twenty-six. It’s easy! M: Hey, that’s awesome! I’ll try it tomorrow. Thanks. W: No problem. See you at the basketball game tonight. M: See you. 03 Computer Science W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. Right now, there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. These are cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines or ADSL. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. They are much faster than a 56K modem. There is another new kind of DSL connection. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. Some companies already have this for certain places. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet, but it may be very soon. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. VDSL accommodates a very, very large amount of bandwidth. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. In other words, it provides 52Mbps. In comparison, ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. VDSL will soon be more common, making home networks cost much less. In the United States, a telephone line has two copper wires. These wires have a very broad bandwidth. A telephone call only uses a very small part of the bandwidth. The telephone wires can carry much more information than telephone calls. DSL can use this extra bandwidth at the same time a call is being made. It can do this without changing the sound of the telephone call. 04 Campus Life M: Hey Lucy, are you going to watch any of the movies at the film festival? W: No, I wasn’t thinking of it. I have too much homework to do. M: Aw, that’s no fun! Can’t you even take one night off? Your dor- mitory is so close to the Annenberg Center! It’ll take you five minutes to get there. W: Well, maybe I will go to one. M: How about tomorrow night? I can go then. W: What movie is playing? M: School of Rock. Have you seen it? W: No. What’s it about? M: Well, it’s a comedy and it’s really funny. It’s about this guy who’s really trying to make it as a rock star. He gets kicked out of his band and he really needs money. So he acts like he’s somebody else to get a teaching job. Then, he tries to turn his class into a rock band. W: Sounds pretty crazy! OK, I’ll come see it. 05 Biology W: Most animals in the world have some kind of way to hide themselves so that they can hunt for food and protect themselves from other animals. This method of hiding is called camouflage: C-A-M-O-U-F-L-A-G-E. The simplest form of camouflage is for animals to “blend in” with their surroundings. Their colors match the surroundings in which they live, which makes them hard to see. Deer and other forest animals, for example, have light brown colors that help them blend in with the brown trees and dirt on the forest ground. Many fish have a gray-blue color. This helps them blend in with the soft light under water. Other animals use color patterns to help them blend in. A tiger’s pattern of black stripes and orange fur blends into the long grass where it hunts. This makes the tiger difficult for its victims to spot until it’s too late! Another form of camouflage is called copying. For instance, a king snake is red, yellow, and black. It copies the colors of the coral snake. The coral snake is very dangerous; its bite can kill you. The king snake is not dangerous, but other animals are afraid to attack the king snake because it looks like a coral snake. A third form of camouflage is disguise: D-I-S-G-U-I-S-E. This means that an animal looks like something else. For instance, a crocodile in the water can look just like a floating log. This disguise helps it catch deer when they come near the water to drink. 06 Psychology W: Do you ever wonder why we dream? Many people do. For centuries, in fact, people have been trying to understand what our dreams mean or if they mean anything at all. In ancient Egypt, about 2000 BC, people thought dreams were very important. They believed that dreams foretold what would happen in the future. The Egyptians wrote books that listed what dreams meant. If a man saw himself looking out a window in his dream, it was considered a good omen. It meant that his cry would be heard by a god. If a man saw himself in his dream looking at people who were far away, it was considered a bad sign. It meant that he was soon going to die. In modern times, Sigmund Freud is famous for his research on dreams. Freud believed that dreams represent our suppressed desires things we want to do, but can’t. Dreams allow our minds to act out desires that we can’t express in our everyday lives. Usually, these suppressed desires involve sex. For example: A train going into a tunnel represents a man and woman having sex. According to Freud, this dream would mean you want to have sex, but for some reason you can’t. Another famous dream researcher was Carl Jung um, J-U-N-G. Jung believed dreams allow us to think more about ourselves than when we are awake and to solve problems that we have during the day. In 1973, researchers named Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley said dreams don’t mean anything. Dreams are just the result of natural activity in our brains. Skill B 01 Biology W: I’m still confused about the lecture today on blood types. M: OK. What questions do you have? W: Well, first, the way we classify blood types. We use the letters A, B, and O, right? M: That’s right. There are four different types of blood: A, B, AB, and O. Each person on Earth has one of these types. W: And where do we get our blood types? M: They come from both our father and mother. Your blood type could be the same as one of your parents, or completely 646 Transcripts different. W: But everyone’s blood is red! M: Yes, it all looks the same, but it’s dangerous to mix two different blood types together. If you get hurt and need blood, you have to make sure the new blood is the same type as yours. If it’s not, you might die. W: But didn’t the professor say there was one type that could mix with any of them? M: Yes. That’s type O. 02 Literature W: Folktales are stories that grow out of the lives or imaginations of people, or folk. Folktales began as an attempt to explain and understand the world around us. Many folktales all over the world are nearly the same. Travelers passed them on from one country to another. Each person telling the folktale changes it slightly. The stories that traveled mostly over land changed a great deal. The ones that traveled by water changed less. There are many different kinds of folktales. Some have simple plots with lots of repeated phrases and words. These are called cumulative folktales. One example is called “There Was an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly.” This sentence is repeated on almost every page of the story. In some stories, animals talk just like humans. These are talking beast folktales. A famous example is “The Three Little Pigs.” Humorous tales are meant for fun and nonsense. They are usually about someone who makes unbelievably funny mistakes, such as the Norwegian husband who has to take care of his house and nearly destroys it. Romances are stories in which lovers seem hopelessly separated until magic brings them back together. A good example is “Beauty and the Beast.” Tales of magic are types of stories we commonly call fairy tales. These include things like talking mirrors, enchanted forests, and magic kisses. “Snow White” is a popular example. 03 Campus Life W: Hello, Lance! What can I help you with today? M: I heard there’s a tutoring center for each department. Can you tell me where it is for the English Department? W: Yes! Ours is just next door. M: Can I go there right now? W: You can, but they might still be at lunch. You know, you’ll have to sign up for an interview first, anyway. You can do that over the Internet, too. M: OK. Can you give me the address? W: Go to www.pentutoring.info. They’ll get in touch with you within three working days. M: What will they send me? W: They’ll send you the tutor’s name, phone number, email address Oh, yes, and how much you have to pay per hour. M: Uh-oh! I don’t have any money. W: That’s OK. You can get free tutoring. You’ll just need to agree to do a three-week feedback survey. M: That’s all? W: That’s all! M: Great! Thanks! W: No problem! 04 Biology M: Spiders can spin silk better than any other insect. Only a few others, like silkworms, can make silk. Spiders use silk in many different ways. They often use it the same way a mountain climber uses rope. They’ll drop down on a silk strand. If they get into trouble, they can quickly run back up again. Another way they use silk is to make homes for their babies. Most kinds of spiders spin a thick silk covering around their eggs. Some spin it around the new little spiders. Spiders can make different kinds of silk strands. One way is to coat a silk strand with different materials. They might make it sticky to catch a fly. I think we’ve all seen a fly getting stuck on a spider’s web. You sometimes notice because the fly buzzes loudly. Or a spider might water-proof the silk with something. Then, they can stay dry in a rainstorm. A trapdoor spider’s home is a good example. The door over the trapdoor spider’s hole is a water-proof roof made of spider silk. 05 Physics M: A good way to understand why balloons float in the air is to understand why things float in water. Let’s say that you have a plastic one-liter bottle of Coca-Cola. If you pour out the Coke and put the cap back on, you have a one-liter bottle full of air. Now, tie a string around it and take it to the bottom of a swimming pool. What will happen when you let go of the bottle? W: It will rise to the top? M: Yes. If you sit on the bottom of the pool holding the string, the bottle will act just like a balloon does in the air. Does anyone know why the bottle rises? W: Uh, because the air is, um, lighter than the water? M: Exactly! The bottle and the air inside it weigh just a few grams, But a liter of water weighs about 1,000 grams. The air is lighter than the water the air displaces, so the bottle floats. We call this the law of buoyancy. Balloons work by the same law of buoyancy except balloons are filled with helium, not air. Helium is a gas that is much lighter than air. You can think of the helium balloon you are holding as floating in a huge “pool” of air. The helium balloon displaces an amount of air, just like the empty bottle displaces an amount of water. As long as the helium and the balloon are lighter than the air they displace, the balloon will float in the air. 06 Health W: Mmm. I love coffee. It wakes me up! You know why? Because it has caffeine. Caffeine is a kind of drug. Ah! Caffeine is found naturally in many plants, such as coffee beans, tea leaves, and cocoa nuts. It’s also added artificially to many other kinds of food and drinks. So, it’s safe to say that the typical American gets plenty of caffeine. As a matter of fact, most of us get too much. More than half of all adults in the United States consume more than 300 milligrams of caffeine each day. Including me! Seriously, though too much caffeine is not good for your body. Caffeine interferes with a chemical in your brain called adenosine. That’s A-D-E-N-O-S-I-N-E. Now normally, adenosine helps prepare your body for rest. This chemical slows down nerve cells, which causes you to become sleepy. To the nerve cells in your brain, caffeine looks just like adenosine, but caffeine acts differently. Instead of slowing down your nerve cells, caffeine speeds them up. As a result, your heart starts to beat faster. Your breathing tubes open wider. Your blood pressure rises. Blood vessels tighten near the surface of your skin. The Transcripts 647 blood flowing into your stomach slows down. Your muscles tighten up, ready for action. This is why, after consuming a big cup of coffee, you feel excited. You can feel your heartbeat increasing. You’re ready to do something, go somewhere, run, play, fight, conquer the world or else start STUDYING to get ready for the next test! Skill C 01 Science W: We use microscopes to help us study cells. Because cells are so small, we can’t see them without magnification um, the ability to make them look bigger. The first microscopes were called light microscopes. They were pretty simple devices. They were also simple to use. Scientists first cut the cells, or specimens, into thin sections. Then they stained the specimens with different colored materials, called dyes. The dyes helped them see the specimens more clearly. Unfortunately, dyes often killed the cells, too. That limited what scientists could find out about the specimen. In recent years, we have developed more powerful microscopes. These help us view living specimens. One of these new microscopes is called the phase-contrast microscope. It’s made in such a way that part of the light passing through it moves more slowly than the rest of the light. We say this part of the light is “out of phase” with the rest of the light. This enables scientists to see differences in living specimens as light and shade. Another type of new microscope is the electron microscope. This uses electrons to form images, instead of light. Electrons travel in waves, similar to light, but their wavelengths are over 100,000 times shorter than those of light. Therefore, they can give much clearer magnification. Electron microscopes even allow scientists to take pictures of the cells they are studying! 02 Campus Life W: Hey Frank. If you could be any person in the world, who would you be? M: That’s easy. Bill Gates! W: Why? M: I’ll give you 30 billion reasons. Ha, ha. W: Ah, so it’s the money. M: Not totally. But the money is nice. I was reading that if you made all of Gates’ money one-dollar bills, and then laid them end-to- end, the line would stretch for almost six million kilometers. W: Wow! But what would you do with all that money? M: Gates gives a lot to the poor. He’s donated almost seven-and- a-half billion since the year 2000. I’d give away even more. W: Really? M: Sure! It costs about $240 a year to feed a starving child. So, Bill could save almost 121 million children. W: Hmm why else do you like Gates? M: I admire his confidence. Did you know he earned a scholarship to Harvard, but left after two years to start Microsoft? That took courage! 03History M: So, you’ve heard of the Gettysburg Address. But do you know the story behind it? The worst battle of the American Civil War was fought in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Northern Army fought back the Southern Army. The battle lasted three days. Afterward, the field was left covered with bodies of dead soldiers. In November 1863, President Abraham Lincoln came to Gettysburg. He was to speak at the opening of the cemetery there. Music played and soldiers saluted. Edward Everett, governor of Massachusetts, talked first for almost two hours. Then Lincoln stood up. He looked out over the valley. Then, he began to speak. He said they couldn’t do anything to make this place special. He said that the soldiers who had fought so hard had already done that. He said that everyone would soon forget what was spoken that day, but he said that what the soldiers did would never be forgotten. He said everyone should keep doing what these soldiers began. They should keep fighting for freedom for all the people. Then, they could make sure the soldiers didn’t die needlessly. The president’s speech only lasted two minutes! Everyone cheered and then left. Lincoln turned to Edward Everett. He said he thought he should have planned his speech better. Edward Everett didn’t agree. He said, “It was perfect. You said more in two minutes than I did in two hours.” Afterward, the newspapers said it was a great speech. And, as you know, Americans still remember it today. 04 Phys. Ed. W: Some people are surprised to know that walking is very good exercise. It seems very easy, but it does us a lot of good. It cleans the blood, tones up muscles, and strengthens bones. It even helps people lose weight. One study showed that fast walking keeps your heart healthy. Men who walked fast were 50 percent less likely to have heart disease. You don’t need much equipment to do it, and almost anyone, anywhere, at any time, can do it. It’s not difficult to plan walks into your day. You can walk to work, to catch a train, or to a park. You can walk to shops or enjoy walks in the country. It’s a great way to spend time with family and friends. People have some of their best conversations while walking. It’s best to do some stretches before and after you walk. Take short quick steps, stand straight, and take deep breaths. For basic health, it’s good to walk most days of the week. Walk for 20 to 30 minutes or more at a “talking pace.” To lose weight, walk for 30 to 45 minutes or more. Walk as many days as you can. Walk fast enough so that you finish slightly out of breath. To make your heart stronger, walk quickly for 20 minutes or more. If you can, walk where there are some small hills. Walk two or three times a week. Go as fast as you can, but enjoy yourself. Exercise should never be painful. 05 Campus Life W: Josh, what are you doing tonight? M: I have a biology class. What are you doing? W: Well, my friend’s sorority is having a party, but I don’t want to walk by myself in the dark. M: Why don’t you use Campus Escort? W: What’s that? M: Campus Escort is a free service that gives students rides. Other students drive you to the place you’re going. 648 Transcripts W: Really? It’s free? M: Yep. Just call 874-SAFE and tell them what time you would like to be picked up. W: But will they escort me back home? M: Sure. There’s a car that will take you from your dorm room to the party, then back to your dorm. It runs 5 p.m. to 1 a.m. And there’s a small van that picks students up each hour at the student center and the mall. It runs from 6 p.m. to midnight. W: What if I want to stay later? M: Call campus police for a free escort: 874-2121. 06 General Studies M: All right. Saturday’s the big day. Are you ready? Yes, Susan? W: Tests make me nervous. What can I do? M: Good question. It’s natural to be a little nervous before a test. The important thing is: don’t panic. You’ve studied hard for this test. You can pass it. Be confident! Relax! Now, you’re more likely to be relaxed if you are well prepared. Here are some tips. First, before you leave home, check to make sure you have everything you need. You should have your admission ticket. This was mailed to you last week. You should have two number-two pencils and a good eraser. You should have identification your student ID card, a driver’s license, or a passport. If you’re taking the math portion of the test, you should have a calculator. Second, know what you can’t bring to the test. You cannot bring a watch with a loud alarm. You cannot bring any food or drink. You cannot bring extra paper to write on. You cannot bring any books, notes, or dictionaries. You cannot bring compasses, rulers, protractors, or other aids except for the calculator. You cannot bring colored pens, pencils, or highlighters. You cannot bring cell phones or pagers. You cannot bring any portable tape recorders, walkmans, or headphones. Questions? W: Um what if I uh, have to go to the bathroom during the test? M: You can’t. So go before! Don’t worry, there will be breaks after each section of the test. You’ll be able to go then. Chapter 2 S kill R eview A-C 01 Campus Life M: All right. Here’s your student ID card. You’ll need to show this at every meal, or each time you buy something at a campus dining hall. W: Really? Hmm. That’s different than my old school. M: Yes, I imagine it is. We have a unique system here. Do you know about our meal plans? W: Meal plans? Uh, no. M: There are several different plans. You can choose to buy 9, 12, 15, or 18 meals each week. It depends on your schedule and eating habits. W: I see. Um, what if I buy the 15-meal plan and only eat 13 meals that week? Will I get 17 the next week? M: No, meals do not carry over into the next week. That’s why it’s important that you choose your meal plan carefully. W: What if I want to treat my friend? Can I use two meals at one time? M: Sorry, no. Only one meal each meal period. If you want to treat a friend, you can use your declining balance points. W: My what? M: Declining balance points. They work like an ATM card. At the dining halls, you use the points like cash. You can buy food, snacks, or meals. Then the points are withdrawn from your declining balance account. All of our meal plans offer these points. W: Um, OK. What happens when I run out of declining balance points? M: You can buy more points at any time. Just go to the One Card office on the North Campus. We will bill your home through the Student Accounts office. 02 Geography W: We usually think of deserts as hot, dry, sandy places. And many deserts are. But actually, deserts come in several forms. Let’s learn about some of them. In defining a desert, we have to consider two factors. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates that is, goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. We call this loss of water “evaporation.” Simply stated, a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. Because so much water evaporates, most deserts are hot. But not all. The North and South poles, for instance, are cold deserts. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year, and the ground is permanently frozen. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. One example is trade wind deserts. Trade wind deserts are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong. They blow away clouds, so more sun reaches the ground. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. The Sahara Desert, in North Africa, is a trade wind desert. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains. As clouds rise over the mountains, they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. So, these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin. Still another kind of desert is the coastal desert. Coastal deserts are on the western edges, or coasts, of continents. One coastal desert, the Atacama Desert of South America, is Earth’s driest desert. In the Atacama, there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. 03Business Writing M: Today, I’d like to give you some basic rules for writing a resumé. Let’s begin with spelling. Don’t use words you don’t know. Use a dictionary. Seems like a lot of trouble to get up, find a dictionary, and look up the word. But if you’re on the computer, you can look up words online. Do a spell check, but then read every word carefully. The spell check can’t catch every mistake. If you use “form” instead of “from,” it won’t catch it. So, use a spell check, but read everything yourself, too. And read carefully. If you read quickly, it’s easy to miss words that are misspelled. Have a friend read your resumé, too. Transcripts 649 Another thing, choose your words carefully. Some words sound alike but don’t mean the same thing, like these: personal means private, personnel means staff members. And use active tense like “directed staff” rather than passive tense like “was staff director.” The active tense gives a stronger feeling. Now, about grammar. In each part of your resumé, keep the same tense. The duties you do now should be in the present tense. Things you did in the past should be in the past tense. For example, let’s say you started your job several years ago in September. You might write on your resumé “September 2003 to present, manage office and staff,” or “teach at Canyon High School.” That means, “I manage” or “I teach” now. But if you’re listing a job you don’t have anymore “taught at Canyon High School” instead of “teach at Canyon High School.” Don’t give your sex, age, race, or marital status. How much money you made before is also personal information. Make your resumé look nice. Make it as simple as you can, too. Leave plenty of space, but try to make it just one page. Use a font like Times Roman that’s easy to read. Put your name, address, and telephone number on it and any letters. Use a good printer and print on only one side of white paper. Your resumé speaks for you. A professional-looking resumé tells an employer that you do things well. An employer may decide to see you or not because of it. 0 4 Economics W: Our world is so rich! All the people together make more than $31 trillion a year. In some countries, many people make more than $40,000 a year. But in other countries, many people make less than $700 a year. Of these, 1.2 billion earn less than $1.00 a day. Because of this, 33,000 children die every day in these poorer countries. Each minute, more than one woman dies in childbirth. Being poor keeps more than 100 million children out of school. Most of them are girls. Helping the poorer countries is a very big task especially because more people are born every year. In fifty years, there will be about 3 billion more people. The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. It’s helping them build schools and health centers, and get water and electricity. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings. The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets. If they do, they have to pay very high interest rates. The World Bank gives them some money, low-interest loans, and interest-free credit. It helps them take care of the money, too. When the countries get loans, they have 35 40 years to pay them back. They can have ten extra years if they need it. In the year 2002, the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries. For some of the poorest countries, AIDS is a very big problem. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. If they don’t receive help, many more people will get the illness. The World Bank is not like other banks. It’s really a part of the United Nations. One hundred and eighty-four countries belong to it. These countries all put money into it and help maintain it. About 10,000 people work in World Bank offices. They are from nearly every country in the world. Its headquarters is in Washington, DC. But there are World Bank offices in 109 countries. Skill D 01 Campus Life W: Hi Tony! Where are you headed? M: Hey, Mary. I’m going to the campus gym to lift weights. Want to come? Um, there’s an aerobics class at 5 o’clock. W: Uh, no thanks. I’ve got to study for my chemistry mid-term. Maybe next time. How often do you go? M: I try to go three times a week. When I study, I sit too much. I don’t feel good unless my body gets some exercise, not just my mind. W: Do you usually just lift weights? M: No. I lift to get stronger. Then, I run on the treadmill to help my heart and lungs. Then, I jump rope or do aerobics to improve my balance and coordination. W: Wow! I wish I had that much discipline. M: Start slowly and do a little more each day. W: Thanks for the advice. Well, have fun. Maybe I’ll go next week. M: Bye! Good luck on your mid-term. 02 Physical Science W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration, or destruction, of rocks by mechanical processes. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices uh, holes and cracks of rocks. Also, the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. The tiny, hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks. Then, as the roots get bigger, the roots crack the rocks. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. They burrow, or dig, into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes, where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day. It’s also common in deserts, where there is little water and few plants. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. This includes the processes of oxidation, carbonation, and hydration. For example, many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized, meaning they can quickly turn to rust. It sounds funny, but rocks can rust or oxidize. Then, there is carbonation. Limestone is a rock that does this. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water, which contains carbonic acid. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. Anyway, chemical weathering takes place in warm, wet conditions. In general, chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering, although they usually act together. 03 Campus Life M: I just don’t get it! W: Get what? M: Professor Johnson’s biology lecture. I took notes, but I don’t understand them. W: You should go to a review session. M: A review session? W: Yeah. A review session is a discussion that’s led by a student who has already taken the class. They review the professor’s lecture and the homework assignments for each week. Then, they answer questions. M: It sounds like an extra class. 650 Transcripts W: You don’t have to go, but if you’re having trouble, a review session will help you a lot. I went to one last year when I had Professor Johnson’s class. M: Yeah? How did you do? W: I got an A-minus. M: Hmm. When is the review session? W: Let’s see You have your choice. You can go Monday from 5 to 6 p.m., or Tuesday from 3 to 4. M: I’ve got economics on Tuesday. I guess I could go Monday. W: It’s up to you. M: I’ll think about it. 04 Business M: Advertisements. They’re everywhere. You can’t hide from them. There’s no escape. Turn on the TV. There they are. Turn on the radio. There they are. Waiting for an elevator? There they are. Using your computer? There they are. Looking out your car window? Ahhhhhh! Ads, ads, ads! Aren’t you getting tired of them? W: Yes! Especially on my computer and on TV. I wish there weren’t so many of them. M: Well, would you believe you’ve actually seen more ads than you think? You’ve also been watching secret ads. Instead of regular ads, today we are seeing lots more of something called product placement. Product placement is like an ad that’s not an ad. It’s an advertisement in disguise. For example, how many of you have seen the movie Cast Away, with Tom Hanks? Mmmm, most of you. Which company does Toms Hanks work for at the start of the movie? W: Fed Ex. M: Bingo! That’s a product placement. Fed Ex short for Federal Express got more publicity from that movie than it could have with hundreds of traditional ads. In another movie, The Firm, the main character drank a beer from Jamaica called Red Stripe. In the movie’s first week, sales of Red Stripe increased 50 percent. Product placement used to be limited to movies. Now, we see it on TV shows, video games, even in books. It’s an effective technique. But companies have to be careful. They want their products to be visible within a scene, but not the focus of attention. When done correctly, product placement can add a sense of realism to a movie or television show that something like a bottle simply marked “beer” cannot. 05 Music M: Today we’re going to learn about a kind of song called a ballad. A ballad is a song that tells a story. Usually, the story in a ballad is one that began with oral tradition. Parents passed it down to their children from generation to generation. Ballads are often sung in rhyme, like a poem. Unlike a poem, though, ballads do not use a lot of explanation. The words are usually simple, clear, and easy to read. There is not much emotion. And the motives of characters that is, why they do something is not usually told. One famous ballad from the 1800s is called “Shenandoah.” Um, S-H-E-N-A-N-D-O-A-H. It tells the story of a white man who was in love with an American Indian woman. She lived near the Missouri River, one of the two largest rivers in the United States. Listen to part of the song: The white man loved an Indian maiden Away, you rolling river With notions his canoe was laden Away, I’m bound away Cross the wide Missouri O Shenandoah, I love your daughter Away, you rolling river For her I’ve crossed the rolling water Away, I’m bound away Cross the wide Missouri Notice the dialog in the second verse. The white man tells his lover’s father: “Oh Shenandoah, I love your daughter for her I’ve crossed the rolling river.” Such dialog is typical of ballads. So, we have three characteristics of ballads so far. One, they tell a story. Two, they come from oral tradition. Three, they repeat simple words and use dialog. 06 Earth Science M: Trade winds are a pattern of wind found in regions near the Earth’s equator. Do you remember what the equator is? W: The imaginary circle around the middle of the Earth that divides the planet into the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. M: Very good! Now, in the old days, sailors used to sail their boats back and forth across the equator on their way to trade things with other nations. They depended on the wind to get them there quickly. Hence the name, trade winds. The trade winds begin in regions called the Horse Latitudes. These are regions between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. The winds in the Horse Latitudes are light, and the weather there is hot and dry. Because of the light winds, trading ships would become stalled in the Horse Latitudes. Sailors were worried about running out of water, so they threw their horses into the sea. This way, they could drink the water meant for the horses. It also made their boats lighter, so they could go faster. The trade winds blow from the Horse Latitudes toward the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, they blow from the northeast and are called the Northeast Trade Winds. In the Southern Hemisphere, they blow from the southeast and are called the Southeast Trade Winds. The trade winds between about 30 degrees latitude and the equator are steady and blow about 22 to 24 kilometers per hour. They can quickly propel ships across the ocean. Skill E 01 Campus Life M: Excuse me. I’d like to buy a bicycle permit please. W: That will be four dollars. M: Here you are. And the permit will let me park my bike anywhere on campus? W: Yes. M: How long is the permit valid for? W: It’s valid for the next four years. OK, now I need your bicycle serial number. M: My serial number? Just a minute. Ah, here it is. A7-10023. W: All right. Next, I need some identification with your address on it. M: My address? Um, oh yeah. I have my driver’s license. W: Sure, your driver’s license will be fine all right. Last but not least, you need to fill out this bicycle registration card. Then Transcripts 651 we’ll give you your permit. M: Here you are. W: Thank you. Now, you need to make sure this permit is in plain sight on your bicycle. Attach it to the main frame, on the center post below the seat. If we can’t see it, you will have to pay a fine. M: No problem. Thanks. 02 Art W1: Today, we’re going to see how much you know about china. M1: It’s got the Great Wall. W2: And rice. M2: And chopsticks! W1: No, not that China. Yes, China is a country. But there’s another china-the kind you eat off of. This china is a fancy type of porcelain. Porcelain is a material used to make plates, cups, and bowls. When people get married in America, one of the oldest customs is for the bride and groom to choose which type of china they want for their new home. There are four main processes in creating china. These are clay making, mold making, glazing, and decorating. In the clay-making process, five ingredients are mixed together with water and shaped into tubes. These tubes are called pugs: P-U-G-S. In the mold-making process, plaster is poured into metal molds to make production molds. These production molds are then used to shape the pugs into plates, cups, and bowls. Next, comes the glazing process. Glaze is like liquid glass. When it’s heated, glaze forms a protective shell around each piece of china. Glaze is incredibly strong. A store in Canada once showed how strong china is by using four teacups to support a race car! Can you picture that a heavy car with only one small cup under each wheel? After glazing, the china is ready for decorating. Here, artists use 85 patterns and 400 different shapes to make the china look beautiful. Then, it’s ready to be sold. 03 Campus Life M: I’d like to check out this book, please. W: May I please see your student ID card? M: I’m sorry, ma’am, it’s been stolen. It was in my wallet, which was stolen. W: I’m not allowed to check out any books for you without it. M: Oh, that’s great! What should I do now? W: You can download the form for a new student ID card from the computer. Fill it out and take it over to the Student Center. Actually, they can also give you the form there. M: Thanks. I don’t think I’ll bother. Doesn’t it cost $10.00? W: It does. You might just want to do it, though. You won’t be allowed to sit for exams without it. M: All right, I guess I’ll have to. I suppose they’ll want a passport photo too. W: Yes, and a copy of your identification driver’s license or passport. M: All right, I’ll go over there. Thanks ma’am. W: You’ll be glad to have it. Good luck! 04 Health M: Let’s begin our study of Vitamin D. It’s something we must have. Among other things, it helps our bodies use the important min- eral, calcium. Calcium makes our bones strong. It also helps our nerves and muscles work the way they should. Let’s open our textbooks to page 63. I’d like you to take a look at these pictures. As you can see, these children don’t look well at all. The bones in their heads haven’t come together as they should. That’s why their heads are too big. Their legs curve out. The bones are too soft to stand on. These children didn’t get enough Vitamin D. Happily, we don’t see this too often any more. Vitamin D is not in most of the foods we eat. We get it mostly from the sun. Ultraviolet rays from the sun transform something in our skin. It becomes what’s called previtamin D3. Inside our bodies, it changes again. It becomes what’s called active vitamin D. With active vitamin D, our bones can make enough calcium to stay hard. Active vitamin D helps us have enough calcium for our nerves too. This helps us feel calm and sleep well. Today, many people need to have stronger bones. Many older people’s bones, especially, break far too easily. One main reason why is that people don’t get nearly enough sunlight. We close windows to stay warm in the winter. In summer, we close windows for air conditioning. But we really need time in the sunshine almost every day. 05 Computer Science W: I did a search on Google yesterday. It was amazing. I typed in “horses” and hit the search button. In less than a second, it showed me more than 32 million websites related to horses. Do you ever wonder how computers can think so fast? Well, I did another Google search, and I found out. Computer chips are based on something called Boolean logic. This is a type of thinking developed in the mid-1800s by George Boole B-O-O-L-E. Boolean logic maps information into bits and bytes. It begins with seven electronic pathways, called gates. The simplest gate is called a NOT gate. The NOT gate takes one bit of input, which we’ll label A, and produces an output, which we’ll label Q, that is exactly opposite. So, if input, A, is one, the output, Q, will be zero. If A is zero, Q will be one. Simple. Next is the AND gate. The idea behind an AND gate is this: if there are two bits of input, say, A and B, and if A and B are both the same, then the output, called Q, should be the same. After the NOT gate and the AND gate comes the OR gate. Its basic idea is, “If A or B is one, or if both A and B are one, then Q is also one.” The next two gates are called NAND and NOR. These two gates are simply combinations of an AND or an OR gate with a NOT gate. Now, next comes 06 Biology M: Let’s begin. Last week, we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. Remember, when the fish breathes oxygen, some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. This causes the fish to rise in the water. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder, it sinks toward the bottom. So, it can move vertically go up and down kind of like a hot-air balloon. A shark is more like an airplane. Sharks don’t have a swim bladder, so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward. In an airplane, this forward movement pushes air around the wings. For a shark, this forward movement pushes water around the fins. In both cases, the forward movement creates lift the airplane and shark both rise. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. The shark can position these fins at different angles. This changes the path of the water around them and 652 Transcripts enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane. They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. Skill F 01 Computer Science M: Robots are very popular these days. We see movies and television shows in which robots move, speak, and have personalities that are almost human. Like R2D2 and C3PO in Star Wars, and Data from the Star Trek TV series. In real life, there are robot dogs, robots that walk on two legs like a person, robots that clean your house, and robots that work in factories to help build cars. What, exactly, is a robot? That’s a surprisingly difficult question. Different people have different ideas. One famous scientist said, “I can’t define a robot, but I know one when I see one.” The easiest definition is that a robot is something most people say is a robot. However, people who build robots have a more precise definition. They say a robot must have a reprogrammable brain in other words, a computer that moves a body. The vast majority of robots have several features in common. First of all, almost all robots have a movable body. Some move only by wheels, and some have many movable parts that are joined together. These parts are usually metal or plastic. Secondly, robots have some sort of actuator that’s AC-CHEW-ATE-OR and this actuator spins their wheels or moves their parts. An actuator could be an electric motor, or a hydraulic system, or compressed gas, which we call a pneumatic system. Some robots use all these actuator types: motors, hydraulics, and pneumatic systems. And third, robots need a power source for their actuators. They could have a battery, or they could plug into a wall. 02 Health M: If you have white skin, you’re in danger of getting sunburn. The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation or UV rays. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside, your skin can become red and sore. We call this sunburn. I bet we’ve all experienced this at some point in our lives. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned because of this extra blood. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. So, it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. The best way to do this is to use sunscreen. Sunscreen is a lotion you put on your body about 30 minutes before you go outside. Sunscreen helps in two ways. It can block UV rays. Like a shield, it stops them before they reach your skin. Sunscreen can also absorb UV rays. This means the lotion “eats” the UV rays. The rays stay in the lotion instead of your skin. 03 Campus Life M: What’s your plan for the day, Natalie? W: Well, I have to work on my paper this morning. After that, I’m free. Why? M: I was thinking about going to see an art show. It’s about First Nations tribal totems. Do you want to go? Isn’t that what your paper is about? W: Yea, you remembered, Alex! Maybe I should go see the show before I work on my paper. M: It’s in the Gallery Shopping Mall. W: I know where that is. It’s at 10th and Market Street. M: I’ll drive. But could you just quickly go over the directions with me first? W: Sure, Alex, it’s easy. Take University Drive to Market Street. We take Market Street eastbound to 15th Street. Then, follow the circle around City Hall to continue on Market Street. We keep going on Market Street until 10th Street. Then, the main door to the mall is right on the northwest corner of 10th and Market Street. 04 Social Studies W: Today I’d like to talk about animal helpers. There are many ways that animals can help or teach us. By that, I mean how people long ago learned from animals. And even today, we can still learn from them. Think of a snake, for example. A snake grows new skin and sheds its old skin many times. It can remind us that we too need to change. The snake’s old skin can be discarded because it has a new one. For us, it’s the same. We let go of old things and ideas for new ones. At age seven, we think certain things. Do we think the same things at age thirty-seven? If so, we have evolved little in our lifetime. Since long, long ago, people have learned from animals they admired. Some First Nations people would go to live with and study bears. One of them might stay with a bear for a whole year. People and bears eat many of the same foods. They would learn all of the vegetation that bears know about. So First Nations people would watch bears forage for food. If a bear ate berries or roots of some plant, they knew it was OK for people to eat. Or if a bear avoided a certain plant, First Nations people would stay away from it too. Knowing about these plants helped people, especially if they migrated to a new area. 05 Campus Life M: Good afternoon, Ms. Smith. W: Good afternoon. M: Now, then you would like to apply for a position as a campus tour guide? W: Yes, sir. M: OK. Have you ever been a tour guide? W: No, I haven’t. But I love people, and I’ve been a student here for two years, so I know all about the campus. M: I see. Do you know what your duties would be as a tour guide? W: Sure. I’d walk people around the campus, tell them the names of buildings, talk about student life, then answer questions. M: That’s correct. Tours are held once each day. They last for 90 minutes. W: What time do they begin? M: At 10 a.m. Monday through Saturday. On Sunday, tours start at 1 p.m. Monday through Friday only, the guide will give a 30-minute talk after the tour for students who want to study here but have not yet applied. Transcripts 653 W: How much money do the tours cost? M: They’re free. 06 Phys. Ed. M: When we think of the martial arts, most of us picture spectacular fights, like the flying kicks, spinning punches, and fantastic flips we see in Jackie Chan movies. Actually, people who practice martial arts use their physical skills to make their minds and spirits stronger. This is especially true with a type of martial art called karate. Yes? W: How do you spell that? M: K-A-R-A-T-E. People who practice karate are called karatekas: K-A-R-A-T-E-K-A-S. For karatekas, karate is much more than a style of self-defense. It is the best way to strengthen their minds and spirits. Karatekas say that the fighting principles they learn in karate help them in all areas of life. The first principle karatekas must learn is to concentrate on their own movements and not think about other things. This teaches them to concentrate better on their studies or jobs. Second, they must be alert and be ready to react to a punch or kick from their opponent. This helps them be alert and react to difficult problems in life. Third, they need to focus their strongest points on their opponents’ weakest points. This helps them work and focus harder on important things. Fourth, karatekas learn to make their bodies physically strong; they are ready to defend themselves and throw punches without thinking. This, in turn, makes their minds and spirits stronger. Their bodies know right away how to deal with new problems and challenges in everyday life. Chapter 2 S kill R eview A-F 01 Campus Life W: Hello, Mr. Thompson. Are you my student advisor? M: Yes, Amanda. How can I help you? W: I’m thinking about majoring in history. I’d need History 101 History of Western Civilization. Can you tell me what the course covers? M: Sure, I’d be happy to. It’s one of my favorite subjects. W: Lucky for me! M: OK, let’s see here. It starts with the beginning of Western civilization in the Near East, and it covers everything up through the 16 th Century Reformations. It’s mostly lectures. W: Uh-oh, that can be a little boring. M: Yes, but I do know that Professor Jantzen makes her class interesting. She shows some very intriguing DVDs, and she really gets students to ask questions. W: Yeah, my friend Kelly studied with her last year. She said they had great class discussions. M: Yes, I think you’ll find that’s true. W: So, how closely does she follow the textbook? M: Well, she covers all the same basic material, but you’ll find the lectures won’t be exactly the same. And you’ll have some writing assignments. W: Yes, of course. M: From the class, you’ll get a good basic idea how our society became the way it is. You’ll learn about what our society thinks makes good citizens. You’ll find out how different governments were formed. And you’ll learn how technology has changed us. W: And how about historians? M: Oh, yes. You’ll learn how historians decide what happened. You’ll be asked what you think about it too. W: Great! That’s what I’m most interested in. 02 Psychology W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. We are native speakers of that language. People who know two languages are bilingual. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. Many people have more than one native language. They learn them without going to school. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. Like me! I only heard English at home. In order to learn Spanish, I had to study, hard! Now, our mother tongue, or first language, is very important. Some academics believe that it teaches us how to think. So, knowing your mother tongue is very important to getting an education. Knowing it well makes learning another language easier. People who are bilingual will learn a third language even more quickly. Educators have different ideas about how we learn languages. There are two basic ideas. Some say babies’ brains are specially ready for learning languages. They think that as we grow up, that changes. That’s why it gets harder to learn languages. Others disagree with this idea. They say we learn languages the same way we learn other things. We don’t know for sure just how it happens. There are places where two language groups may not talk to each other much. Something interesting, called coordinate bilingualism, happens to people here. They think about things in a special way. We know this happens in Quebec, Canada to French-English bilinguals. Let me give you an example of what I mean. They might think of one kind of dog when they say “dog” in English. In French, the word for dog is “chien.” When saying that word, they think of a different kind of dog. Yes, Tony, did you have a question? M: Are there a lot of French-English bilinguals in Quebec? W: Yes, there are quite a few. M: Do these people ever feel like they have two different personalities? W: Well, yes, in fact they do. You can see how this would happen. Here are two different groups who don’t always get along. You need to understand both groups and have them understand you. So, you talk differently to each group. You end up learning two different ways of thinking. 03 General Studies M: OK, pay close attention, please. I’m going to tell you what courses you need to take to graduate. Take careful notes. Each undergraduate can make his or her own curriculum. This means you can choose which classes you want to take. BUT we want to make sure you get a good general education, so your curriculum must include the following: First, you will need six hours of composition. Those can be basic writing classes in the English department. You will also need six credit hours in 300 and 400-level courses 654 Transcripts that require some kind of written project. These courses will usually require you to write at least two lengthy papers. They will have a “W” next to them in your student catalogs. So those were the English requirements. Next, I’ll go over the general humanities requirements. First, there is a foreign language requirement. So you’ll need six hours of a foreign language or six hours of computer courses. Learning a computer language can count as a foreign language. Both the foreign language and computer courses require a grade of “C” or higher for credit toward graduation. Also in the humanities, you’ll need twelve hours of literature or fine arts. And on top of those twelve hours, you’ll need twelve hours in history or social science courses. I haven’t said anything yet about math or science. You’re all required to have some of those credits too. All graduates are required to take six hours in the natural sciences, like chemistry or biology, plus three hours in math. And that math requirement could be business math or other courses like that. If you add up all those credits, you’ll see that you still have quite a few credit hours needed for graduation. Those extra credit hours can be electives. So you can choose just about anything from Phys. Ed. to music to fill in the remaining credits. Now, questions? W: I took three years of Spanish in high school. Do I have to take two semesters of Spanish here? M: No. You can take a test, and the foreign language advisors will assign you to a class based on your score. If you’re placed into the Spanish 103 class or the Spanish 201 class, you will only have to take one semester. 04 Political Science W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas. Every society has an ideology. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion,” or common sense. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. It is just “normal” thinking. Everybody thinks this way. When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought, it is seen as strange, or maybe even dangerous or radical. There are different kinds of ideologies. There’s political, social, ethical, and so on. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments. A political ideology is concerned with two things. One how a society should work, and two the rules needed to make it work that way. Some political ideologies believe in a flat social order. In a flat society, almost everyone is equal. Men are equal to women. All cultures are equally valuable. All lifestyles are acceptable. A flat social order is thought to promote diversity. It encourages people to be individuals and not conform to any one standard. People in a flat society might support alternative lifestyles, for example, gay marriage. Other political ideologies believe in a structured social order. In a structured society, there are many different levels. For example, God is a higher level than people, men are higher than women, and some cultures are higher than others. A structured social order is thought to promote uniform thinking and behavior. It encourages individuals to respect the established social order. People in a structured society might support the nuclear family unit and military programs. Let’s look at rules that make a society work. Some societies reward individuals over the group. These societies encourage individuals to achieve self-sufficiency, so they don’t depend on the rest of society. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic independence among its members. Does this sound like society here? I think it fits us pretty well. Other societies reward the group over the individual. These societies encourage individuals to increase the strength of their social ties, so that they must depend on the rest of society. This tends to create a society with a high level of economic interdepend- ence among its members. C hapter 3 Focus A 01 01 Math W: Geometry is the study of points. Now, a point is a small dot, like a period at the end of a sentence. If we have two points, we know that there can be other points between them. There can also be a line. The line is continuous. It has no space between each point. Part of a line, with points at each end, is called a line segment. Two line segments can be the same length. We call these line segments congruent. That just means the line segments are equal in length. 02 Biology M: Last week, we learned how most fish use their swim bladder to move around in the water. Remember, when the fish breathes oxygen, some of that oxygen goes into its bladder. This causes the fish to rise in the water. When it squeezes some of the gas out of its bladder, it sinks toward the bottom. So, it can move vertically go up and down kind of like a hot-air balloon. A shark is more like an airplane. Sharks don’t have a swim bladder, so they use their forward movement to control their vertical position. The tail is like the shark’s propeller. The shark swings it back and forth to move forward. In an airplane, this forward movement pushes air around the wings. For a shark, this forward movement pushes water around the fins. In both cases, the forward movement creates lift the airplane and shark both rise. Sharks have two pairs of fins on each side of their bodies. These fins are in about the same position as the main wings and tail wings on an airplane. The shark can position these fins at different angles. This changes the path of the water around them and enables the shark to move quickly upward or downward. The shark also has two vertical fins on its back. These are like the stabilizer fin on an airplane. They allow the shark to keep its balance as it moves through the water and help it turn quickly left and right. 03 Psychology W: Our mother tongue is the language we learn first from our families. We are native speakers of that language. People who know two languages are bilingual. Those people who know three or more are trilingual and multilingual. Many people have more than one native language. They learn them without going to school. And then there are many people who learn a second language through study. Like me! I only heard English at home. In order to learn Spanish, I had to study hard! Transcripts 655 Focus A 02 01 Literature M: If a play makes you laugh, it’s a comedy. Comedies have humorous characters and happy endings. A good example of a comedy is Shakespeare’s classic Much Ado about Nothing. Another popular style is called tragedy. Tragedies usually tell how a hero ruins his life, falling from good fortune to bad fortune because of a “tragic flaw” in character. One example is the play Ghosts, by Henrik Ibsen. Um, modern years have produced a third style, called tragicomedy. In tragicomedies, the play seems as though it will end in tragedy but instead has a humorous or unclear ending. An example is Saint Joan, by George Bernard Shaw. 02 Physical Science W: Rocks wear down and break apart due to a process called weathering. There are two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering involves the disintegration, or destruction, of rocks by mechanical processes. These include the freezing and thawing of water in the crevices uh, holes and cracks of rocks. Also, the roots of plants can cause rocks to break apart. The tiny, hair-like roots grow into small cracks in rocks. Then, as the roots get bigger, the roots crack the rocks. Animals are also responsible for mechanical weathering. They burrow, or dig, into the rocks and the dirt around the rocks. Mechanical weathering is especially common in high altitudes, where it’s so cold that freezing and thawing happen every day. It’s also common in deserts, where there is little water and few plants. Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock by chemical changes or solution. This includes the processes of oxidation, carbonation, and hydration. For example, many iron minerals found in rocks are rapidly oxidized, meaning they can quickly turn to rust. It sounds funny, but rocks can rust or oxidize. Then, there is carbonation. Limestone is a rock that does this. Limestone is a type of rock that is dissolved by water, which contains carbonic acid. We’ll go into more detail about that reaction later. Anyway, chemical weathering takes place in warm, wet conditions. In general, chemical weathering is more common than mechanical weathering, although they usually act together. 03 Geography W: We usually think of deserts as hot, dry, sandy places. And many deserts are. But actually, deserts come in several forms. Let’s learn about some of them. In defining a desert, we have to consider two factors. The first is the annual amount of rainfall. Deserts get less than 250 millimeters of rain or snow each year. The second factor is how much of that rain or snow evaporates that is, goes back into the atmosphere or is used up by plants. We call this loss of water “evaporation.” Simply stated, a desert is a place where evaporation is greater than rainfall or snowfall. Because so much water evaporates, most deserts are hot. But not all. The North and South poles, for instance, are cold deserts. They get less than 250 millimeters of snow each year, and the ground is permanently frozen. We also classify deserts by their location and main weather pattern. One example is trade wind deserts. Trade wind deserts are located between 30 degrees and 35 degrees north and south of the equator. The winds that blow over these areas are very strong. They blow away clouds, so more sun reaches the ground. Most of the major deserts in the world lie in the areas crossed by the trade winds. The Sahara Desert, in North Africa, is a trade wind desert. Temperatures there can reach 57 degrees Celsius. Another type of desert is the rain shadow desert. Rain shadow deserts lie next to tall mountains. As clouds rise over the mountains, they spill all of their rain or snow before they get to the other side. So, these deserts are formed in the “shadow” of the mountains. The Judean Desert in Israel is a rain shadow desert. So is a large part of the western United States called the Great Basin. Still another kind of desert is coastal deserts. These are on the western edges, or coasts, of continents. One coastal desert, the Atacama Desert of South America, is Earth’s driest desert. In the Atacama, there can be measurable rainfall only once every 50 years. Focus B 01 01 History W: Spain is a country in Southwest Europe, south of France and west of Italy. In the 16th Century, it was the most powerful nation in the world. After America was discovered in 1492, Spain sent many people there. They brought back lots of gold and silver. Trade with the new American colonies made Spain rich. It established colonies in other parts of the world, such as Cuba and the Philippines. But in 1588, Spain lost a famous war against England. After that, its power began to decline. In 1898, Spain lost Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War. 02 Computer Science W: More people are buying home computers and using them for home networks. They need faster ways to get information over the Internet. Right now, there are mainly two avenues for information to be sent. These are, cable modems and Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line or ADSL. These faster ways of sending information are called broadband connections. Cable modems and ADSL are both types of broadband connections. They are much faster than a 56K modem. There is another new kind of DSL connection. It is known as very high bit rate DSL or VDSL. Some companies already have this for certain places. VDSL isn’t everywhere yet, but it may be very soon. Many people like it and are beginning to use it. VDSL accommodates a very, very large amount of bandwidth. It gives up to about 52 megabytes per second. In other words, it provides 52 Mbps. In comparison, ADSL or cable modems can only give 8 to 10 megabytes per second. It’s easy to see that VDSL is a lot faster. VDSL will soon be more common, making home networks cost much less. 03 Political Science W: The simplest way to define ideology is as a collection of ideas. Every society has an ideology. It forms the basis of the society’s “public opinion,” or common sense. This ideology is usually invisible to most people within the society. It is just “normal” 656 Transcripts thinking. Everybody thinks this way. When somebody says or does something different from this normal thought, it is seen as strange or maybe even dangerous or radical. There are different kinds of ideologies. There’s political, social, ethical, and so on. Let’s look at political ideologies for a few moments. A political ideology is concerned with two things. One how a society should work; and two the rules needed to make it work that way. Focus B 02 01 History W: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a great artist. He was also a scientist and inventor. Leonardo was born in 1452 in Vinci, Italy. He began studying painting at age 14 and became famous just a few years later. His best-known paintings are Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. But Leonardo was also an excellent scientist. He kept detailed notebooks of observations about the natural world. And he cut open dead people to learn how the human body works. Finally, he was an inventor. But his two most famous inventions the parachute and the war tank weren’t built until after he died. 02 Health M: If you have white skin, you’re in danger of getting sunburn. The cells in your skin are not protected from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, or UV rays. If you don’t protect your skin when you go outside, your skin can become red and sore. We call this sunburn. What happens is this: UV rays damage the cells in your skin. The body responds by sending more blood to these cells to repair the damage. This is why your skin is red when you get sunburned because of this extra blood. The blood begins moving toward the damaged areas four hours after you’ve first been in the sun and will keep moving there as much as 24 hours afterwards. You won’t know you’re sunburned until it’s too late. Sunburn is dangerous because it increases the chance that you will get skin cancer. People who have been sunburned a lot get skin cancer much more often than those who don’t get sunburned very much. So, it’s very important to protect your skin when you’re in the sun. 03 Economics W: The World Bank is a bridge between the rich and poor people. It’s making rich-country money into poor-country growth. It is one of the world’s biggest banks for poor countries. It’s helping them build schools and health centers, and get water and electricity. It’s helping protect the people’s surroundings. The low-income countries can’t usually borrow money in world markets. If they do, they have to pay very high interest rates. The World Bank gives them some money, low-interest loans, and interest free credit. It helps them take care of the money, too. When the countries get loans, they have 35 40 years to pay them back. They can have ten extra years if they need it. In the year 2002, the bank agreed to give about $15 billion to low-income countries. For some of the poorest countries, AIDS is a very big problem. Some of this World Bank money is to help them fight this disease. If they don’t receive help, many more people will get the illness. Transcripts 657 C hapter 1 Skill A Q1 practice 1 Sample response: A useful skill my father taught me is managing my money. He taught me this skill by giving me an allowance when I was in school. From this, I learned how to plan what I should spend my money on. Today, I use this skill all the time when I get my monthly paycheck. I know how much money I should spend on food, clothing, and other expenses. Q1 practice 2 Sample response: In high school, I spent my free time acting with the theater club. I think this was a good way to spend my free time. For example, one thing I did was practice for shows. I did this because I thought acting was fun. Another thing I did was build and paint things we used on stage. I did this because I enjoyed working with other members of the club. Spending my free time with the theater club in high school was a great experience for me. Q1 practice 3 Sample response: One difficult experience that I went through was living alone in another city. I experienced this when I moved in order to go to school. It was difficult because I didn’t have any friends or relatives there. This meant I had to do everything myself and solve lots of problems by myself. From this experience, I learned self-reliance. Now, I know that I can take care of myself. Q2 practice 1 Sample response: One person I admire is my mother. I admire her because she works very hard. My mother is a homemaker. She has worked hard to raise me and my brothers and sisters. Even though she does not earn a wage or hold a high job in a company, she has shown me how important it is to do your life’s work the best that you can. Q2 practice 2 Opinion 1 : One dangerous sport that I would like to try is skydiving. This sport looks like it would be a lot of fun. In order to do this sport, you have to be brave enough to jump out of the plane. I want to see if I can be that brave. I also think that I would enjoy the feeling of free-falling. That is why I want to try skydiving. Opinion 2 : I don’t want to try any dangerous or extreme sports. One reason I don’t want to try them is because I could get injured. I always try to take care of myself and be healthy, so I don’t want to hurt my body by doing an extreme sport. Another reason I don’t want to try any extreme sports is because they cost a lot of money. I am not rich, so I don’t want to waste my money. Q2 practice 3 Opinion 1: I prefer movies made to entertain audiences. One movie that fits this category is Spiderman 2. I saw this movie because several of my friends told me it was good. This movie was entertaining because it had lots of great special effects and an interesting story. This movie made me forget about real life for a few hours, and I enjoyed the fantastic life of a superhero for a little while. Opinion 2: I prefer movies made to make audiences contemplate certain issues. One movie that fits this category is Erin Brockovich. I saw this movie because my friend wanted to see it. This movie made people think about the issue of justice because it told the story of how a woman fought for the rights and safety of others. This movie made me contemplate how some businesses hurt the environment, and I discussed this issue and the story of this movie with my friend after the movie was over. Skill B Q3 practice 1 M: Hi Tara! Did you hear that Prof. Brown is sick? He’ll be absent all of next week. W: What? That’s awful! He’s so sick he can’t come to class? M: Don’t worry, he’s not seriously ill. Anyways, I’m so happy because we have an extra week to finish the assignment!! W: What do you mean about having an extra week to finish the assignment? M: Both of next week’s classes are canceled, the one on Monday and the one on Wednesday. Check the notice in the student lounge. It says next week’s assignments are now due on the 29 th once he’s back. W: Well, all this is good news after all! I’m behind in my work. I haven’t even read the article yet, and doing that report would have taken all weekend. Hey, since we have both got an extra week, how about a movie on Saturday? Sample response: The woman learns that the professor is sick and that classes are being canceled. At first, she worries about the professor and the canceled classes. The man, however, explains that the professor is not seriously ill, and that they have an extra week until the professor is back to finish their assignment. After that, the woman feels glad because she was behind in her work. Q3 practice 2 M: Wow, they’re beefing up security on campus now. I guess what’s been happening is being taken seriously. W: Well, it is serious. Lisa had her MP3 player stolen from her dormitory room last weekend and Chrissie had some money taken the very next night. Now, I’m always worried about something being ripped off from my room. It’s terrible. M: Well, I don’t live on campus, but I surely understand how worried you are. I’ve also seen the heavy damage done to the campus square gates and all the yellow paint splashed onto the main building. I think whoever the culprit is should really be caught. W: Right. I think the added guards are a good idea, and that if anyone knows anything they should report it right away. Speaking 658 Transcripts Sample response: The university is adding more security guards to campus night patrols. Students are informed this decision follows recent damage and thefts occurring on campus. The woman states that things are serious. The woman’s friends had things stolen from their dormitory rooms and the woman herself is now worried about being robbed, too. The man understands. He has seen damage done to school property and buildings. The man thinks people doing all these things should be caught. The woman agrees and adds that any information should be reported. They both agree that adding security guards on campus is a good idea. Q3 practice 3 M: Have you ever taken a creative writing class? W: No, why? M: Well, we’re all going to have to now. They just made creative writing a requirement for us. Last year, the dean proposed all those studying literature should also have experience at doing creative writing. So, the English department finally made the class a requirement. W: That’s a good idea. It should help us better understand what the authors we study are doing if we have experience in writing literature ourselves. M: Yeah, I think you’re right. I’ve already been doing some writing on my own, and I can tell you it helps me analyze the works we have to read. The class will make us better writers and better students of literature. I also don’t mind because they are making the class available all the time. It will be easy to fit into my schedule. Sample response: The dean recommended that all literature majors should have practice in creative writing, so the English department made creative writing a required class for graduation. The woman thinks this is a good idea, and the man has the same opinion. The man explains that the creative writing he has been doing on his own has helped him analyze the literary works he has had to study. He thinks the required creative writing class will make him a better writer and a better student. He also doesn’t mind because the class is easy to fit into his schedule. Q4 practice 1 M: When Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79, it wiped out the city of Pompeii POOF just like that! Pompeii, at that time, was a large city with a rich culture. Some people thought it was even more advanced than Rome. The eruption began about noon on, um, August 24 th , although the final eruption wasn’t until midnight that day. So what happened? Why couldn’t the people escape? Scientists have now discovered that the citizens of Pompeii did not die as a result of lava, or molten rock. Instead, Vesuvius let out a great stream of superheated air. The air from the volcano was so hot, that it killed the people instantly. Later, their bodies were covered with ash and volcanic rock. Sample response: This reading passage talks about the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. It erupted in 79 AD and destroyed Pompeii. The speaker says that it was strange because even though the volcano erupted for 12 hours, people couldn’t escape. In fact, people in Pompeii died due to superheated air from the volcano and not lava. Later, their bodies were covered in ash. Q4 practice 2 M: We call it the Dead Sea for one simple reason nothing lives in it! Why not, you ask. Because the Dead Sea is full of salt, mineral salt. This mineral salt is carried into the Dead Sea from rivers. However, this salt is trapped here because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. When water evaporates, it leaves behind all the dissolved minerals, making the sea even saltier. Water evaporation and mineral salts carried into the sea from the rivers account for the Dead Sea’s unusual saltiness. Sample response: The reading passage says that the Dead Sea has a lot of mineral salt. This salt is deadly to plants and fish, so there are no living things in the sea. The Dead Sea has ten times as much salt as the ocean. Rivers carry mineral salts into the Dead Sea. Salt is trapped there because no rivers flow out of the Dead Sea. Water evaporation also makes the sea even saltier. Q4 practice 3 M: At the time of its origin, jazz was not widely accepted as “real” music by mainstream “white” America. Most people thought it was too wild and unstructured. Later, however, when white musicians such as Elvis Presley began incorporating elements of jazz into their music, the music became wildly popular. It was especially popular with the younger generations. Since then, rock and roll music has gone on to dominate the pop music scene. Today, it has evolved into many modern forms such as punk, rhythm and blues, and hip-hop. Sample response: This reading passage talks about how jazz music began. First, it says that African-American musicians made jazz music. This music was different or special because it combined rhythms from African music with melodies from European music. The speaker says that white musicians didn’t like jazz at first. They thought jazz was too wild and that it wasn’t real music. Then, some white musicians began incorporating parts of jazz music into their songs. Eventually, one of these musicians, Elvis Presley, became really popular, so jazz, along with rock and other forms, became popular with younger people. Skill C Q5 practice 1 W: Hey, Tony, how’re you doing? M: OK, but, uh I’ve got a problem. W: What is it? M: Coach says I need to practice more to make the football team. But I’ve also got to raise my grades, or else I’ll flunk math and science. I don’t know how I can find time to do both. W: Well, one thing you could do is find tutors to help you with your class work. M: Tutors? W: Yeah, you know, classmates who are smart in those subjects. Maybe they could help you, and you could help them with something else in return. M: Hmmm yeah, that might work, if I can find someone willing to tutor me. W: Or, you could try to make extra time to practice football. M: Make extra time? Transcripts 659 W: Yeah. Like, you could get up early every day and practice before classes. From 6 to 8 or something. M: What about my sleep? W: You’re going to have to sacrifice something, right? M: Um, I guess so. Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. First, she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science. Second, she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. I think the first solution is better than the second one. If the man has tutors, he can improve his grades in a short time. If he doesn’t have to get up early, he can get more sleep, so he’ll be rested for football. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he doesn’t have enough time to practice football and improve his grades in math and science. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. First, she suggests that he find tutors to help him with math and science. Second, she suggests that he get up early in the morning for extra football practice. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. If the man gets up early, he will have enough time to improve at football. The morning exercise will clear his mind, which will help him concentrate better in class. Q5 practice 2 W: Hey Mark, have you got a moment? M: Sure, Wendy. What’s up? Is everything all right? W: I don’t know what to do. See, I have to take Chemistry 202 before I can graduate. I’ve only got two terms left to go, but Professor Peabody’s teaching it this semester, and I just can’t stand him! M: I see. Well, you could wait and take the class next semester. W: Sure, but then I’ll be behind. I took 201 last semester. I want to take 202 before I forget what I learned, and next semester will be my last one before graduation. What if Peabody’s still teaching 202 then? M: Mmmm, I see. I’m wondering, is Peabody all that bad? Couldn’t you just grin and bear it for one term? I mean, we all get stuck with teachers we don’t like. Part of education is learning to live with that. W: I know, but I just hate that guy! When he taught me in Chemistry 101, he gave me a C! M: Wendy W: What? M: Maybe you deserved it. Opinion 1: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate, but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. First, he suggests that she take the class next semester. Second, he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. If she waits, even if she might feel like she’s behind, she can catch up very quickly. Also, with a different professor she might get a higher mark. Opinion 2: The woman’s problem is that she needs to take Chemistry 202 to graduate, but she doesn’t like the professor teaching it this semester. The man suggests two solutions to the problem. First, he suggests that she take the class next semester. Second, he suggests that she take the class this semester and try to get along with the professor. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. If she takes the class this semester, she won’t be behind. Also, she needs to learn to get along with teachers and bosses she doesn’t like. Q5 practice 3 W: Hi, Tyler. How are you? M: Hey, Jenny. I’m doing great. W: Are you going to take world history this term? M: No, I can’t! W: Why not? You know we’re supposed to take it freshman year. M: Yeah, I know, but the problem is that it’s only offered at 10 a.m. Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. That’s the same time as my Math 101 and I’ve also got to take that! W: Maybe math is also offered on a Tuesday-Thursday schedule. Did you check and see? M: No, I didn’t think of it. Hmm, that might work. W: Or, here’s another idea. Take one class this term and the other next term. That way you’ll still be able to take both of them this year. M: Well, sure. I thought about that, but I kind of wanted to get them both out of the way this semester. W: Both classes are pretty hard. It might be better to spread them out, so your studies each term will be less difficult. M: OK. But, um, if I have to choose between math and history, which one should I take this term? W: History, of course, so we can study together! Opinion 1: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. First, she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Second, she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term, and the other next term. I think the first suggestion is better than the second one. If he is able to take math on Tuesdays and Thursdays, he can take history with his friend and complete both classes in one term. Opinion 2: The man’s problem is that he needs to take a world history class and a math class that are offered on the same days and at the same time. The woman suggests two solutions to the problem. First, she suggests that he might be able to take the math class on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Second, she suggests that he take one of the necessary classes this term, and the other next term. I think the second suggestion is better than the first one. If he takes one mandatory class each term, he will have more time to concentrate on each class and can earn higher marks. Also, he will get to study with his friend. Q6 practice 1 W: Okay everybody, show of hands please. How many of you like to eat squid? Some of you, good. Me, too. Today, though, we’ll be talking about a type of squid that probably none of you has tasted. We’ll be examining the giant squid. For a long time, no one really knew much about giant squid. People used to think they were sea monsters, or not believe in them at all. Well two 660 Transcripts things helped scientists learn more about giant squid: the capture of squid by sailors and the study of whales. Sailors helped scientists learn a lot about giant squid. In 1861, some French sailors caught one of the arms of a giant squid and gave it to the French Academy of Science. Years later, some fishermen caught an 18-meter-long squid. It’s still the largest one ever measured. Then, in, ummm, 1965, some Russian sailors witnessed a struggle between a whale and a giant squid in which both died. They brought the two bodies back, and it helped us see the link between these animals. Since then, sperm whales have helped us learn a lot about giant squid. Because the whales eat the squid, scientists can estimate the size of giant squid by measuring squid parts found inside whale stomachs. In fact, we now know that squid can grow as long as 40 meters! Can you imagine that? Something to think about next time you’re at the beach, huh? Since we hardly ever see squid, cameras have been tied to whales so we can study where squid live and check out how they behave. Sample response: This lecture is about giant squid. The speaker says that two things have helped scientists learn more about giant squid. These two things are sailors and whales. First, sailors were the ones who first captured giant squid and allowed them to be measured or given to scientific academies. The link between whales and squid has also been better understood thanks to Russian sailors. The speaker’s next point is that whales are especially helpful in studying squid. Whales hunt squid and the sizes of squid can be estimated by measuring parts of squid found in whale stomachs. Whales can also carry cameras, allowing scientists to study squid underwater more closely. Q6 practice 2 W: Leonardo da Vinci spent most of his life working as an engineer. During his time, leaders were really looking for scientific ways to modernize. What made Leonardo well-known were his breakthroughs in engineering. His work in engineering showed that he had the set of skills that powerful leaders wanted. Once word got around, Leonardo’s engineering skills were in bigger demand than his art. Leonardo’s big engineering breakthrough was writing the first systematic explanation of how machines worked. He explained how the parts of any machine worked, and how each part could be combined differently to improve the machine or build new inventions. So, what he did, in effect was develop modern techniques to solve existing problems. This gave him a really high profile and put him in great demand as an engineer for powerful leaders. So, Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer. He worked for powerful leaders and on special projects, too. Leonardo was Military Engineer for Cesar Borgia. A year later, he supervised the huge project to divert the River Arno. He developed mirrors for Pope Leo X in Rome. Leonardo died in 1519 while serving as scientific counselor to King Francis I. All his life, his engineering had been in bigger demand than his art. Sample response: This lecture is about Leonardo da Vinci’s life as an engineer. The speaker explains that Leonardo made breakthroughs in engineering, while leaders were looking for scientific ways to modernize. Leonardo was the first to explain how machines could be improved or invented. He came up with modern techniques to deal with existing problems. Leonardo thus had the set of skills that leaders wanted. The speaker then explains how Leonardo spent much of his life working as an engineer for powerful leaders and on special projects. The speaker concludes that all his life, Leonardo the engineer was in bigger demand than Leonardo the artist. Q6 practice 3 M: So, how was the Giant’s Causeway formed? Well, even after its discovery in the 1600s, this still remained a mystery for a long time. All the theories that followed its discovery only started big debates about its origins. So, basically, the Causeway’s real origin remained pretty much a mystery up until modern scientists gave us definite answers. All the big debates about the Causeway’s origins started in the 1600s. Its discovery by the Bishop of Derry in 1692 made the Causeway famous. Theories written about it by several natural scientists started the debates. There were a lot of different opinions and stories. Some said men with tools formed the Causeway. Others argued, quite correctly, that natural processes formed the Causeway. Many people believed a legend that a giant named Finn McCool made the Causeway and named it. The truth was, no one back then really knew for sure. Well, nowadays, we know the truth. Modern geologists know for sure the Causeway was formed by volcanic activity. They compare the Causeway’s origin to what’s happening in Hawaii right now. When lava cools quickly by contact with water, it forms large crystal rocks that crack and result in the many joined columns we see in the Causeway. So, the Causeway isn’t a mystery anymore. Now, it’s simply a fascinating geological discovery. Sample response: This lecture is about the origins of the Giant’s Causeway. The speaker says that for a long time nobody really knew how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. He explains that many different theories on the Giant’s Causeway’s origin were being debated after it was discovered in the 1600s. Some people believed a legend that suggested the Giant’s Causeway was made by a giant. The speaker explains that nobody knew for sure how it was formed until modern geologists provided the real answer. Geologists explain that it was formed by volcanic activity in much the same way we see in Hawaii right now. Nowadays, we know the truth about how the Giant’s Causeway was formed. C hapter 2 Skill A Q1 practice 1 Sample response: One kind of work I am willing to do even if I never get paid for it is writing poetry. In fact, I do this all the time without getting paid because I enjoy writing poetry. One reason I enjoy writing poetry is because it lets me create something beautiful. When people create something beautiful, it gives them a good feeling in their heart. Another reason I enjoy writing poetry is because I can think about things in a new way. When I think about things in new, innovative ways, even boring things around my house become inspiring. Transcripts 661 Q1 practice 2 Sample response: What I regret the most was not spending enough time with my cousin when he was young. This is regrettable because, when he was born, I thought I could spend a lot of time with him and teach him things. It is important for older family members to guide and teach younger family members. I often regret the many occasions I could have spent time with him but was preoccupied with something else instead. The fact that children grow up quickly is another reason why I regret spending too little time with my cousin when he was young. Once my cousin is older, spending a lot of time with him may be more difficult. Q1 practice 3 Sample response: The last time I needed to talk about an important topic, I talked with my brother. The important topic I needed to talk about was an argument I’d had with my friend. I chose to talk to my brother at that time because my brother is very familiar with my friend. In fact, we all grew up together, so my brother and I have known my friend for many years. After talking with my brother, I better understood my friend’s point of view during our argument. Because of my brother’s aid, I was no longer angry with my friend. Q1 practice 4 Sample response: The worst vacation I ever had to endure was a camping trip with my brother and a friend. First, it rained heavily the whole three days. We couldn’t hike or swim. Then, to compound the problem, the wet weather made me sick. I spent most of the time lying in my sleeping bag trying to stay warm. In addition, my friend and I had an argument, so we stopped speaking to each other. To top it off, when we finally left for home, my brother’s car broke down. We had to walk five kilometers to get help. Q2 practice 1 Sample response: I think oral presentations are more beneficial for students than writing papers. First of all, oral presentations are easier in that they take less time to prepare and put less emphasis on grammar than papers do. Another reason is oral presentations are interesting and educational for the other students who listen to them. Finally, many jobs require oral presentations, so students can improve their communication skills and develop confidence by speaking publicly as a student. Q2 practice 2 Sample response: I’m glad the government is finally going to address the transportation issue. In my opinion, building a subway is better than increasing the number of buses. First of all, while a subway is clean and efficient, buses run on fuel that pollutes the air. Second, increasing the number of buses also increases traffic on the streets, while the subway, in contrast, reduces traffic. Lastly, a subway train can carry many more people than a bus, so it’s more efficient. Though a subway requires a lot of money to build, it is cheaper over time. Q2 practice 3 Sample response: I think that watching too much television has produced several bad effects on society. These bad, or negative effects are damaging families and children. In my opinion, the worst effect has resulted in families not communicating much anymore. Parents and children just watch silently rather than sharing their thoughts and experiences. This means that children are learning behavior from television, not from their parents. In addition, watching too much television has resulted in lower levels of physical health among children. These days, they don’t get enough exercise. Instead of playing sports, children just sit at home and watch them on TV. Q2 practice 4 Sample response: If I won some money, I would prefer to buy a sports car rather than an SUV. First of all, SUVs do not get good gas mileage. Secondly, they are too large and cumbersome, which makes them difficult to park. Finally, I think they’re ugly. Sports cars, on the other hand, are fun to drive. You can go fast. They burn less fuel than SUVs, and they’re much easier to park. Also, I think they look more impressive than SUVs. Skill B Q3 practice 1 W: Are you going to vote about whether or not to close the cafeteria? M: Yeah. I was going to vote this afternoon after my history class. W: Which option are you going to vote for? M: I’m going to vote to close the cafeteria and open a deli and barbecue grill on campus. W: You think having those places on campus is better than having a cafeteria in the Student Center? M: Sure. I like variety. So, the more food choices to select from, the better! Besides, I don’t like the food in the cafeteria. It’s too much like the food I used to eat in my high school cafeteria. W: I don’t think the cafeteria food is so bad. M: Another reason I don’t like the cafeteria is because it’s always so crowded. Too many students try to eat there all at the same time. I can never find a place to park my bike during lunch. See, there are lots of reasons we should close the cafeteria and vote for Option 2. Sample response: The man’s opinion about the campus food service is that Option 2 is better. The man likes this option because it adds several more places to get food. He will not vote for Option 1 because he doesn’t like the cafeteria. The reason he doesn’t like the cafeteria is that it is too crowded and there is no place to put his bike. He prefers Option 2 because he wants more variety, better food, and a less crowded place to eat. Q3 practice 2 W: Did you hear that they’re raising the student gym fee next semester? M: Oh, man! Really? W: Yeah, it’s going up to $15 a term. M: Shoot, I don’t know if I can afford that. W: It’s only $3. M: I’m already living on a tight budget. I don’t have a job, you know.